What are we going to discuss ?



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  • Academic Writing : PaRagRaph

What are we going to discuss ?

  • I. Writing a Paragraph
  • 1. The Process of Academic Writing
  • 2. What Is a Paragraph?
  • 3. Unity and Outlining
  • 4. Coherence
  • 5. Kinds of Logical Order
  • 6. Concrete support I
  • 7. Concrete support II

II. Writing an Essay

  • . 1. The Essay
  • The Introductory Paragraph
  • The Concluding Paragraph
  • The Essay Body: Outlining
  • Transition signals between paragraph
  • 2. Patterns of Essay Organization
  • A basic unit of organization in writing in which a group of related sentences develops one main idea.
  • WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH?

GOLD Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coins remains as untarnished to day as the day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronaut's suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.

  • GOLD Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coins remains as untarnished to day as the day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronaut's suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.
  • Model: Paragraph Structure

The Three Parts of A Good Paragraph

  • Topic sentence:
      • States the main idea of the paragraph
      • Usually the first sentence in a paragraph
      • Summarizes the main idea of your paragraph.
      • Indicates to the reader what your paragraph will be about.
      • States the controlling idea.
  • TOPIC CONTROLLING IDEA
  • Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics

Topic Sentence

  • Complete sentence
  • Contains both a topic and controlling idea
  • Gives only one main idea
  • Compare:
  • The slang expression so long (meaning “good bye”) is probably a corruption of the Arabic salaam. (too specific)
  • English is a difficult language to learn. (too general)
  • The Arabic origin of many English words is not always obvious. (good)

Remember

  • A topic sentence should be neither too general nor too specific
  • Too general: American food is terrible.
  • Too specific: American food is tasteless and
  • greasy because Americans use
  • too many canned, frozen, and
  • prepackaged foods and because
  • everything is fried in oil or butter.
  • Good: American food is tasteless and
  • greasy.
  • Do not include too many unrelated ideas in your topic sentence
  • Too many ideas: San Francisco is famous for its
  • temperate climate, its many tourist
  • attractions, and its cosmopolitan
  • atmosphere.
  • Good: San Francisco is famous for its
  • cosmopolitan atmosphere
  • Makes a specific comment about the topic, indicating what the rest of the paragraph will say about the topic.
  • It limits or control the topic to a specific aspect of the topic to be discussed in the space of a single paragraph.
  • Controlling Idea:

GOLD Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coins remains as untarnished to day as the day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronaut's suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.

  • Example:
  • There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.
  • What are supporting sentences? They come after the topic sentence, making up the body of a paragraph.
  • What do they do? They give details to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph.
  • How do I write them? You should give supporting facts, details, and examples.
  • Supporting sentence
  • Example:
  • There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

Concluding/Closing Sentence

  • What is the concluding sentence? The concluding sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph.
  • What does it do? It restates the main idea of your paragraph.
  • How do I write one? Restate the main idea of the paragraph using different words.
  • Example:
  • There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

Example

  • GOLD
  • Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coins remains as untarnished to day as the day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronaut's suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.
  • 5
  • 10

Concluding Sentence (Not absolutely necessary)

  • It signals the end of a paragraph.
  • It summarizes the main points of a paragraph.
  • It gives a final comment on the topic and leave the reader with the most important idea to think about.

END-OF PARAGRAPH SIGNALS

  • Followed by a comma
  • Not followed by a comma
  • Finally,
  • In conclusion,
  • In summary,
  • Therefore,
  • Thus,
  • As a result,
  • Indeed,
  • In brief,
  • In short,
  • We can see that …
  • It is clear that …
  • These examples show that …
  • There can be no doubt that …
  • The evidence suggests that …

