Ended Slavery (Emancipation Proclamation 1863 and 13th Amendment 1865)
Lincoln’s First Inauguration “Carrot and Stick Approach”
Tried to reassure the South that he would not interfere with Slavery where it existed.
He would enforce Fugitive Slave Act
“We are not enemies but friends. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection.”
He would fight.
He would, “Employ all powers…to reclaim the public property and places which have fallen; places belonging to the government.”
President Lincoln's First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1861
“In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to ''preserve, protect, and defend it.”
“It seems clear that in both the North and South, sectional antagonisms had risen to such a point that the existing terms of union had become untenable.”
“They had grown to be two distinct and incompatible civilizations”
They were incapable of living together in peace.
Sentiments on Both sides were Extreme
RW Emerson “I do not see how a barbarous community and a civilized community can constitute one state.” (Northern View)
(Southern View) “These people hate us, annoy us, and would have us assassinated by our slaves if they dared. They are different people from us, whether better of worse, and there is no love between us. Why then continue together?”
After Fort Sumter both sides rush to war
Nationalism was high
Volunteers were plentiful
The Confederates wanted independence
The Yankees wanted to punish the traitors
Armies were raised, equipped, and prepared for war.
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
Blacks captured were returned to slavery or killed.
May 1861- Law that allowed Union forces to seize enemy material and property of rebellious states and citizens for the war effort.
Property included slaves
Allowed Federal Government to use these slaves for the war effort
1862 2nd Confiscation Act
Declared free slaves of persons aiding and supporting the rebellion
Authorized President to employ Freed Slaves as soldiers
January Emancipation Proclamation signed
Lincoln was pressured to create a policy regarding slaves in the rebellious states.
Previous, Confiscation Acts were used to address Slaves that come under the jurisdiction of Union forces.
After the victory of Antietam he was persuaded to try and weaken the Confederacy
Executive order of the President
Applied only to Slaves in Rebellious states (except those already under Union control- TN, West VA, Southern Louisiana)
Stated as of January 1, 1863
“I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States and parts of States are, and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, shall recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.”
Significance of Emancipation Proclamation
The war was expanded to end Slavery
Allowed for the recruitment and use of Blacks into the Union Army
Did not address slavery in Border States of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, or Delaware
Radical Republicans Review
“Free every slave-slay every traitor-burn every rebel mansion, if these things be necessary to preserve this temple of freedom. We must treat this war as a radical revolution, and remodel our institutions.”
April 14 Lincoln is Shot by John Wilkes Booth and dies
April 15 Andrew Johnson is the 17th President.
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural
“Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether."
With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations
What messages is Lincoln sending to the people of America with this speech?
Lee Surrenders at Appomattox April 9, 1865
Grant takes Richmond and no hope is left for the South.
Casualties both sides
Casualties on Both Sides
Casualties compared to other wars
Civil War Casualties in Comparison to Other Wars
Northern/Republican Economic Measures Passed During War.
Use $ for public Education = colleges and universities
Union Pacific West from Omaha, NA
Central Pacific East from CA
New National Bank
How do you think the South should be treated after the war?
What should happen politically?
What should happen to the leaders?
What should happen to the former slaves?
I’m a Good Old Rebel Oh, I'm a good old Rebel Now that's just what I am. For this Yankee nation I do not give a damn. I'm glad I fought agin her, I only wish we'd won. I ain't asked any pardon For anything I've done. I hates the yankee nation And everything they do, I hates the declaration Of independence, too; I hates the glorious union- ’tis dripping with our blood- And I hates their striped banner, I fought it all I could.
I rode with Robert E. Lee, For three years, thereabouts. Got wounded in four places And starved at Point Lookout. I caughts the rheumatism A-camping in the snow. But I killed a chance of Yankees And I'd like to kill some mo'. Three hundred thousand Yankees Lie still in Southern dust We got three hundred thousand Before they conquered us. They died of Southern fever And Southern steel and shot. I wish they were three millions Instead of what we got. I can't take up my musket And fight 'em now no more, But I ain't going to love 'em, Now that is certain sure;
I don't want no pardon For what I was and am, I won't be reconstructed And I do not give a damn.
