What is Citing? Citing is appropriate acknowledgement of



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  • What is Citing?
  • Citing is appropriate acknowledgement of all sources of information used in academic work
  • Leaving a “breadcrumb trail” of information used
  • Why Cite?
  • To ensure the moral rights of the author/creator of a work (part of Copyright Act)
  • To avoid plagiarism

Ways of Citing Sources

  • Quoting
  • Paraphrasing
  • Reference List

1. Quotations

  • Double quotation marks around short quotations (<40 words).
  • Longer quotations (>40 words) block indent and omit quotation marks.
  • Changing quotations, i.e., omitting text (…) or inserting text ([ ])

In Text Short Quotation (<40 words)

  • “An honor code usually consists of a signed statement in which students promise not to cheat and not to tolerate those who do” (Harris, 2001, p. 117).

In text Long Quotation (>40 words)

  • Athletes are searching for anything that will make them more competitive including
  • nutritional supplements, such as vitamins, energy bars and drinks that may compensate for dietary deficiencies, and over-the-counter products like shark cartilage and amino acids, which purport to increase muscle mass, boost energy and endurance, prompt weight gain (or loss), or reduce recovery time between workouts (Jollimore, 2004, p. 54).

Paraphrase Example

  • Original text:
  • Admissions officers agree that whatever the topic, everything rests in the execution. They look for a thoughtful, revelatory essay that enhances the rest of a student’s application (Flora, 2004, p.24).
  • Sample Paraphrase:
  • A students’ application for admission is based on many things, one being a creative and unique essay (Flora, 2004, p.24).

Reference List Rules to Remember

  • Only capitalize the FIRST letter of the title, proper nouns & first letter after a colon.
  • Authors’ names must be inverted, using only the first & middle initials. For more than one author use the “&” before the final name.
  • Indent each line after the first line.

Information from an aggregated database can be identified by the database name, the url is not necessary.

  • Information from an aggregated database can be identified by the database name, the url is not necessary.
  • There is no period at the end of a website citation.
  • Personal communications are only cited in text, not in reference list.

References

  • Anderson, D. (August 3, 2001). Statement by Environment Minister David
  • Anderson on Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Retrieved July 24, 2004, from
  • http://www.ec.gc.ca/Press/2001/010803_s_e.htm
  • Blicq, R. (2001). Guidelines for report writing. Toronto: Pearson Education
  • Canada.
  • Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., & Williams, J. M. (1995). The craft of
  • research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Edwards, C., & Crockett, R. (2007, April 16). New Music Phones—
  • Without the i. Business Week, Retrieved August 10, 2007, from Academic
  • Search Elite database.
  • Harris, R. (2001). The plagiarism handbook. Los Angeles: Pyrczak.
  • Reitman, J. (2004). The Baghdad follies. Rolling Stone, 952/953, 110-117.

Anti Plagiarism Practice

  • Can you spot the rule breakers?
  • Alboher, M. (2007). One Person/Multiple Careers. New
  • York: Warner Business Books.
  • Alboher, M. (2007). One person/multiple careers. New
  • York: Warner Business Books.
  • Rule to remember:
  • In the title, only capitalize the first letter, proper nouns and/or first letter after a colon. All other letters must be lowercase.
  • CBC. (2000). Bones play key role in diabetes. Retrieved
  • August, 11, 2007, from
  • http://www.cbc.ca/health/story/2007/08/10/bones- insulin.html.
  • CBC. (2000). Bones play key role in diabetes. Retrieved
  • August, 11, 2007, from
  • http://www.cbc.ca/health/story/2007/08/10/bones- insulin.html
  • Rule to remember:
  • No period at the end of a website.
  • Carol Ann Beck, Bob Sales. (2001). Family mediation:
  • Facts, myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC:
  • American Psychological Association.
  • Beck, C. A., & Sales, B. (2001). Family mediation: Facts,
  • myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC:
  • American Psychological Association.
  • Rule to remember:
  • Authors’ names must be inverted, using only the first and middle initials. When there is more than one author, use the ampersand (&) before the final name.
  • Wiest, M. D. (2001). Toward a public mental health
  • promotion and intervention system for youth. Journal
  • of School Health, 71, 101-104. Retrieved August 25,
  • 2001,from ProQuest database.
  • Wiest, M. D. (2001). Toward a public mental health
  • promotion and intervention system for youth. Journal
  • of School Health, 71, 101-104. Retrieved August 25,
  • 2001, from ProQuest database.
  • Matheson, M. (2006, June 25). Personal communication.
  • No citation needed.
  • Rule to remember:
  • Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only.
  • Bradbury, Ray. (1988). Fahrenheit 451. New York:
  • Ballantine Books.
  • Bradbury, R. (1988). Fahrenheit 451. New York:
  • Ballantine Books.
  • Rule to remember:
  • Author’s name must be inverted, using only the first and middle initials.
  • Edwards, C., & Crockett, R. (2007, April 16). New Music
  • Phones--Without the i. Business Week, Retrieved
  • August 10, 2007, from Academic Search Elite database. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&d
  • b=afh&AN=24625707&site=ehost-live
  • Edwards, C., & Crockett, R. (2007, April 16). New Music Phones--Without the i. Business Week, Retrieved August 10, 2007, from Academic Search Elite database.
  • Rule to remember:
  • If the information is retrieved from an aggregated database, providing the name of the database is sufficient; no address (URL) is needed.


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