Using resources in your writing: apa



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USING RESOURCES IN YOUR WRITING: APA

Session Overview

  • Quotations and Quoting: APA
  • Paraphrasing
  • Quoting vs. Paraphrasing
  • Incorporating Information into Your Writing
  • Authority & Introduction
  • Listing
  • Q & A Time

Quotations & Quoting

  • Quotations are straight from the horse’s mouth – they are the actual words taken from the text, word for word, as they appear in the text itself
  • Quotations can be high impact – the words of an expert that support your argument carry a lot of weight
  • EXPERT STUFF

Quotations & Quoting

  • But including too many quotations is lazy – you’re letting the research do all of the work
  • Sometimes too many quotations looks like plagiarism – you’re using someone else’s ideas as your arguments, rather than as support
  • *You* are supposed to be doing the work – quotations are just tools with which to do the work

Quotations & Quoting

  • EXPERT STUFF

Quotations & Quoting: APA Style

  • There are several ways to incorporate information into your paper – two of those ways are quotations
  • Way #1: direct quotations - include the author’s or authors’ names in the actual text of the sentence:
  • Zimbardo (1977) notes that “children are totally insensitive to their parents’ shyness” (p. 62).
  • Author’s name in the sentence
  • So it won’t need to appear in the in-text citation.

Direction Quotations: APA

  • Direction quotations do not allow for change – a direct quotation is, word for word, identical to the way it appears in the original text
  • The original text MUST HAVE QUOTATION MARKS around it
  • Zimbardo (1977) notes that “children are totally insensitive to their parents’ shyness” (p. 62).
  • The quotation marks show where the author’s words begin and end, distinguishing them from YOUR writing.
  • This is word for word from the original text.
  • Children are totally insensitive to their parents' shyness; it is the rare child who labels a parent shy [...] This is understandable, since parents are in positions of control and authority in their homes and may not reveal their shy side to their children. Also, since shyness is viewed as undesirable by many children, it may be threatening to think of parents in these terms. At this young age, the parent is still idealized as all-knowing and all-powerful - - not dumb, ugly, or weak. Zimbardo, Philip G. (1977). Shyness: What it is, what to do about it. Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Books.

Indirect Quotations: APA

  • Way #2: indirect quotations - DO NOT include the author’s or authors’ names in the sentence
  • But you still have to use quotation marks, and you can’t make changes to the text
  • Some researchers note that "children are totally insensitive to their parents' shyness" (Zimbardo, 1977, p.62).
  • Not the author’s name
  • So it’s got to be here

Quotations: In-text Citations, APA

  • When using the author’s or authors’ names in the sentence -that is, a DIRECT quotation – the year the material was published will be next to the author’s name in the sentence, and the page numbers (if you have them) will follow the quotation
  • Zimbardo (1977) notes that “children are totally insensitive to their parents’ shyness” (p. 62).
  • Zimbardo (1977) notes that “children are totally insensitive to their parents’ shyness” (p. 62), though some authors disagree.

Quotations: In-text Citations, APA

  • When NOT using the author’s or authors’ names in the sentence – that is, an INDIRECT quotation – the author’s or authors’ names, the date of publication, and the page number(s), if available, will go after the quotation.
  • Some researchers note that "children are totally insensitive to their parents' shyness" (Zimbardo, 1977, p.62).
  • Some researchers note that "children are totally insensitive to their parents' shyness" (Zimbardo, 1977, p.62), but other authors disagree.

Paraphrasing

  • A third way you can incorporate information into your writing is to paraphrase
  • Paraphrasing is the act of taking information from a text and either
    • Summarizing it – taking a whole paragraph’s worth of information and boiling it down to a few sentences, or
    • Rewording it - demonstrating your understanding of the information by putting it into your own words, in such a way that is significantly different from the original text

Paraphrasing: Summary

  • The paragraph you’re about to see is very long, too long to quote effectively
  • One of your options is to summarize the paragraph in your own words, reducing it from this…
  • To this…
  • Remember, though, you’ll still have to do an in-text citation (more on that in a minute)
  • Summaries do not require quotation marks
  • ORIGINAL TEXT – TOO LONG TO QUOTE
  • Children are totally insensitive to their parents' shyness; it is the rare child who labels a parent shy [...] This is understandable, since parents are in positions of control and authority in their homes and may not reveal their shy side to their children. Also, since shyness is viewed as undesirable by many children, it may be threatening to think of parents in these terms. At this young age, the parent is still idealized as all-knowing and all-powerful - - not dumb, ugly, or weak. Zimbardo, Philip G. (1977). Shyness: What it is, what to do about it. Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Books.
  • SUMMARY OF ORIGINAL TEXT – EASIER TO USE
  • Because parents are authority figures in the home, children are not immediately aware of their parents’ shyness; it may be too scary for the children to think of their parents in negative terms.

