War Between the States 1861-65



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War Between the States 1861-65

Discussion/Essay Question

  • “The Northern victory over the Confederacy was inevitable.”
  • Assess the validity of this statement.
  • Bicentennial of Lincoln’s Birth Essay
  • 2. Why should Americans honor the legacy of Lincoln today?
  • 5 paragraph Essay.

Civil War Need to Know

  • The Union
    • Mobilization and finance
    • Civil liberties
    • Election of 1864
  • The South
    • Confederate constitution
    • Mobilization and finance
    • States' rights and the Confederacy
  • Foreign affairs and diplomacy
  • Military strategy, campaigns, and battles
  • The abolition of slavery
    • Confiscation Acts
    • Emancipation Proclamation
    • Freedmen's Bureau
    • Thirteenth Amendment
  • Effects of war on society
    • Inflation and public debt
    • Role of women
    • Devastation of the South
    • Changing labor patterns

The Effects of the War

  • 618,000 died in the Civil War
  • Ended States Rights concept forever
  • Strengthened the Supremacy of Federal Government over the States
  • Accelerated economic development of the North
  • Made Republican Party a powerful and enduring force
  • Devastated the Economy of the South
  • Ended Slavery (Emancipation Proclamation 1863 and 13th Amendment 1865)

Lincoln’s First Inauguration “Carrot and Stick Approach”

  • Carrot:
  • Tried to reassure the South that he would not interfere with Slavery where it existed.
  • He would enforce Fugitive Slave Act
  • “We are not enemies but friends. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection.”
  • Stick:
  • He would fight.
  • He would, “Employ all powers…to reclaim the public property and places which have fallen; places belonging to the government.”

President Lincoln's First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1861

  • In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to ''preserve, protect, and defend it.”
  • “It seems clear that in both the North and South, sectional antagonisms had risen to such a point that the existing terms of union had become untenable.”
  • “They had grown to be two distinct and incompatible civilizations”
  • They were incapable of living together in peace.

Sentiments on Both sides were Extreme

  • RW Emerson “I do not see how a barbarous community and a civilized community can constitute one state.” (Northern View)
  • (Southern View) “These people hate us, annoy us, and would have us assassinated by our slaves if they dared. They are different people from us, whether better of worse, and there is no love between us. Why then continue together?”

Mobilization

  • After Fort Sumter both sides rush to war
  • Nationalism was high
  • Volunteers were plentiful
  • The Confederates wanted independence
  • The Yankees wanted to punish the traitors
  • Armies were raised, equipped, and prepared for war.

Map

  • The Union and Confederacy in 1861

Why did Border States remain in the Union?

Preparations for War: North

  • Advantages
  • Natural Resources, $
  • Superior Navy
  • Population 3x more
  • 90% of country’s Factories
  • Railroads
  • Production of Firearms, cloth, iron, boots/shoes
  • Disadvantages
  • At first not prepared for war
  • People thought it would only last a short time
  • Needed arms, munitions, equipment
  • Poor leadership
  • Had to fight a war of conquest= Invade the South
  • Divided Public Opinion

Preparations for War: South

  • Advantages
  • Food Production
  • Virginia had Armories and produced weapons
  • Harpers Ferry Armory
  • Cotton $
  • Good military leadership-
  • Robert E. Lee
  • Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Good soldiers
  • Disadvantages
  • At first Weapons Shortage
  • Lacked Manufacturing
  • Lacked Transportation
  • Few Rail Roads
  • Needed to import Arms and Equipment
  • (British)
  • Low population
  • Low Resources
  • Little Navy
  • Resources: North & the South

Rail

  • Railroad Lines, 1860

Financing the War

  • North
    • Borrow Money- (most) ($2.6 Billion)
    • Bonds ($400 million)
    • Print Money-Causes inflation
    • Levying Taxes
      • Income Taxes
      • Taxes on goods
  • South
    • Borrow Money- Bonds
    • Print Money-Causes inflation
    • Taxes
    • Cotton export