Reconstruction: Need to Know
Presidential plans: Lincoln and Johnson
Radical (congressional) plans
Civil rights and the Fourteenth Amendment
Impeachment of Johnson
African American suffrage: the Fifteenth Amendment
Southern state governments: problems, achievements, weaknesses
Compromise of 1877 and the end of Reconstruction
Analyze the goals and strategies of Reconstruction of Two of the following:
Thesis: President Lincoln and President Johnson’s approach to reconstruction provided for lenient reintroduction of Southern states into the Union while, conversely Congressional Republicans wanted to only reintroduce the Southern states under strict conditions.
Reconstruction: is the process used to bring the South back into the political Union.
How will the rebellious states participate in government?
What terms will they reenter the Union?
What will happen to the Black Population
What should happen to the Confederate leaders?
Reconstruction Begins Before War Ends
Before the War was over January 1865, Congress submitted to the states for ratification:
Section 1. “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
Ratification was complete December 1865
Presidential Plans: Lincoln
Beginning with the 2nd Inaugural, “Malice toward none, charity for all…”
Lincoln previews his plan to bring sister states of the south back into the community of states.
Goal of easy reintroduction to Union
Strategy of Leniency
No provisions for Freedmen
Issues a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
Amnesty and restoration of property rights for all who took oath of loyalty to Union and emancipation, 51% of eligible voters
Confederate officials-and wealthy confederates with property of $20,000 or were ineligible or could apply individually to president.
15,000 applied to Johnson for pardons
“I am so sorry---please forgive me. Please restore my rights!”
Appoint Provisional Governors
Constitutional conventions were to be held
Slavery was to be outlawed
Nullify acts of secession
Repudiate all debts of the Confederacy
Southern governments followed the process- however a number states refused to recognize 13th Amendment
Former confederate leaders where appointed and elected to power
Black Codes were developed to limit former slaves.
All of these measures angered the Republican Congress and they acted to end force the South to comply
Congress Reacts to Johnson Plan
End of 1865 all seceded states had new Govs
Radical Republicans – were angry newly loyal states send prominent Confederates to Congress
Stephens (former VP of CSA)
After investigation- Congress found that the “Freedmen” were not being treated fairly
Black Codes- state laws limiting former slaves
Fines for vagrancy
Force blacks to work on plantations
December 1865 Congress Created its own plan for Reconstruction
Freedmen’s Bureau, a Federal support organization was extended- helped former slaves with education, food, settling labor disputes, and even helping poor whites. (renewed)
Republican Congress wanted protection for freedmen, they wanted to change the culture of the South, including Black Suffrage and land redistribution
Create Joint Committee on Reconstruction
Congress Reacts to Johnson
Civil Rights Act 1866
Pass Funding Bill for Freedman’s Bureau
Also declares blacks citizens
Authorizes Federal Power to intervene in States to protect rights.
Johnson Vetoes bills in 1866.
Republicans unite against Johnson and mobilize
14th Amendment Passed
Aimed at supporting African Americans
Overturned Dredd Scott decision- Former slaves are now citizens
Defined citizenship = born in US and naturalized citizens
Equal protection under the laws = Citizens are granted “Privileges and Immunities guaranteed by constitution”
Penalties for denying rights
Reinforced due process
Federal Government can intervene to protect equal treatment under the law
Prohibited former CSA from holding office, unless 2/3rds congress consented
Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. (limits former Confederates from holding office)
Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
“Radical” or Congressional Reconstruction begins 1867
Republicans Win Congressional Election of 1866- more Senate 42 (Radical GOP) to 11 Dem
House143 (Radical GOP) to 49 Dem
Reconstruction Act 1867- Passed over Johnson’s veto
To support Freedmen
To punish the Southern leadership for the War
To reorder Southern society so African Americans had a chance to change the culture of the South
Leaders of the Radical Republicans
Thaddeus Stevens Republican Majority Leader
Charles Sumner- Republican Senator
“Strip a proud nobility off their bloated states; reduce them to a level with plain Republicans; send them forth to labor and teach their children to enter the workshops or handle the plow and you will thus humble the proud traitors.”