Paraphrasing: Rewording

  • If you aren’t concerned with the length of a section, or you feel you can’t boil the information down without losing something important, you have the option of putting the information in your own words
  • Make sure the info really is in your own words – if it’s too close to the original text, it could be considered plagiarism

Paraphrasing: Rewording

  • The result of paraphrasing a paragraph may produce a paragraph of equal length, and that’s okay
  • What’s important is that the information is actually in your own words and
  • That you give credit where credit is due
  • Let’s take a look at an example of rewording paraphrasing, shall we?

Rewording Paraphrasing

  • This is the original text – look at it closely
  • Here is a paraphrasing of the text – the ideas are retained (that’s a key element of paraphrasing), but notice how different the wording is
  • The wording HAS to be significantly different, or it looks like plagiarism
  • The more different the wording is, the more you demonstrate how well you understand the info and are able to relay it to the audience
  • ORIGINAL TEXT, AS IS
  • Children are totally insensitive to their parents' shyness; it is the rare child who labels a parent shy [...] This is understandable, since parents are in positions of control and authority in their homes and may not reveal their shy side to their children. Also, since shyness is viewed as undesirable by many children, it may be threatening to think of parents in these terms. At this young age, the parent is still idealized as all-knowing and all-powerful - - not dumb, ugly, or weak. Zimbardo, Philip G. (1977). Shyness: What it is, what to do about it. Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Books.
  • REWORDED/PARAPHRASE
  • A parent’s shyness is not often perceived by a child, and rarely would a child describe a parent as being shy. Because parents are authority figures in the home, that shyness may not manifest, nor may the parent behave bashfully in front of the child. Moreover, shyness is often valued in a negative fashion by children, so to think of a parent in this fashion can be unsettling to the child. The child idolizes the parent at this stage of development.

Quoting vs. Paraphrasing: When?

  • Both of these methods of using resources in your writing have many benefits – so how do you decide when to use which?
  • Remember: quoting is usually high impact – it’s good for emphasis, when you think taking the words out of the horse’s mouth is the best means of persuasion
  • Quoting is like a punch: your opponent CANNOT ignore it!

Quoting vs. Paraphrasing: When?

  • Paraphrasing is better for condensing a lot of information into a more manageable amount (like we saw in the summary example)
  • It’s also very useful when the information is very technical or the author’s style is very dry and inaccessible – you can make the info more easy to consume for your audience
  • You can also combine authors’ ideas that are similar into one passage through paraphrasing
  • Mmmm…info smoothie

Paraphrase: More on Combining Ideas

  • Let’s say you have two authors who say similar things on a topic.
  • Zimbardo writes:
  • Children are totally insensitive to their parents' shyness.
  • Smith writes:
  • Children are usually unaware when their parents are shy.

Paraphrase: More on Combining Ideas

  • These two passages of information can be blended together (mmmm….info smoothie) to keep your information concise and to prevent unnecessary repetition. So, a paraphrase of their information blended together would look like this:
  • Some researchers note that children are often ignorant with regard to their parents’ shyness (Zimbardo, 1977; Smith, 1989).

Incorporating Information into Your Writing

  • It’s NOT recommended that you just put quotations in your writing without some kind of preamble or introduction or explanation
  • A good rule of thumb is that every sentence in your writing should contain something you wrote, no matter what
  • Transitions are important, particularly between your writing and thoughts, and the quotations

Incorporating Quotations into Your Writing

  • That Zimbardo quotation we’ve looked is a good example of an incorporated quotation, both in the direct and indirect style. Let’s look at them again.
  • Zimbardo (1977) notes that “children are totally insensitive to their parents’ shyness” (p. 62).
  • Some researchers note that "children are totally insensitive to their parents' shyness" (Zimbardo, 1977, p.62).
  • Preamble/introduction/transition – it’s simple, but it works. Things flow better!

Incorporating Quotations into Your Writing

  • And it’s not necessary for every quotation to end the sentence – let’s look at the variants on the Zimbardo quotations again.
  • Zimbardo (1977) notes that “children are totally insensitive to their parents’ shyness” (p. 62), though some authors disagree.
  • Some researchers note that "children are totally insensitive to their parents' shyness" (Zimbardo, 1977, p.62), but other authors disagree.

