He belives in limited federal powers, strict adherence to the constitution, states’ rights,and a balanced budget.
The Cold War
The Cold War was a continuous period of military tension, political conflict, and in which the Communist powers, mainly the Soviet Union, and the Western powers, mainly the United States.
There were never actually any clashes between the Soviet Union and the United States, but through military, proxy wars, espionage, propaganda, nuclear arms race, appeals to neutral nations, and the Space Race, they expressed their tensions.
Proxy Wars are wars that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly.
The United States and the Soviet Union did not want to fight each other directly because that might lead to nuclear war, so they put their efforts into Afghanistan, Korea, Vietnam, and others.
In the Korean War, the Soviet Union aided the Communists in North Korea against the US-led United Nations forces. The Soviet Union did not enter the war directly, though it was alleged that the Soviets had sent pilots to fly MiG 15s for the Communists. China, however, did enter the war directly and sent thousands of 'volunteers' in 1950 preventing the U.N. coalition from defeating the Communist government of the north.
In the Vietnam War the Soviet Union supplied North Vietnam and the Viet Minh with training, logistics and materiel but unlike the United States Armed Forces they fought the war through their proxies and did not enter the conflict directly.
Communism is an idea that everyone owns everything. It is a stateless and classless society structured upon common ownership of the means of production, free access to articles of consumption, the end of wage labor and private property in the means of production and real estate.
The United States and the Soviet Union differed on how the post-war world should be rebuilt and run. The United States favored a democratic government and the Soviet Union favored a Communistic society.
After Stalin died, Nikita Khrushchev took over and the US and SU tried to coexist together peacefully. They met several times and signed many hopeful agreements over the years; however, there were also conflicts mixed in, such as Cuban missile crisis of October 1962 and the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia of 1968.
70’s and 80’s
During Leonid Brezhnev’s rule there was a "period of stagnation." The Soviet Union and the United States became less hostile toward each other. Brezhnev said in 1973 that peace and coexistence between the communist countries and imperialistic countries would be “normal and irreversible”. In the late 1970s, the Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan re-kindled the hostility.
Soviet views of the United States changed once again after Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in early 1985. Ronald Reagan and Gorbachev met at summit meetings and reduced arms and helped cooperation among Communist leaders.
After president Yeltsin’s recognition for the other republics of the former USSR, he launched a full-scale economic reform program that created a market economy.
Billy Joel was born on May 9, 1949 in The Bronx, New York, and raised in Hicksville, New York.
Joel’s father was a classical pianist and made Billy start piano lessons at an early age.
He didn’t graduate from High School because he overslept for a test because he was working nights at a piano bar and didn’t recieve an English credit. However, in 1992, he submitted essays to the board and they awarded him is diploma.
Joel released his first hit, “Piano Man”, in 1973.
Joel had Top 40 hits in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. He has written 33 Top 40 hits all by himself.
He is also a twenty-three time Grammy nominee and a six time Grammy winner.
He has been inducted into to the Songwriter’s Hall of Fame, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the Long Island Music Hall of Fame and the Hit Parade Hall of Fame.
Billy Joel said..
“I had turned forty. It was 1989 and I said "Okay, what's happened in my life?" I wrote down the year 1949. Okay, Harry Truman was president. Popular singer of the day, Doris Day. China went Communist. Another popular singer, Johnnie Ray. Big Broadway show, South Pacific. Journalist, Walter Winchell. Athlete, Joe DiMaggio. Then I went on to 1950 [...]. It's one of the worst melodies I've ever written. I kind of like the lyric though”
“We Didn’t Start the Fire”
“We Didn’t Start the Fire” spans from 1949, when Joel was born, to 1989, when the song was written.
The chorus has been thought to mean that his generation can not be blamed for all of the bad things that have happened because they have been going on way before they got here.
It was a #1 Billboard hit, but also ranked #41 on the 50 Worst Songs Ever chart.
Well loved 33rd President of the United States (1945-1953). Made the decision to drop the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima & Nagasaki. "Give 'em hell Harry!" The 1949 Inauguration was the first to be nationally televised, and was estimated to have been viewed by 10 million Americans.
Popular singer/actress and later, star of the Doris Day Show (1968-1973). Most famous movies: ThePajama Game ('57) and Pillow Talk ('59).
"The Red Troops," Communists take over mainland China. Nationalists establish themselves in Taiwan.
Singer who cried when he sang. Hits: Cry and The Little Cloud that Cried. Johnnie Ray was born on January 10, 1927 in Dallas, Oregon. He was partially deaf since childhood and began wearing a hearing aid at age 14. In 1951 singer LaVern Baker and her manager Al Green helped him with his music. He signed a contract with Okeh in 1949.
Broadway musical first produced on this date
America's first modern gossip columnist known for his aggressive style and tremendous use of slang. America tuned into him on the radio.