2 million served in Union Army Most Volunteered

  • Men Present for Duty in the Civil War
  • Union had only 16,000
  • Troops in 1861

Enrolment Act =Draft

  • 1863- Volunteers for the Army decrease drastically
  • War is bloody and tens of thousands die
  • Union passes and enforces a draft law-
  • Raise troops for the war
  • 46,000 conscripted
  • “A Poor Man’s War”
  • People drafted could hire substitutes or pay a $300 fee to be released
  • Draft law causes tremendous resistance especially in New York City Irish Immigrants riot 4 days July 1863
  • Racial overtones
  • NYC Democratic City
  • Some wanted to secede from the Union and even make it a neutral city

Lincoln and Civil Liberties

  • 1862- as the war goes badly for the North
  • Lincoln uses executive power to remove criticism and insure order
  • Executive order of war powers suspends Habeas Corpus Due process= rights to a trial
  • Authorizes arrests of Anti-War Protestors
  • Anyone associated with “Disloyal Practices”
  • Especially in Border States
  • Arrested 13,000 people
  • Example= “Copperheads” Peace Democrats
  • Northerners who were against the war

Example- Northern Civil Liberties

  • Copperhead Congressman Clement Valldingham
  • Ohio politician
  • Arrested and denied Habeas Corpus
  • Opposed the war, arrested and then deported to the CSA
  • Good Link
  • Ex parte Merriman and Ex parte Milligan
  • Overview of Civil War Strategy:
  • “Anaconda” Plan

Northern Strategy

  • Lincoln: Saw that the North should win by resource power
    • Saw the key to victory = Destruction of the CSA Armies (not the conquest of territory)
  • Isolate the South from trade
  • Squeeze the South into Submission
  • Large scale invasion of Southern Territory
  • 1862 Concept of Total War- “There is no hope for reconciliation”
  • “We must conquer the Rebels or be conquered by them.”

Course of the War (Map)

  • Statistics of Battles
  • Timeline of Civil (War Link)
  • April 1861 Fort Sumter
  • April 17, Virginia Secedes
  • 1861 Blockade
  • July 1st First Bull Run/Manassas (CSA Victory)
  • McClellan Appointed General in Chief USA
  • November 1861 Trent Affair
  • 1861 Confiscation Act addresses slaves that come under the power of the Union forces “All slaves used for insurrection purposes would be considered freed .”

1862

  • Stalemate in the East
  • Movement and progress for the Union in the WEST
  • Feb 25 Nashville Falls to Union
  • March 9 Monitor and Merrimac (CSS Virginia) fight (Ironclad Ships)
  • April 9 Battle of Shiloh (TN) Grant US Victory 23,746 killed (US 63,000 KIA 13,000) (CS 40,000 KIA 11,000)
  • May Peninsula Campaign Begun US attacks South trying to take Richmond
  • April 25 New Orleans Falls to Admiral Farragut US Victory

1862 continued

  • May “Stonewall Jackson” defeats US in Shenandoah Valley; US troops rush to protect Washington DC. (CS Victory)
  • May 31 Seven Pines Battle (on Peninsula) US vs Lee (CS Victory)
  • July 2 Seven Days Battle, Lee wins Peninsula Campaign (CS Victory)
  • July 10 McClellan removed from top spot in US Army, General Halleck appointed commander US forces
  • August 2nd Bull Run/Manassas Pope defeated (CS victory)
  • Sept Army of Northern Virginia (Lee’s Army) Marches North to Maryland
  • Sept 17 Bloodiest single day of the war
  • Battle of Antietam- Lee invades and is met at town of Sharpsburg, 2, 108 Union KIA, 9,549 wounded
  • CSA 2,700 KIA, 9,024 wounded (US victory)
  • December 11-15 Fredericksburg, 13,000 US casualties, 5,000 CS casualties (CS victory)

Progress of war

  • The Progress of War: 1861-1865

The War in the East

  • War in the East: 1861-1862

McClellan quote

  • After being demoted by Lincoln and Stanton the Secretary of War
  • He had “lost all regard and respect for the administration and doubted the propriety of my brave men’s blood being shed to further the designs of such a set of heartless villains.”
  • Regarding Hallek “vented his anger at serving under an officer ‘whom I know to be my inferior.
  • As for Stanton, he was a “deformed hypocrite & villain…if he had lived in the time of the Savior, Judas Iscariot would have remained a respected member of the fraternity of Apostles.”

