Vertebrates Fishes, Amphibians, Birds, Reptiles, Mammals



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Vertebrates Fishes, Amphibians, Birds, Reptiles, Mammals

  • Biology B

Chordate Cladogram

  • Section 30-1
  • Nonvertebrate chordates
  • Fishes
  • Amphibians
  • Reptiles
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Invertebrate ancestor

Nonvertebrate Chorodate

  • Choradate
    • Dorsal hollow nerve cord
    • Notochord
    • Pharyngeal pouches
    • Tail that extend beyond anus
  • Nonvertebrate Chorodates
    • Tunicates and Lancelets

 The Generalized Structure of a Chordate

  • Section 30-1
  • Muscle segments
  • Tail
  • Anus
  • Pharyngeal pouches
  • Mouth
  • Hollow nerve cord
  • Notochord

b

3 Characteristics of all Vertebrates

  • Endoskeleton.
    • Supports larger animal size.
    • Grows with animal (No molting!)
  • Backbone and cephalization.
    • Well-developed brain with sensory organs.
    • Earliest vertebrates were called ostracoderms.
  • Closed circulatory system with multi-chambered heart.
    • 3- or 4-chambered heart allows blood to be separated into oxygenated or deoxygenated.
    • More efficient delivery of oxygen to the body.

Endotherms and Ectotherms

  • Ectotherm: Temperature is regulated by external environment.
    • Fish, amphibians, reptiles
  • Endotherm: Body temperature is regulated by internal processes.
    • Mammals, birds

Temperature Control in Chordates

  • Section 33-2
  • Environmental Temperature (°C)
  • Body Temperature (°C)

Diversity of Chordates

  • Section 33-1

Characteristics of Fishes

  • Live in water.
  • Overlapping scales that cover skin.
  • Mucus coat (reduces friction when swimming).
  • Swim bladder (buoyancy, sharks don’t have one).
    • Why do many sharks never stop swimming?
  • Lateral line system (detects vibrations in water).
  • Gills (blood and water flow in opposite directions; more efficient oxygen absorbtion and CO2 release. OPERCULA: opening and closing flaps; sharks)

The Anatomy of a Fish

  • Section 30-2
  • Muscle
  • Kidney
  • Vertebra
  • Stomach
  • Pyloric cecum
  • Swim bladder
  • Esophagus
  • Spinal cord
  • Gills
  • Brain
  • Urinary bladder
  • Anus
  • Reproductive organ
  • Intestine
  • Pancreas
  • Liver
  • Gallbladder
  • Heart
  • Operculum
  • Mouth

Circulation in a Fish

  • Section 30-2
  • Bulbus Arteriosus
  • Ventricle
  • Atrium
  • Sinus Venosus
  • Body
  • muscle
  • circulation
  • Digestive
  • system
  • circulation
  • Gills
  • Heart
  • Brain and
  • head
  • circulation
  • Oxygen-rich blood
  • Oxygen-poor blood
  • Oxygen-poor blood from the veins collects in the sinus venosus.
  • Blood enters the atrium and flows to the ventricle.
  • The ventricle pumps blood into the bulbus arteriosus.
  • The bulbus arteriosus moves blood into the ventral aorta and toward the gills.

Fish: Life Cycle

  • Varied strategies.
    • Sharks: internal fertilization. Salmon: external.
  • Generally, lay many more eggs than they need.
    • Many are never fertilized.
    • Many more are fertilized than the environment can support. (Why? Isn’t this wasted effort on the part of the fishes?)
  • Cut Throat
  • Rainbow

Characteristics of Amphibians

  • Live both in water and on land.
  • Four strong limbs.
  • Nictating membrane: see through second eyelid. Why is this helpful on both land and in the water?
  • Tympanic membrane: hearing. Land? Water?

Amphibians: Energy and Wastes

  • A frog’s skin “breathes” – it must be kept moist.
  • 3-Chambered Heart, Double-looped circulatory system. – What is that? Why is that a good thing?
  • Metamorphisis: teeth/jaws, gills turn into lungs, circulatory system changes
  • Kidneys regulate the amount of water in the frog.
    • In water excrete, on land retain.