"Joltin' Joe," "The Yankee Clipper" was an outfielder for the New York Yankees (1936-1951) and has the longest hitting streak in the Major Leagues. In 1949, an inflamed heel kept him sidelined for 65 games. When he returned to the lineup, his home run helped the Yankees beat Boston 5-4, and he went on to bat .500 in their three-game series. It was as if he'd never been gone. He was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1955 and married Marilyn Monroe in '54.
The Republican senator who led "Witch Hunts" against the communists in America. He also started the dreaded "Black listing."
Member of the US Senate and later President. Investigated domestic communism during this period.
Clement, Henry, and John Studebaker, The downfall of this eccentric auto company came when their sports car did not catch on as well as the new corvette.
The "Boob Tube" was introduced and became widely popular throughout the world.
Democratic peoples republic occupied by U.S.S.R. They invaded...
On June 25, 1950 and remained occupied until July 27, 1953. The United States supported South Korea. Start of the "Cold War"?
Norma Jean-Baker -- Actress and Pin-up girl. In the movie "Love Happy", United Artists, April 1950 staring: Marx Brothers, Ilona Massey, Eric Blore, Vera-Ellen, Raymond Burr, Groucho Marx. She married Joe DiMaggio in 1954 and died of a drug overdose in 1956. Popular Movies: Some Like It Hot and Bus Stop
Ethel-Greenglass Rosenberg and Julius Rosenberg were listed as communists and were convicted of giving secrets to the U.S.S.R. Executed, they were spies, they were traitors.
First tested in 1951. This weapon was more powerful than the destrctive Atomic bomb. Researched by Edward Teller as a response to the fear of communism after Russia duplicated the A-bomb.
Five time middle weight champion (1951-1960).
Welter weight champion (1946-1951)
City in South Korea where the cease fire negotiations took place. Talks started in 1951 and the truce was signed in 1953 ending the Korean War.
Marlon Brando Jr. The "Buddy" actor. Won Oscars for: On the Water Front (1954) and The Godfather (1972)
The King and I
Popular musical and book by Oscar Hammerstein based on the novel Anna and the King of Siam by Margret Landon. About King Mongkut of Thailand and the social life and customs therein.
"Ike" David Dwight Eisenhower. Allied European military leader and 34th U.S. president (1953-1961).
Jonas Salk, on March 11, 1952, provides the body with lasting defensive powers against 3 types of polio viruses.
England's got a new Queen
Queen Elizabeth II starts her reign, she is 27 years old.
Rocky Marciano, Boxer and Actor. Became the heavyweight champion of the world when he defeated Jersey Joe Walcott on September 23, 1952. Undefeated Heavyweight Champion (1952-1956). Died in a plane crash in 1969.
George J. Liberace. Conductor, violinist and pianist born Wladziu Valentino (1919-1987). Rose to stardom in the fifties and went on to become the highest paid entertainer during the sixties and seventies. Known for his elaborate costumes, flashy piano styles and his token candelabra. Most well known piece: Mack the Knife
George Santayana, (1863-1952), American philosopher, poet, and novelist, whose wide-ranging philosophical speculation was expressed in a style of great literary distinction. died September 26, 1952., Memorable quote: "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it."
Dictator of Russia (1929-1953), successor of Lenin. Instituted Socialism throught the use of force. Died, March 5, 1953.
Georgi Malenkov was a close associate of Joseph Stalin he, became Prime Minister of Russia after Stalin's death and remained in his position until 1955.
Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egyptian President (1953-1970). He led the disposal of King Farouk in 1952.
Russian Composer who died in 1953 after putting together Peter and the Wolf.
John D. Rockefeller. Most well known of the wealthy Rockefeller family. Founded Chevron Oil company. Nelson Aldridge Rockefeller was Governor of New York from 1958 to 1974.
Roy Campanella was a black baseball catcher for Brooklyn from 1948 to 1957. He led the NL in RBI's in 1953 and held the MVP. He was paralyzed in a car accident in 1958 and was entered in to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1969.
The Communist Bloc refers to the countries that comprised the "enemy" during the Cold War.
Lawyer and Chief counsel to Senator McCarthy during his "Witch Hunt" trials.
Dictator of Argentina, died in 1974.
Arturo Toscannini, child prodigy. One of the great Orchestra conductors who performed in New York and Italy. He retired in 1954 at the are of 87.
The Tradename for Polyester fiber rope. The beginning of polyester clothing.
Vietnam swamp land, location of the Frenc fortress that was defeated in 1954.
Rock Around The Clock
Number 1 song by Bill Haley and the Comets. Considered the beginning of Rock n' Roll.