Foreign Affairs

  • North
  • Wanted no foreign intervention
  • South
  • Wanted recognition from foreign governments- Britain or France
  • Wanted intervention from British

1863 (Link)

  • January Emancipation Proclamation
  • March First Conscription Act Passed
  • April 27 – May 1 Chancellorsville
    • Lee defeats US Hooker by splitting his forces and attacks in 3 places (CSA Victory)
  • May 10 Stonewall Jackson dies
    • Lee loses his best General
  • July Vicksburg falls (Grant) to Union forces, Mississippi is controlled by US.
  • July 1-3 Gettysburg
    • Lee invades Pennsylvania trying to gain recognition of England and France
    • Terrible Battle 90,000 US vs 75000 CSA
    • Lee loses 1/3 of his army and can not get them back (28,000)
    • Meade does not continue the attack and Lee retreats back to VA and is able to continue the fight. (lost 23,000)

1863 Continued Link

  • September 19-20 (WEST) Battle of Chickamauga TN
    • CS Victory CS 70,000 vs US 56,000
    • Casualties CS 18, 454 US 16,179
  • November 19, Gettysburg Address
    • Lincoln refocuses the struggle “A new birth of freedom.”
  • November 23-25 Battle of Chattanooga
    • Grant Drives CS out of Tennessee
  • December Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan announced

Gettysburg Address

  • Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

African Americans and the Union Army

  • 186,000 serve in Union Army, Navy, and laborers
  • Most blacks served in support/labor
  • 54th Massachusetts, Capt. Robert Gould Shaw
  • Blacks captured were returned to slavery or killed.

Confiscation Acts

  • May 1861- Law that allowed Union forces to seize enemy material and property of rebellious states and citizens for the war effort.
    • Property included slaves
    • Allowed Federal Government to use these slaves for the war effort
  • 1862 2nd Confiscation Act
    • Declared free slaves of persons aiding and supporting the rebellion
    • Authorized President to employ Freed Slaves as soldiers

1863

  • January Emancipation Proclamation signed
    • Lincoln was pressured to create a policy regarding slaves in the rebellious states.
    • Previous, Confiscation Acts were used to address Slaves that come under the jurisdiction of Union forces.
    • After the victory of Antietam he was persuaded to try and weaken the Confederacy

Emancipation Proclamation

  • Executive order of the President
  • Applied only to Slaves in Rebellious states (except those already under Union control- TN, West VA, Southern Louisiana)
  • Stated as of January 1, 1863
  • “I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States and parts of States are, and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, shall recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.”

Significance of Emancipation Proclamation

  • The war was expanded to end Slavery
  • Allowed for the recruitment and use of Blacks into the Union Army
  • Did not address slavery in Border States of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, or Delaware

Radical Republicans Review

  • “Free every slave-slay every traitor-burn every rebel mansion, if these things be necessary to preserve this temple of freedom. We must treat this war as a radical revolution, and remodel our institutions.”
  • Radical Republicans
    • Thaddeus Stevens (Rep PA)
    • Charles Sumner (Senator MA)
    • Benjamin Wade (Senator OH)

1864 Link

  • January- Grant appointed Commander of US forces and has new plan
    • He has now lots of troops ready to fight with many veterans.
    • Attack South through Georgia (Sherman)
    • Attack due South from DC to Richmond and keep up relentless pressure.
  • May 5-7 (East) Battle of Wilderness (CSA Victory)
    • US 115,000 vs CS 73,000
    • Casualties US 55,000 CS 31,000
  • May 8-12 (East) Battle of Spotsylvania (Union Victory)
    • 5 day battle, Grant doesn’t wait to attack Lee after Wilderness
    • Casualties US 18,000 CS 12,000