The Life Cycle of a Frog

  • Section 30-3
  • Adult Frog
  • Young Frog
  • Fertilized Eggs
  • Tadpoles
  • Adults are typically ready to breed in about one to two years.
  • Frog eggs are laid in water and
  • undergo external fertilization.
  • The eggs hatch into tadpoles a few days to several weeks later.
  • Tadpoles gradually grow limbs, lose their tails and gills, and
  • become meat-eaters as they develop into terrestrial adults.

Characteristics of Reptiles

  • Dry, scaly skin (prevents evaporation).
  • Usually carnivores.
  • Separated 3-chambered heart (crocodiles have 4 chambers).
  • Ectotherms.
    • How does a reptile regulate its body temperature?

Rafekie

The Amniotic Egg (Figure 26.4)

  • Embryo: connected to Yolk by a stalk.
  • Yolk: food source.
  • Amnion: fluid that protects the embryo.
  • Chorion: regulates gas exchange.
  • Shell: Waterproofs, protects. The shell is porous (gas can exchange through it).
  • Allantois: stores wastes.

 The Amniotic Egg

  • Section 31-1
  • Allantois
  • Embryo
  • Shell
  • Amnion
  • Chorion
  • Yolk sac
  • The chorion regulates
  • the transport of
  • oxygen from the
  • surface of the egg
  • to the embryo and
  • the transport of
  • carbon dioxide,
  • one product of
  • respiration, in the
  • opposite direction.
  • This baglike structure
  • contains a yolk that
  • serves as a nutrient-rich
  • food supply for the embryo.
  • The amnion is a fluid-filled sac
  • that surrounds and cushions
  • the developing embryo. It
  • produces a protected, watery
  • environment.
  • The allantois stores the
  • waste produced by the
  • embryo. It also serves
  • as a respiratory organ.

Characteristics of Birds

  • Adaptations center around flight…
    • Light-weight bones: hollow, but have cross braces.
    • Shape of a bird’s wings gives lift.
    • Fused bones (ligaments are heavy).
    • Massive flight muscles (Pectoralis: 25% of weight).
  • Shape of the wings gives lift.
  • The one reptilian characteristic of birds is their scale-covered legs.

 The Digestive System of a Pigeon

  • Section 31-2
  • Esophagus
  • Crop
  • Liver
  • First chamber of stomach
  • Gizzard
  • Small intestine
  • Cloaca
  • Pancreas
  • Air sac
  • Kidney
  • Heart
  • Lung
  • Brain
  • When a bird eats,
  • food moves down
  • the esophagus and
  • is stored in the crop.
  • 1
  • As digestion continues,
  • the food moves through
  • the intestines.
  • 4
  • Undigested food is
  • excreted through the
  • cloaca.
  • 5
  • Large intestine
  • The muscular walls
  • of the gizzard squeeze
  • the contents, while small stones grind the food.
  • 3
  • Moistened food passes to the stomach, a two-part chamber. The first chamber secretes acid and enzymes. The partially digested food moves to the second chamber, the gizzard.
  • 2

You Eat Like A Bird…

  • Endotherms – requires a lot of energy to maintain their high metabolism.
  • Feathers – trap body heat.
  • Unique respiratory system – air flows one-way.
  • Crop  Gizzard  Intestines.
    • Figure 26.18.

Blue Jay- Mr. Phillips Favorite Bird

  • Toronto Blue Jays World Series 1992-1993 Champions

Characteristics of Mammals

  • Endotherms – hair.
  • Mammary glands – produce milk.
  • Large, well-developed brains.
  • 4-chambered heart, double-looped circulatory system.

Variety of Mammals

  • Size
    • Smallest: shrew (weighs less than a dime)
    • Largest: whale (100,000 kg; 32 elephants)
  • Speed
    • Slowest: Two-toed sloth (1 meter/15 seconds)
    • Fastest: Cheetah (400 meters/15 seconds)
    • Humans (150 meters/15 seconds)
  • Environments

Mammals: Movement and Energy

  • High-speed running: long bones and flexible hip and shoulder joints.
  • Eat a variety of foods: different teeth structures.
  • Diaphram: More gas exchange.
  • Air sacs: increased surface area for gas exchange.