It doesn't take a genius to know Albert Einstein. Physicist and mathametician who penned the Theory of Relativity and did substantial work on the creation of the Atomic Bomb. He won the Nobel Prize before passing away on April 18, 1955.
Actor and teen heartthrob. Became an icon for American teenage boys after a career in films which was tragically cut short when he was killed in a car accident on Sept. 30, 1955. Films: Rebel Without A Cause (1955), East of Eden (1955), and Giant (1955) filmed before his death.
Brooklyn's got a winning team
The Brooklyn Dodgers wins the World Series 4 games to 3 against the New York Yankees.
Frontiersman under President Andrew Jackson who died at the Alamo in 1936. Because of Walt Disney's now weekly show, Davy Crockett becomes the newest fad among kids.
The Disney Feature Full Length Animated Movie hits theatres.
Actor/Singer "The King" of Rock n' Roll
Walt Disney opens his first amusement park in Anaheim, California.
Bridget Bardot, French actress and sex symbol. Famous for marijuana and her long blonde disheveled hair.
Moved towards democracy in Hungary, armored tanks quickly put a stop to it.
Moved towards civil rights with the Civil Rights Movement. Blacks protested against discrimination.
Nikita Krushchev, the Premier of Russia who built the Berlin Wall in '56. " We will bury you!"
Grace Kelley. Actress who married Prince Ranier III of Monaco in '56. Movies: High Noon (1952)
First night time soap opera
Trouble in the Suez
Egypt nationalizes the canal and refuses passage to Israel. War erupts and Israel, with the help of France and Great Britain occupy the Sinai Penninsula.
Arkansas, troops are sent to a central high school to enforce racial integration.
Boris Pasternak, russian creator of Dr. Zhivago. Forced to refuse the Nobel Prize for literature in '58.
"The Commerce Comet." NY Yankees outfielder (1951-58). Won the AL Triple Crown in '56 and held the record for 536 home runs. He was a 3 time MVP, including the '57 season, and was entered into the Hall of Fame in '74.
Jack Kerouac, led the "Beatnik" movement, authored On the Road in 1957. b. Oct 20, 1931
The first artificial satellite, launched by the Russians on Oct 4, 1957. Sputnik means satellite in Russian.
Chou-En-Lai (Zhou En-Lai?)
The premier of China sought to normalize relations between the PRC and the USA
Bridge on the River Kwai
Won 7 Academy Awards including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor - Alec Guinness (of Star Wars fame) and Best (Adapted) Screenplay.
President "Ike"Eisenhower sent troops to Lebanon where 241 marines died.
In 1958 (between the 1957 and 1958 seasons, at least) the Brooklyn Dodgers and the New York Giants (the baseball team) moved out west to California - Los Angeles and San Francisco respectively.
The Starkweather Homicides - In January, Charlie Starkweather and his girlfriend, Caril Fugate, went on a 11 (we've also heard "over 15") person killing spree over a span of a month and a half. The spree started with Fugate's parents and spread over the Midwest. He was executed in the electric chair.
Children of Thalidomide
Thalidomide was given to women to help with birthing proceedures and morning sickness. Childern are consequently born with birth defects, typically abnormally short arms. Sometimes, no arms or legs at all.
Singer/songwriter of Buddy Holly and the Crickets. Died in a plane crash with 2 other rock n' roll singers, including Ritchie Valens, on Feb 3, 1959. (See the American Pie page)
Nominated for 12 Academy Awards. Won 11, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor - Charlton Heston and Best Supporting Actor - Hugh Griffith.
The first sentient being was sent into outer space, it was... a monkey.
Gangs, mobsters, you know like Capone. Don Vito Genovese jailed for narcotics peddling in 1959, he was turned in by Nelson Cantellops.
The Hula Hoop was invented and became the latest fad.
Fidel Castro led a campaign to overthrow the Batista regime. The Communist leader took over in Cuba and became the Premier.
A spy plane, then being flown by Gary Powers, was shot down. News of its existence ruined a summit meeting in Vienna between Kruchev and the American President, Eisenhower.
The President of South Korea (1948-1960) was forced from office for political abuses.
One of the first big music scandals where record companies paid DJs to play certain songs as DJs were asking for money to play records. Allan Freed, a big time radio DJ from Ohio credited with coining the term "Rock and Roll," got caught up in it and it destroyed his career. The film American Hot Wax deals with both Allan and the payola issue.
John F. Kennedy was elected the 35th President of the United States (served 1961-1963). He was also the first Roman Catholic President.
Rock n' Roll sensation who created the dance craze, "The Twist."
Belgians in the Congo
In June, the Belgians lost control of the Congo, which became the independent state of Congo-Kinshasa. Today it is known as Zaire.
Journalist/Author, Nobel Prize winner in 1954. Died July 2, 1961.