1864

  • June 1-3 (East) Battle of Cold Harbor (CSA Victory)
    • Grant still pushing South after Lee, Grant loses 7,000 in 20 minutes
    • CS 62,000 vs US 108,000
    • Casualties CS 2,500 US 12,000
  • June (East) (US) Siege of Petersburg begins (getting close to Richmond)
    • Key RR transport and supply for Richmond
    • Grant still pushing Lee
  • June Battle of Kennesaw Mountain (GA) (CSA Victory)
    • Sherman attacking South from TN
    • US 90,000 vs CS 60,000
  • July Crater at Petersburg
    • Union miners dig under city fortifications and blow up tons of explosives and rush in to be slaughtered.

1864

  • September – December Sherman’s March to the Sea
  • September 2 Battle of Atlanta (US Victory)
    • Sherman conquers and burns Atlanta
    • Begins “March to the Sea” = Savannah GA
  • November Lincoln Re-elected President
    • Johnson VP (Democrat from TN) on the Union Ticket
  • December Sherman reaches Savannah (Union Victory)
    • Leaves devastation of 60 miles wide swath

Sherman’s March to the Sea Nov. 1864-Dec. 1864

  • Sherman marches through Georgia perpetrating massive destruction in an effort to break the will of the South
  • “I can make the march and make Georgia howl!”
  • “We cannot change the hearts of those people of the South, but we can make war so terrible and make them so sick of war that generations would pass away before they would again appeal to it.”

Pictures of Sherman

  • Civil War Pictures
  • http://www.wildwestweb.net/cwleaders/cwleaders.html

Election of 1864

  • Election in which the candidates were George McClellan and Abraham Lincoln
  • George McClellan was a “Peace Democrat” or Copperhead and he wanted to negotiate a compromise with the South.
  • Abraham Lincoln and the Republicans campaigned for continuation of the War until the South surrendered unconditionally
  • Sherman’s Victory in Atlanta saves Lincoln’s reelection and the Union
  • Lincoln won with an astounding 55% of the popular vote
  • (Partial)
  •    
  •  

Election 1864

  • Presidential Election of 1864

1865

  • March Lincoln’s Second Inaugural speech
    • Promises Leniency
  • March Freedmen’s Bureau Established
  • April Petersburg Falls
    • Richmond is cot off from supplies
  • April 9 Appomattox Court House
    • Lee Surrenders to Grant
  • April 14 Lincoln is Shot by John Wilkes Booth and dies
  • April 15 Andrew Johnson is the 17th President.

Lincoln’s Second Inaugural

  • “Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether."
  • With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations
  • What messages is Lincoln sending to the people of America with this speech?

Lee Surrenders at Appomattox April 9, 1865

  • Grant takes Richmond and no hope is left for the South.

Casualties both sides

  • Casualties on Both Sides

Casualties compared to other wars

  • Civil War Casualties in Comparison to Other Wars

Northern/Republican Economic Measures Passed During War.

  • Homestead Act 1862
    • Live on it for 5yrs
    • 160 acres of public land
    • Purchased for small fee
  • Morrill Land Grant Act 1862
    • Public land toe state gov
    • States sell land
    • Use $ for public Education = colleges and universities
  • Tariff
  • Transcontinental Railroad
    • Union Pacific West from Omaha, NA
    • Central Pacific East from CA
  • New National Bank

Reconstruction Quiz

  • How do you think the South should be treated after the war?
    • What should happen politically?
    • What should happen to the leaders?
    • What should happen to the former slaves?