The Jaws and Teeth of Mammals

  • Section 32-1
  • CARNIVORE
  • HERBIVORE
  • Molars crush and grind food. The ridged shape of the wolf’s molars and premolars
  • allows them to interlock during chewing, like the blades of scissors. The broad,
  • flattened molars and premolars of horses are adapted for grinding tough plants.
  • Chisel-like incisors are used for
  • cutting, gnawing, and grooming.
  • Canines are pointed teeth. Carnivores
  • use them for piercing, gripping, and tearing.
  • In herbivores, they are reduced or absent.
  • Jaw joint
  • Jaw joint
  • Wolf
  • Horse

Mammals: Types of Life Cycles

  • Monotremes: Reproduce by laying eggs (duck-billed playtpus).-
  • Marsupials: Give birth to small, immature young that then further develop inside the mother’s external pouch (kangaroo).
  • Placental mammals: Babies develop inside the mother’s body (95% of all mammals).

 The Placenta

  • Section 39-4

The Success of Mammals

  • Well-developed cerebrum: The largest part of the brain; makes processing information and learning possible.
  • Care of the Young: Development inside the mother; care of the young for the first year(s) of their life.

Compare/Contrast Table

  • Comparing Functions of Chordates
  • Respiration
  • Circulation
  • Excretion
  • Response
  • Section 33-3
  • Non- vertebrate Chordates
  • Gills and diffusion
  • No true chambers
  • Gills and gill slits
  • Simple; mass of nerve cells
  • Gills/air sacs
  • Single loop; 2 chambers
  • Kidney and gills
  • Cephalization; small cerebrum
  • Simple lungs and skin
  • Double loop; 3 chambers
  • Kidney and gills
  • Cephalization; small cerebrum
  • Lungs
  • Double loop; 3 chambers
  • Kidney
  • Cephalization; small cerebrum
  • Lungs (tubes and air sacs; one-way flow)
  • Double loop; 4 chambers
  • Kidney
  • Cephalization; large cerebrum
  • Lungs (alveoli)
  • Double loop; 4 chambers
  • Kidney
  • Cephalization; large cerebrum
  • Function
  • Fishes
  • Amphibians (adult)
  • Reptiles
  • Birds
  • Mammals

The Circulatory Systems of Vertebrates

  • Section 33-3
  • Double-Loop Circulatory System
  • Single-Loop Circulatory System
  • FISHES
  • MOST REPTILES
  • CROCODILIANS, BIRDS, AND MAMMALS

Compare/Contrast Table continued

  • Comparing Functions of Chordates
  • Movement
  • Reproduction
  • Temperature Control
  • Section 33-3
  • Muscles, no bones
  • External fertilization
  • Ectothermic
  • Muscles on either side of backbone
  • External fertilization
  • Ectothermic
  • Amphibians (adult)
  • Limbs stick out sideways; muscles and ligaments
  • External fertilization
  • Ectothermic
  • Limbs point directly toward ground; muscles and ligaments
  • Internal fertilization; shelled egg
  • Ectothermic
  • Upper limbs are wings; 2 feet; muscles and ligaments
  • Internal fertilization; shelled egg
  • Endothermic
  • 2 or 4 legs; walk with legs straight under them; muscles and ligaments
  • Internal fertilization and development
  • Endothermic
  • Function
  • Non- vertebrate Chordates
  • Fishes
  • Amphibians (adult)
  • Reptiles
  • Birds
  • Mammals