Incorporating Paraphrases into Your Writing

  • Since paraphrases contain your words plus in-text citations, the presence of preambles, introductions, and/or presentations is assumed.
  • Some researchers note that children are often ignorant with regard to their parents’ shyness (Zimbardo, 1977; Smith, 1989).
  • Some researchers note that children are often ignorant with regard to their parents’ shyness (Zimbardo, 1977; Smith, 1989), but there are exceptions.

Authority & Introduction: People

  • When using an author’s name in a report or research paper, it is recommended that you use the author’s full name, with titles, the first time s/he appears in the text.
  • Dr. Phillip Zimbardo (1977) notes that children are often unaware of their parents’ shyness.
  • Subsequent references to the author utilize the author’s last name only.

Authority & Introduction: People

  • By using the author’s full name with titles, you establish their authority and signal to the reader that this person has expertise
  • It’s recommended that you briefly describe why the reader should care about the author’s expertise – you can mention the author’s affiliation(s), accomplishments, and/or area of expertise – think of it as an introduction

Authority & Introduction: Example

  • Dr. Phillip Zimbardo, a professor emeritus of psychology at Stanford University, has studied shyness for several years. Zimbardo (1977) has observed that children are often unaware of their parents’ shyness (p. 62).

Authority & Introduction: Example

  • Dr. Katherine Ramsland, author of several books on crime and a forensic psychologist, has studied criminal behavior. Ramsland (2010), writing on dissociative identity disorder (commonly called multiple personality disorder), has observed that “there is probably no greater divide in the professional world than that regarding the authenticity and diagnosis of this disorder” (“Multiple personalities”).

Authority & Introduction: Things

  • Details, facts, statistics – information in general – also need something to establish their authority – or, at least, their origin
  • When incorporating information into your paper, the introduction functions both as a means of establishing authority (or origin) AND as a means of transition

Authority & Introduction: Examples

  • One research study focusing on student research habits found that students tended to use Google more than the Library’s resources when conducting research (Lowe, 2008).
  • While studying shyness, one researcher discovered that children are often “totally insensitive to their parents’ shyness” (Zimbardo, 1977, p. 62).

Authority & Introduction: Examples

  • One area where shyness may not have a significant impact in an adult’s life is in the family dynamic. Being in positions of authority, parents are not often perceived by their children as being bashful (Zimbardo, 1977).
  • Students often utilize counterproductive research habits. They admit to consulting Google rather than library resources (Lowe, 2008).

Listing

  • Listing is another way you can incorporate and present information in a report or essay
  • Lists can emphatically highlight small bits of information
  • They can also help you condense or blend information for a “quick facts” presentation

Listing

  • If you are quoting information, directly or indirectly, it is best to leave it in its original form
  • Listing will work well if you’re paraphrasing, since this can help present difficult information in a more easily consumed format
  • It works well when combining information, too, especially when pulling from different sources

Listing: Example

  • Remember this passage?
  • If you want to list how children view their parents as a direct quotation, leave the text in a prose form
  • If you want to paraphrase and list them individually, that’s okay – it might look like this
  • ORIGINAL TEXT
  • Also, since shyness is viewed as undesirable by many children, it may be threatening to think of parents in these terms. At this young age, the parent is still idealized as all-knowing and all-powerful - - not dumb, ugly, or weak. Zimbardo, Philip G. (1977). Shyness: What it is, what to do about it. Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Books.
  • Paraphrase Text in List Form
  • Children will not necessarily perceive that their parents are shy. According to Zimbardo (1977) they see the parents as being:
  • omniscient
  • omnipotent
  • intelligent
  • attractive
  • strong

Listing: Example

  • If Zimbardo writes that children see their parents as being “all-knowing and all-powerful - - not dumb, ugly, or weak”
  • And Smith writes that children view parents as being “stabilizing entities, protective entities, and boundary-establishing authorities”
  • These two sources could be paraphrased then combined and listed like this
  • Researchers (Zimbardo, 1977; Smith, 2010) indicate that children view their parents in the following ways:
  • omniscient
  • omnipotent
  • intelligent
  • attractive
  • strong
  • stabilizers
  • defenders
  • limit-makers

Questions?

Using Resources in APA: Resources

  • Presentation URL
  • http://www.ulm.edu/~lowe/usingresourcesapa.ppt
  • OWL @ Purdue: APA Style
  • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
  • Son of Citation Machine Citation Maker
  • http://citationmachine.net/
  • My Contact Info
    • http://www.ulm.edu/~lowe
    • lowe@ulm.edu

THANKS FOR LISTENING!

  • Megan Lowe, Coordinator of Public Services
  • Remember, if you need help, you can:
  • Call the Reference Desk at 318.342.1071
  • Email the Reference Department – reference@ulm.edu
  • Visit the Reference Desk on the first floor of the Library


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