|SEMINAR 11 SPORTS AND GLOBALISATION, ACADEMIC WRITING II
What is globalisation?
There are many different definitions of globalisation, but most acknowledge the greater movement of people, goods, capital and ideas due to increased economic integration which in turn is propelled by increased trade and investment. It is like moving towards living in a borderless world.
Global income is more than $31 trillion a year, but 1.2 billion people of the world's population earn less than $1 a day.
80% of the global population earns only 20% of global income, and within many countries there is a large gap between rich and poor.
2 billion people, living in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and the former Soviet Union, have been unable to increase their integration into the world economy, poverty has risen, and education levels have risen less rapidly than in the more globalised countries.
Sea level rise, warming temperatures, uncertain effects on forest and agricultural systems are expected to have a significant impact in the developing world, where the world's poor remain most susceptible to the potential damages in a changing climate.
The digital and information revolution has changed the way the world learns, communicates, does business and treats illnesses. In 2002, there were 364 people per 1000 using the internet in high income countries, while there were only 10 per 1000 in low income countries.
Source: The World Bank, 2004, http://www.worldbank.org/
United Nations Development Programme, 2004 http://www.undp.org/
Task After reading the text carefully match the cropped sentences (1-6) into the text (A-E).
Global Impact of Communication
Sports are considered by many to be the obvious universal feature of culture. They cross global barriers such as language, geographic boundaries, and nationalism. Sports bring spectators and participants from all over the world together where they bond through passion, obsession, and the desire to win. A
The effects of globalization on sports are vast. For example, how has hockey changed since the rise of additional teams in geographic areas where hockey was traditionally not played? Additionally, professional basketball opportunities are no longer limited to the U.S., how does this change the game for players? Furthermore, how have recruiting methods have changed for different sports?
Sports and Globalisation
During the 20th century, sports have become increasingly international and increasingly politicized, as shown in the boycott of the 1980 Moscow games by Western nations and the retaliatory boycott of the 1984 Los Angeles games by Soviet-bloc nations, an exchange brought on by Soviet actions in Afghanistan. B
Due to the worlds' interest in sport, the power to influence the public becomes a huge issue. By the late 20th century, the televising of athletic events had made sports big business. On the other hand, expanding public concern with personal physical health led to mass participation, not necessarily competitive, in sports like running, hiking, cycling, martial arts, and gymnastics.
Economic integration and free trade have and surely will, continue to affect the sports and fitness industry in the future. C
Due to sport's great costs, countries' governments engage themselves in promoting and supporting these economic needs by authorising special public monetary programs or by seeking private financing. D
Living today in the information age, with amazing revolutions in technology and communication, sport experts believe that sport is greatly influenced by the actions of individual nations, as well as by the international trends that influence the world economy. The sport and fitness industries, as part of our Global Society, have become lately an issue of great concern. Studies worldwide provide valuable information about the political, geographical, economic, cultural, social, aesthetic and historical aspects of sports. E
It is therefore firmly believed that they will continue ‘shaping' one another in the years to come.
Individual countries during the recent past have boycotted sport events or used them for propaganda reasons and thus, imposed their political views affecting the global scene.
Countries use sports either to impose their economic power over others, or to elevate their current role.
Corporate sponsorships are today a reality, as companies spend about $6 billion annually sponsoring activities ranging from the Olympic Games to the World Cup.
Player and fan mobility and the capability to broadcast games worldwide are aspects of globalization that are changing the landscape of sports.
Adapted from: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Globalization+and+Sport-a01073786155
ACADEMIC WRITING II.
English essays are linear
they start at the beginning and finish at the end, with every part contributing to the main line of argument, without digressions or repetition. Writers are responsible for making their line of argument clear and presenting it in an orderly fashion so that the reader can follow. Each paragraph discusses one major point and each paragraph should lead directly to the next. The paragraphs are tied together with an introduction and a conclusion.
Useful tips for academic writing
TOPIC SENTENCES AND THEIR SUPPORT IN A PARAGRAPH
A paragraph is a group of related sentences, which develop one main idea (the topic sentence). The topic sentence tends to be a general rather than a specific idea. The main idea of the topic sentence controls the rest of the paragraph. They are particularly useful for writers who have difficulty developing focused, unified paragraphs. Topic sentences help these writers develop a main idea for their paragraphs and most importantly stay focused. Topic sentences also help guide the reader through complex arguments.
The supporting sentences in a paragraph develop the main idea expressed in the topic sentence and provide the detail such as facts and examples. When the topic sentence comes first, the supporting sentences answer the questions the reader will develop in their minds after reading the topic sentence. In this case, the last sentence (concluding sentence) can either return the reader to the topic at the beginning of the paragraph or act as a connection to link the information with that coming up in the next paragraph.
Task 1 Read the following paragraphs carefully. Then select the most appropriate topic sentence for each of the paragraphs from the choices provided.
USEFUL TIP: The topic sentence is general and controls the paragraph. Think about the type of questions the reader will develop in their minds as they read the topic sentence.
1 Thousands of new people are born on our planet every day. The number of inhabitants in the world has already reached over six billion. If the present growth rate remains unchecked, the world may soon face wide-spread starvation, poverty, and serious health problems. __________________________________ (topic sentence).
Therefore, it is predicted that the world will face serious health problems in the near future.
The rapid growth of the world's human population is the most important problem the world needs to address.
One of the burning issues is the population explosion in third world countries.
2 __________________________________ (topic sentence).