Southern Attitudes

  • I’m a Good Old Rebel Oh, I'm a good old Rebel Now that's just what I am. For this Yankee nation I do not give a damn. I'm glad I fought agin her, I only wish we'd won. I ain't asked any pardon For anything I've done. I hates the yankee nation And everything they do, I hates the declaration Of independence, too; I hates the glorious union- ’tis dripping with our blood- And I hates their striped banner, I fought it all I could.
  • I rode with Robert E. Lee, For three years, thereabouts. Got wounded in four places And starved at Point Lookout. I caughts the rheumatism A-camping in the snow. But I killed a chance of Yankees And I'd like to kill some mo'. Three hundred thousand Yankees Lie still in Southern dust We got three hundred thousand Before they conquered us. They died of Southern fever And Southern steel and shot. I wish they were three millions Instead of what we got. I can't take up my musket And fight 'em now no more, But I ain't going to love 'em, Now that is certain sure;
  • I don't want no pardon For what I was and am, I won't be reconstructed And I do not give a damn.

Reconstruction: Need to Know

  • Presidential plans: Lincoln and Johnson
  • Radical (congressional) plans
    • Civil rights and the Fourteenth Amendment
    • Military reconstruction
    • Impeachment of Johnson
    • African American suffrage: the Fifteenth Amendment
  • Southern state governments: problems, achievements, weaknesses
  • Compromise of 1877 and the end of Reconstruction

Reconstruction Essay

  • Analyze the goals and strategies of Reconstruction of Two of the following:
    • President Lincoln
    • President Johnson
    • Congressional Republicans
  • Thesis: President Lincoln and President Johnson’s approach to reconstruction provided for lenient reintroduction of Southern states into the Union while, conversely Congressional Republicans wanted to only reintroduce the Southern states under strict conditions.

Reconstruction Defined

  • Reconstruction: is the process used to bring the South back into the political Union.
  • Presidential Reconstruction- Lincoln/Johnson Plans
  • Radical Reconstruction
  • End of Reconstruction

Each Plan Answered These Questions

  • How will the rebellious states participate in government?
  • What terms will they reenter the Union?
  • What will happen to the Black Population
  • What should happen to the Confederate leaders?

Reconstruction Begins Before War Ends

  • 13th Amendment
  • Before the War was over January 1865, Congress submitted to the states for ratification:
  • Section 1. “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
  • Ratification was complete December 1865

Presidential Plans: Lincoln

  • Beginning with the 2nd Inaugural, “Malice toward none, charity for all…”
  • Lincoln previews his plan to bring sister states of the south back into the community of states.
  • Goal of easy reintroduction to Union
  • Strategy of Leniency
  • No provisions for Freedmen
  • Issues a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
  • Spelled out terms for state to rejoin union
    • Ten Percent Plan:
    • Full pardon for Confederates
    • Restore all property
    • Loyalty Oath Required
    • Accept Abolition
    • When 10% of the eligible voters take Oath- State can reenter the union, send Reps to Congress.

Lincoln’s Plan continued

  • Suffrage for blacks who:
    • Were educated
    • Held property
    • Fought in the Union Army
  • LA, ARK, Tennessee all come into Union under Lincoln’s plans

Congressional Reaction to Lincoln’s Plan

  • Congressional Republicans did not like Lincoln’s Plan
  • Too Lenient on the “Rebels”
  • Need more punitive (punish) components
  • Wanted more support for “Freedmen”
  • Responded with the Wade-Davis Bill (July 1864)
  • A set of extreme requirements included:
    • President Appointed Provisional Governor for former CS states
    • Majority of Confederates had to take oaths
    • Conventions had to be developed to approve new state constitutions
    • Disenfranchise Former CSA civil and Military leaders
    • Repudiate CSA debts
    • New state constitutions had to ban Slavery and hold political rights to blacks
  • Lincoln uses the Pocket Veto to veto.
  • (Pocket Veto is where the president ignores bill to kill it)

President Johnson

  • Lincoln is Assassinated
  • Johnson Sworn in as President
  • Johnson was doomed, could not work with Republican Congress
  • He was a Democrat
  • Elected under a Unity Platform (Republicans and Dems create a coalition ticket election 1864)
  • From Tennessee, A Southerner
  • Self-Made Man
  • Didn’t like the rich leadership of the South
  • Stubborn, Intolerant
  • Reluctant to Compromise, Racist
  • Republicans thought he would punish the south
  • “Treason is a crime that must be made odious… Traitors must be impoverished, They must not only be impoverished but their social power must be destroyed.”