The Digestive Systems of Vertebrates

  • Section 33-3
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Intestine
  • Liver
  • Gallbladder
  • Pancreas
  • Cloaca
  • Crop
  • Gizzard
  • Cecum
  • Rectum
  • Shark
  • Salamander
  • Lizard
  • Pigeon
  • Cow
  • Nervous System
  • Integumentary System
  • Skeletal System
  • Muscular System
  • Circulatory System
  • Section 35-1
  • Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I
  • Vesicle
  • Axon
  • Axon terminal
  • Synaptic cleft
  • Neurotransmitter
  • Receptor
  • Dendrite of adjacent neuron
  • Direction of Impulse
  • Section 35-2
  • Figure 35-8 The Synapse
  • Pons
  • Pituitary gland
  • Hypothalamus
  • Cerebrum
  • Medulla oblongata
  • Spinal cord
  • Cerebellum
  • Pineal gland
  • Thalamus
  • Section 35-3
  • Figure 35-9 The Brain
  • Cerebral cortex
  • Nasal cavity
  • Taste bud
  • Smell
  • sensory area
  • Taste
  • sensory area
  • Thalamus
  • Olfactory
  • (smell) bulb
  • Olfactory
  • nerve
  • Smell receptor
  • Taste pore
  • Taste receptor
  • Sensory
  • nerve fibers
  • Section 35-4
  • The Senses of Smell and Taste
  • Choroid
  • Retina
  • Blood vessels
  • Optic nerve
  • Fovea
  • Vitreous humor
  • Sclera
  • Ligaments
  • Iris
  • Pupil
  • Cornea
  • Aqueous humor
  • Lens
  • Muscle
  • Section 35-4
  • Figure 35-14 The Eye
  • Auditory canal
  • Tympanum
  • Round window
  • Eustachian tube
  • Bone
  • Cochlea
  • Cochlear nerve
  • Semicircular canals
  • Oval window
  • Stirrup
  • Anvil
  • Hammer
  • Section 35-4
  • Figure 35-15 The Ear
  • Skull
  • Sternum
  • Ribs
  • Vertebral column
  • Metatarsals
  • Metacarpals
  • Phalanges
  • Clavicle
  • Scapula
  • Humerus
  • Radius
  • Pelvis
  • Ulna
  • Carpals
  • Femur
  • Patella
  • Fibula
  • Tibia
  • Tarsals
  • Phalanges
  • The Skeletal System
  • Section 36-1
  • Axial Skeleton
  • Appendicular Skeleton
  • Section 36-2
  • Figure 36-13 The Structure of Skin
  • Section 36-3
  • Section 37-1
  • Figure 37-2 The Circulatory System
  • Capillaries of head and arms
  • Capillaries of abdominal organs and legs
  • Inferior vena cava
  • Pulmonary vein
  • Capillaries of right lung
  • Superior vena cava
  • Aorta
  • Pulmonary artery
  • Capillaries of left lung
  • Section 37-1
  • Figure 37-3 The Structures of the Heart
  • Right Ventricle
  • Right Atrium
  • Left Atrium
  • Inferior Vena Cava
  • Vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium
  • Tricuspid Valve
  • Prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium after it has entered the right ventricle
  • Pulmonary Valve
  • Prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle after it has entered the pulmonary artery
  • Pulmonary Veins
  • Bring oxygen-rich blood from each of the lungs to the left atrium
  • Superior Vena Cava
  • Large vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper part of the body to the right atrium
  • Aorta
  • Brings oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body
  • Aortic Valve
  • Prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after it has entered the aorta
  • Mitral Valve
  • Prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium after it has entered the left ventricle
  • Left Ventricle
  • Septum
  • Section 37-3
  • Figure 37-13 The Respiratory System
  • Air inhaled
  • Diaphragm
  • Rib cage rises
  • Air exhaled
  • Diaphragm
  • Rib cage lowers
  • Inhalation
  • Exhalation
  • Section 37-3
  • Figure 37-15 The Mechanics of Breathing
  • Alveoli
  • Bronchiole
  • Capillary
  • Section 37-3
  • Figure 37-14 Gas Exchange in the Lungs

 The Digestive System

  • Mouth
  • Salivary glands
  • Stomach
  • Pancreas (behind stomach)
  • Large intestine
  • Small intestine
  • Rectum
  • Gallbladder (behind liver)
  • Liver
  • Esophagus
  • Pharynx
  • Section 38-2

 The Small Intestine

  • Small Intestine
  • Villus
  • Circular folds
  • Villi
  • Epithelial cells
  • Capillaries
  • Lacteal
  • Vein
  • Artery
  • Section 38-2

The Male Reproductive System

  • Section 39-3

The Female Reproductive System

  • Section 39-3
  • Respiratory System
  • Digestive System
  • Excretory System
  • Endocrine System
  • Reproductive System
  • Lymphatic/Immune Systems
  • Section 35-1
  • Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part 2



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