Arriving in the land below the Rio Grande River, the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortez was surprised to see the local inhabitants raising crops that included avocados, corn, garlic and nuts. Onions, tomatoes, chilli peppers and pumpkins were also grown in the rich soil. Irrigation systems were employed in some of the drier regions. The Aztec farmers also were skilful in creating terraced gardens to make the most of the rainfall and to minimise soil erosion. Evidence shows that they employed crop rotation as well as natural fertilisers to enhance the production of their farm products.
The Aztecs of Mexico were a nation of accomplished farmers.
Hernando Cortez discovered farming in Mexico.
Mexico is blessed with rich farmland and an abundance of food products.
BUILDING A PARAGRAPH
A well constructed paragraph contains sentences that are logically arranged and flow smoothly. Logical arrangement refers to the order of your sentences and ideas. There are various ways to order your sentences, according to the sequence of action, from beginning to end or arranging your points according to level of importance.
Not only should sentences and ideas in a paragraph be logically arranged, but they should also flow smoothly. Expressions such as next, then, after, when and other signal time sequence; expressions such as an example of, the most significant example, to illustrate are used to identify the example in the sentence.
Task 2 Create a coherent paragraph by arranging the sentences in logical order.
In these rural areas 70 percent of the available agricultural land suffers from dryness and lack of irrigation.
As a result, the crops are usually marginal with hardly enough production to feed the farmer's family.
The first fact to consider is that over 60 percent of the population live in rural communities.
In my country, one of the most urgent problems facing the government today relates to agriculture.
And without irrigation, agricultural production is wholly dependent on the uncertain rainfall.
To understand the nature of this problem one has to look at some of the facts.
INCORPORATING SOURCES WITHIN PARAGRAPHS
The point of view a writer develops in an essay and within each paragraph cannot just be based on personal opinion, but must be backed up with evidence, examples and the opinion of experts. At the whole essay level the point of view is called the thesis statement. Within a paragraph the point of view is often broadly expressed in the topic sentence. The topic sentence is often re-stated within the paragraph with more specific detail given and evidence provided in support of the point of view, usually from the reading done for the essay (see Useful Tip). The sources referred to back up the writer. Any additional comments by the writer should aim to make the writer's point of view clear.
The words or ideas taken from other sources need to be clearly signaled as belonging to another person. This is done by referring to the author as well as the source of the words or ideas. The method of signaling used in these examples is the Harvard style of reference to sources. The setting out of the references is the American Psychological Association (or APA) style of referencing. Every department has its own preferred way, or style sheet, which they expect students to follow.
An exercise book can be used for noting quotations from one's reading on one side of the page and comments on the opposite page. It is a good way to keep notes on an essay topic together and to develop the skill of commenting on the viewpoints of others.
Task 3 Read the following paragraphs and identify the functions of sentences in each of the paragraphs.
1 Year by year more students are borrowing money for their education, and they are borrowing more money. In the first year of the loan scheme 45, 000 students had loans. By 1999 the number had grown to 300, 000. Two years ago, the average loan debt was NZ$5, 000. It is now $10, 600, according to figures supplied by the Alliance Party (Gordon, 1999). The total levels of student debt have reached unsustainable levels for the New Zealand economy.
Evidence in support of topic sentence
Source of evidence
2 It now appears that many students are leaving New Zealand to escape their student loan repayments. This is particularly acute as a problem in the information technology field. A computer company director has recently reported that graduates who work in his company leave New Zealand after working for only one or two years and that "when we do the exit interview, we find that they're leaving not just because they believe they can get more money, but to escape paying back the student loans." (Gifford, 1999, July 28, p. C1). Surely the government will have to address this problem urgently, especially if the problem is widespread.
Restatement of topic with more specific detail
Evidence in support of topic sentence
Source of evidence
DIFFERENT TYPES OF PARAGRAPHS IN AN ESSAY
There are three main types of paragraphs in an academic essay: introductory
paragraphs , the body
paragraphs and the concluding
The introductory paragraph(s)
provides the reader with any necessary background information before leading into a clear statement of the writer's point of view. The point of view, or thesis statement, is a brief but very specific statement of the position the writer will take in the essay. The introductory paragraph may also present an overall plan of the way the essay's argument will be developed, as well as any limits the writer will place on the topic.
The body paragraphs which follow all flow logically from the introductory paragraph. They expand on the thesis statement and each in turn is clearly focused on a single issue with plenty of supporting detail or evidence from concrete and relevant examples, or from the reading which the writer uses to support the point of view. Arguments by other writers against the point of view taken by the essay writer should also be presented (and argued against) in the body paragraphs. The body paragraphs carefully build up the writer's point of view in detail.
The concluding paragraph(s) summarises the points made, repeats the overall point of view, and explains why the writer took the position held. It may also indicate wider issues not covered in the essay but of interest and relevant to the point of view.
USEFUL TIP: The concluding and introductory paragraphs are usually best written last when the writer is clear about the point of view and the structure of the entire essay.
Task 4 The sentences below come from different kinds of paragraphs in an essay on censorship. Identify each sentence as belonging to an introductory, body or concluding paragraph.
1 The attitudes which have been discussed in this paper stem from a variety of misconceptions about the notion of personal freedom. _____________________________
2 The main reason for people being unhappy with censorship in any form comes from their mistaken belief that an individual's private actions have no effect on others. _____________________________
3 Western countries people have started to become very critical of attempts to restrict personal freedom via censorship. _____________________________
Adapted from http://www.victoria.ac.nz/llc/,CJVA1B