Unity

  • What is unity? Only one main idea is discussed
  • What does it do? Explain or prove the main idea stated in the topic sentence.
  • How do I write one? Every supporting sentence must directly explain or prove the main idea stated in the topic sentence. Do not include any information off the topic.
  • Example:
  • Paragraph 1
  • The HIV/AIDS epidemic is still growing explosively in most part of the world. In Central and Eastern Europe. HIV is spreading rapidly in countries that had almost no cases a few years ago. In China, there were an estimated 10,000 HIV-infected persons at the end of 1993, and this total grew ten-fold, to 100,00, by the end of 1995. In the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, the HIV/AIDS epidemic rages on. In Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, 10 percent of the woman visiting postnatal clinics in urban areas are infected with HIV, and in some areas, the rate is 40 percent. Mothers can give the HIV virus to their children during pregnancy and childbirth are when breast-feeding the virus is also transmitted through blood and blood products. For example, drug users who share needles may become infected. The main method of transmission is, of course, unprotected sex, which accounts for 75 to 85 percent of infections.
  • Paragraph 2
  • The HIV/AIDS epidemic is still growing explosively in most parts of the world. In Central and Eastern Europe. HIV is spreading rapidly in countries that had almost no cases a few years ago. In China, there were an estimated 10,000 HIV-infected persons at the end of 1993, and this total grew ten-fold, to 100,00, by the end of 1995. In the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, the HIV/AIDS epidemic rages on. In Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, 10 percent of the woman visiting postnatal clinics in urban areas are infected with HIV, and in some areas, the rate is 40 percent. Around the world, HIV infection rates are sky-rocketing among sex workers. In Nairobi, Kenya, 80 percent of sex workers are infected, and in Vietnam, the rate of infection climbed from 9 percent to 38 percent between 1992 and 1995. These statistic illustrate with frightening clarity that HIV/AIDS is still a major health problem in most areas of the world.
  • Coherence
  • What is coherence? Latin:”cohere” “hold together”
  • Sentences must hold together.
  • What does it do? Easy to read and understand
  • How do I write one?
  • The movement from one sentence to the next must be logical and smooth.
  • Supporting sentences are in some kind of logical orders
  • Your ideas are connected by the use of appropriate transition signals

4 Ways to achieve coherence

  • Repeating key nouns
  • Using pronouns that refer back to key nouns
  • Use transition signal to show how one idea is related to the next
  • Arrange your sentences in logical order

Paragraph with coherence

  • GOLD
  • Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coins remains as untarnished to day as the day it was minted twenty-three centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications. The most recent use of gold is in astronaut's suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection outside spaceships. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.

Transition signals (Traffic signs)

  • First, second, next, finally, therefore, and, however, in conclusion, on the other hand, as a result, similarly , moreover, furthermore, in addition, in contrast
  • Logical order
  • Chronological order: in the order of their occurrence in time.
  • 1. Narration
  • 2. Process, procedures
  • Order of importance
  • Comparison/contrast

Concrete support: How to prove our points

  • Support your topic sentence by using specific and factual details.
  • * Examples
  • * Statistics
  • * Quotation
  • * Paraphrase
  • * Summary

Prewriting Paragraphs

  • What is the prewriting stage?
  • The prewriting stage is when you think carefully and organize your ideas for your paragraph before you begin writing.
  • How do I write one?
  • 1. Think carefully about what you are going to write.
  • 2. Open your notebook.
  • 3. Collect facts related to your paragraph or essay topic.
  • 4. Write down your own ideas.
  • 5. Find the main idea of your paragraph or essay.
  • 6. Organize your facts and ideas in a way that develops your main idea.

Writing Paragraphs

  • What is the writing stage? The writing stage is when you turn your ideas into sentences.
  • How do I write one?
  • Open your notebook and word processor.
  • Write the topic sentence, supporting sentences, and closing sentence.
  • Write clear and simple sentences to express your meaning.
  • Focus on the main idea of your paragraph.
  • Use the dictionary to help you find additional words to express your ideas.