Johnson

  • Personality
  • Intemperate
  • Tactless
  • Resentful
  • Insecure
  • Hostile to freed slaves
  • “White men alone must manage the South”

Presidential Plans: Johnson similar to Wade-Davis Bill

  • Goal to bring the South back into the Union fast- but limit the rich
  • Strategy: Oaths, leniency, limit power of wealthy
  • Issued Proclamations:
  • Amnesty and restoration of property rights for all who took oath of loyalty to Union and emancipation, 51% of eligible voters
  • Confederate officials-and wealthy confederates with property of $20,000 or were ineligible or could apply individually to president.
  • 15,000 applied to Johnson for pardons
  • “I am so sorry---please forgive me.  Please restore my rights!”
  • Appoint Provisional Governors
  • Constitutional conventions were to be held
  • Slavery was to be outlawed
  • Nullify acts of secession
  • Repudiate all debts of the Confederacy
  • Results:
  • Southern governments followed the process- however a number states refused to recognize 13th Amendment
  • Former confederate leaders where appointed and elected to power
  • Black Codes were developed to limit former slaves.
  • All of these measures angered the Republican Congress and they acted to end force the South to comply

Congress Reacts to Johnson Plan

  • End of 1865 all seceded states had new Govs
  • Radical Republicans – were angry newly loyal states send prominent Confederates to Congress
    • Stephens (former VP of CSA)
  • After investigation- Congress found that the “Freedmen” were not being treated fairly
  • Black Codes- state laws limiting former slaves
  • Fines for vagrancy
  • Force blacks to work on plantations
  • December 1865 Congress Created its own plan for Reconstruction
  • Freedmen’s Bureau, a Federal support organization was extended- helped former slaves with education, food, settling labor disputes, and even helping poor whites. (renewed)
  • Republican Congress wanted protection for freedmen, they wanted to change the culture of the South, including Black Suffrage and land redistribution
  • Create Joint Committee on Reconstruction

Congress Reacts to Johnson

  • Civil Rights Act 1866
  • Pass Funding Bill for Freedman’s Bureau
  • Also declares blacks citizens
  • Authorizes Federal Power to intervene in States to protect rights.
  • Johnson Vetoes bills in 1866.
  • Republicans unite against Johnson and mobilize

14th Amendment

  • 14th Amendment Passed
    • Aimed at supporting African Americans
    • Overturned Dredd Scott decision- Former slaves are now citizens
    • Defined citizenship = born in US and naturalized citizens
    • Equal protection under the laws = Citizens are granted “Privileges and Immunities guaranteed by constitution”
    • Penalties for denying rights
    • Reinforced due process
    • Federal Government can intervene to protect equal treatment under the law
    • Prohibited former CSA from holding office, unless 2/3rds congress consented

14th Amendment

  • Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
  • Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. (limits former Confederates from holding office)
  • Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

“Radical” or Congressional Reconstruction begins 1867

  • Republicans Win Congressional Election of 1866- more Senate 42 (Radical GOP) to 11 Dem
  • House143 (Radical GOP) to 49 Dem
  • Reconstruction Act 1867- Passed over Johnson’s veto
  • Goals:
  • To support Freedmen
  • To punish the Southern leadership for the War
  • To reorder Southern society so African Americans had a chance to change the culture of the South

Leaders of the Radical Republicans

  • Thaddeus Stevens Republican Majority Leader
  • Charles Sumner- Republican Senator
  • Pro-Equality
  • “Strip a proud nobility off their bloated states; reduce them to a level with plain Republicans; send them forth to labor and teach their children to enter the workshops or handle the plow and you will thus humble the proud traitors.”
  • Sumner
  • Stevens

“Radical” or Congressional Reconstruction 1867

  • Radical bills passed over Veto
  • 1868 Tennessee Admitted immediately
  • 5 Military Districts created the South
    • Enforce order to register qualified voters
    • All adult black males
    • White males not in the rebellion
  • New State Constitutions- insure black suffrage
  • States had to ratify new states had to ratify 13 and 14th amendments
  • Tenure of Office Act: (an effort to remove the president as an obstacle to reconstruction efforts)
    • Limits President from removing cabinet officers without Senate approval
  • Process for states to enter Union:
    • New State Constitutional Conventions
    • Ratify 14th Amendment
    • New State Constitutions must include Black Suffrage