Adolf Eichman, Nazi leader and most feared Nazi. He was in charge of Hitler's Death Camps. He escaped to Argentine in 1946 and was captured by Israelies in 1960. Tried in 1961 and hanged in 1962 for his war crimes.
Stranger in a Strange Land
Novel by Richard Heinlein published in 1961. Winner of the 1962 Hugo Award.
Robert Zimmerman / Bob Dylan -- Singer/Songwriter. Blowin' in the Wind (1962), Times They are a Changin' (1964)
The Wall goes up to devide East Communist Germany from West Democratic Germany.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
April 17-19. The unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the Communist government of Cuba by U.S. backed Cuban exiles.
Lawrence of Arabia
Winner of 7 Academy Awards including Best Picture and Best Director.
British Beatle Mania
The Boys, our inspiration, from Liverpool, England. John, Paul, Ringo and George. Popular for their childlike, whimsy looks and attitudes. "Mod" clothing and "Sheepdog" hair.
The University of Mississippi is the first to allow African Americans to attend a University.
First American to orbit Earth
Liston beats Patterson
"Sonny" Liston, Actor/boxer. Heavyweight champion 1962-1964 beats Floyd Patterson, an Olympic gold medalist (boxing 1952) and the youngest to ever win the heavyweight title.
Paul I installed as Pope in 1963. He died on March 6, 1964. He was also the Monarch of Greece from 1947-1964.
His original name was Malcom Little. After derogatory comments regarding the assassination of J.F.K he was silenced by Black Muslims. Murdered in 1965.
British Politician Sex
British minister Stephen Ward was brought down by virtue of a sex scandal in the early 60s -- he had an affair with Christine Keeler and killed himself in shame. Check out the movie "Scandal" for more details.
JFK Blown away
John F. Kennedy's assassination took place on Nov. 22, 1963 during a political parade in Dallas.
The start of endless debates and controversies over birth control.
Ho Chi Minh
Leader of the Vietminh against the Japanese. An ally of the US during WWII. He was president of North Vietnam during the period of the Vietnam War.
Richard Nixon back again
After Nixon lost to Kennedy in 1960, he ran for governor of California and lost. He called a press conference and angrily declared he was leaving politics and public life for good, telling the press "You won't have Dick Nixon to kick around any more." He didn't keep his promise, though, and hence the "back again" reference. He became the 37th President from 1967-1974, then resigned. He ended the US presence in Vietnam, repaired relations with China, and initiated Detente with USSR.
July 1969. U.S. wins race to the Moon, Neil Armstrong plants American flag.
New York's "Love-in." On a 600 acre farm, 400,000 people gathered for 3 days of Rock n' Roll. It is reported that no fights took place, it rained most of the three days and 1 child was born.
Break in of Democratic National Headquarters, by Nixon White House Aides. Causing scandal, including evidence of missing tapes.
70’s and 80’s
In the fifties, baby boomers were teens and they rebelled against adults with Rock n' Roll. In the early seventies, their children started punk rock.
Menachem Wolfovitch, Prime minister of Israel 1977-1983. Attended a meeting with Anwar el Sadat resulting in the Camp David Accords. He is the Nobel Peace Prize winner of 1978.
40th President (1981-1989), instituted "Reaganomics" in an attempt to spur the economy. He was also known for his conservative policies and the fact that he has been our oldest President (b. Feb. 6, 1911)
Continuing conflicts over a Palestinian homeland.
Terror on the Airline
Many Hijackings and explosions took place during the 80's
Ayatollah's in Iran
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini began a Holy War with Iran.
Russians in Afghanistan
Russian and Afgan government troops hold the major cities but rebels control the country side.
Wheel of Fortune
One of the most popular TV game shows begins in the 80's
First woman in Space
Heavy Metal Suicide
In the eighties, a rumor flourished that heavy metal music caused some kids to commit suicide. - Music doesn't kill people, people kill people (and guns).
The United States, under Reagan's Reganomics, ran up trillions of dollars in National Debt.
Due to the state of the economy and high unemployment, Vietnam vets are forced to the streets by the thousands.
The AIDS epidemic becomes the headline news.
Cocaine has been around for awhile but it becomes popular again in another form.
Was attacked by 2-4 thugs in a New York subway. He returned the attack with gunfire from his legally registered gun. He left one in a wheelchair of the attackers. The incident later went to trial and due to a lack of evidence to prove that Goetz was acting in self defense, the victim (Goetz) was forced to pay approximately 1 million dollars to the families of the attackers. (You better believe we have a great justice system!)
Hypodermics on the Shore
From the Pacific to Lake Michigan, the pollution in our water is recognized when people find hypodermic needles in the seas.
China's under Martial Law
Democratic movement in China stopped by use of military force.
Rock & Roller Cola Wars
Pepsi and Coca-Cola were battling for the top soft drink spot.