Editing Paragraphs

  • What is the editing stage? The editing stage is when you check your paragraph for mistakes and correct them.
  • Grammar and Spelling
  • Check your spelling.
  • Check your grammar.
  • Read your essay again.
  • Make sure each sentence has a subject.
  • See if your subjects and verbs agree with each other.
  • Check the verb tenses of each sentence.
  • Make sure that each sentence makes sense.
  • Style and Organization
  • Make sure your paragraph has a topic sentence.
  • Make sure your supporting sentences focus on the main idea.
  • Make sure you have a closing sentence.
  • Check that all your sentences focus on the main idea.
  • See if your paragraph is interesting.

How do we start a writing ???

Think of Writing as a Step by Step Process

  • Read and Research
  • Brainstorm Ideas
  • Develop Working Thesis and Outline
  • Write Rough Draft
  • Review for Content
  • Revise Rough Draft
  • Review for Grammar and Mechanics
  • Revise Second Draft
  • Continue Reviewing and Revising as Needed

Where Do I Get Ideas To Write About?

  • Read texts related to your topic
  • Use brainstorming techniques like:
    • Listing ideas
    • Clustering or mind mapping
    • Free writing
  • Discuss the issue with others
  • Research the topic

Reading a Text

  • Compare these two images about Japanese Concentration camps during World War II. The first is by American photographer Ansel Adams. The second is a cartoon by Theodor “Dr. Seuss” Geisel.

Contrasting the Two Texts

  • Ansel Adams
    • Uses photograph
    • Creates sympathy
    • Documents history
    • Subtle
    • Politically motivated
    • Captures humanity
    • Shows us the suffering
    • Emphasizes helplessness
    • Focused on the individual
  • Dr. Seuss
    • Uses cartoon
    • Stirs animosity
    • Used for propaganda
    • Exaggerated
    • Politically motivated
    • Uses stereotypes
    • Makes characters look happy
    • Emphasizes danger
    • Focused on the larger view

Clustering

  • Write your main point in the center of the page and circle it
  • As ideas come to you, branch off from the main point
  • Think of the cluster as a tree, each idea branching off a previous idea
  • Do not censor or edit yourself

Cluster Example

Develop a Working Thesis

  • A thesis comes at the end of the introduction section of your paper
  • It lets the reader know exactly what overall point you are trying to make
  • It should be specific, not general
  • It can be used by the reader and the writer as a road map for the rest of the paper
  • It is not fixed; it can and should evolve as your ideas evolve
  • What you present in the paper should not deviate from what you promise in the thesis
  • Establishes expectations

Thesis Examples

    • Dr. Seuss’ propaganda cartoons during World War II reduced Japanese Americans to stereotypes, played on the fears of the American public during a time of war, and focused on a the broad, generalized issues of the situation rather than the individual circumstances of the people involved.

Developing an Outline

  • Once you establish a thesis, use it to help you develop an outline of the paper
  • An outline will:
    • Help you organize your ideas
    • Keep you focused
    • Save time
  • Keep in mind there are several ways to approach writing an outline

Outline Example

  • Thesis
  • Main Point
    • Supporting Point
      • Detail
      • Detail
    • Supporting Point
      • Detail
      • Detail
  • Main Point
    • Supporting Point
      • Detail
      • Detail
    • Supporting Point
      • Detail
      • Detail
    • Supporting Point
      • Detail
      • Detail
  • Main Point
    • Supporting Point
      • Detail
      • Detail
    • Supporting Point
      • Detail
      • Detail
  • Conclusion

Writing the Rough Draft

  • Now that you have a thesis and outline, you may begin writing your rough draft.
  • As you write this rough draft, keep the following strategies in mind:
    • Organize information in your body paragraphs
    • Hook the reader in the introduction
    • Keep your paper coherent with transition words and sentences
    • Wrap up your paper with a strong closing
    • Utilize academic writing conventions
    • Follow the writing process

Good Luck.....

  • Have a nice making a writing


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