Carpetbaggers and Scalawags

  • Northerners who moved South to exploit the poor whites and aid the blacks
  • Southerners who worked with the Reconstruction forces for greedy purposes

15th Amendment

  • African American Males 21 years old, get the Right to Vote
  • Section. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
  • Section. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
  • At first Blacks will vote, but as time goes on State laws and intimidation (KKK) suppress the black vote- literacy tests and Poll taxes

Johnson Impeachment

  • Johnson had tried to obstruct Radical Reconstruction
  • He appointed sympathetic military leaders to supervise the South
  • He encouraged Southerners to resist Federal law
  • Resisted the racial equality insisted by Congress
  • House Republicans were waiting for an excuse-Johnson gave them one when he removed Secretary of War Stanton from office.
  • The House passed Impeachment Act with a 2/3 vote

Southern State Governments: problems, achievements, weaknesses

  • Positive
  • Many blacks participate early
  • First black Senator elected, Hiram Revels, Mississippi
  • Freedmen’s Bureau helps a lot
  • Blacks gain some economic mobility
  • Congress tries to help with Enforcement Acts- to repress the KKK and help protect blacks
  • Negative
  • KKK develops to terrorize blacks
  • Redeemers- Southern Democrats want to remove republican governors in the South and restore traditional Southern leadership
  • Segregation develops
  • Old Southern leadership regains power and reconstruction seems to be a complete failure.

Freedmen Convention

  • “We claim exactly the same rights priveleges and immunities as are enjoyed by white men; we ask nothing more and will be content with nothing less.”

Grant Administration 1868

  • US Grant nominated by Republicans-
  • Corruption

Life in the South

  • Devastated economically- (Sherman)
  • “In Alabama alone, two hundred thousand persons are in danger of extreme suffering, if not of actual starvation” December 1865

African American Life

  • Immediately after war trends develop for African Americans
  • Many moved from plantations
  • Reunited with family
  • Institutions created
    • Schools
    • Churches
  • Sharecropping Develops
  • Freedmen plant and work plots of land in exchange for a % of the crop that goes to the owner.
  • Keeps blacks poor and in perpetual debt

Southerners Create Black Codes

  • Black Codes were laws created to limit political, economic and social aspects of life for former slaves
  • Contracts for labor
  • Employment laws
  • Licenses to work
  • Travel limitations
  • Segregation
  • Race mixing laws
  • All laws were used to limit blacks so they would be second-class citizens

KKK 1866

  • Responding to new social circumstances
  • Former Confederates- (Nathan Bedford Forrest) form Ku Klux Klan
  • To terrorize and enforce traditional subordination of African Americans

Compromise of 1877

  • Election of 1876
  • Repubs = Rutherford B. Hayes, Ohio “His Fraudulency”
  • Dems = Samuel J. Tilden, New York
  • In the middle of an Economic Depression
  • Corruption on both sides, deadlock in electoral college
  • Commission, decision agreed upon, Hayes wins the Presidency- although no evidence, seem there was a deal to withdrawal Federal troops from the rest of the South.
  • Redeemer governments would take over (all Democrats) and the South would continue in the Democratic party structure till the 1960’s
  • Resulted in the End of Reconstruction
  • “Nast” Cartoon http://www.learner.org/biographyofamerica/prog12/feature/

New South

  • Redeemers
  • New South Creed
  • Romanticization of the South

Crop Lien System

Booker T. Washington

  • Atlanta Compromise
  • Up from slavery
  • Tuskegee Institute (AL)
  • Plessey V. Ferguson
  • Jim Crowe Laws
  • Grandfather Laws/Clause
  • Poll Tax
  • Literacy Tests
  • Lynching
  • Ida B Wells


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