Using Cooperative Learning to Encourage Higher Order Thinking



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Using Cooperative Learning to Encourage Higher Order Thinking

  • Dunklin R-V School District
  • New Teacher Orientation
  • August 15, 2007
  • Facilitated by: Kelly Nockerts, IC @ HHS

Table of Contents

  • Graphic Organizer for Today’s Workshop……………..……1
  • What is Higher Order Thinking?
    • Bloom’s Taxonomy………………………..……...……...2
    • Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Levels…………..3
  • Questions to Engage Students’ Thinking Skills……............4-5
  • What is Cooperative Learning?....................................................6
  • Using Question Cards: Strategy Summaries..………………..7
    • Rally Coach……………………………………...…..........8
      • Rally Coach Template………..……………............9
    • Fan-N-Pick (Question Cards) …………...…..........10-11
    • Cubing Template.…...…………………………......…....12
    • Numbered Heads Together
      • Journal Template……………………………........13
      • Question Starters Template……………….…….14
  • Strategies to Extend Student Thinking………..........………15
  • Organizing Students into Teams...............................................16
    • St. Louis City Partners…………………………………17
  • References…………………………………………….……….18

Graphic Organizer for Today’s Workshop

  • 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy

  • 2

Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Levels

  • 3
  • Level 1 (recall) requires simple recall of such information as a fact, definition, term, or simple procedure.
  • Level 2 (skill/concept) involves some mental skills, concepts, or processing beyond a habitual response; students must make some decisions about how to approach a problem or activity. Keywords distinguishing a Level 2 item include classify, organize, estimate, collect data, and compare data.
  • Level 3 (strategic thinking) requires reasoning, planning, using evidence, and thinking at a higher level.
  • Level 4 (extended thinking) requires complex reasoning, planning, developing, and thinking, most likely over an extended time. Cognitive demands are high, and students are required to make connections both within and among subject domains.

Questions to Engage Thinking Skills

  • Analyzing
  • How could you break down…?
  • What components…?
  • What qualities/characteristics…?
  • Applying
  • How is____and example of…?
  • What practical applications…?
  • What examples…?
  • How could you use…?
  • How does this apply to…?
  • In your life, how would you apply…?
  • Assessing
  • By what criteria would you assess…?
  • What grade would you give…?
  • How could you improve…?
  • Augmenting/Elaborating
  • What ideas might you add to…?
  • What more can you say about…?
  • Categorizing/Classifying/Organizing
  • How might you classify…?
  • If you were going to categorize…?
  • Comparing/Contrasting
  • How are ____ and ____ alike?
  • What similarities…?
  • What are the differences between …?
  • How is ___ different…?
  • Connecting/Associating
  • What do you already know about…?
  • What connections can you make between…?
  • What things do you think of when you think of…?
  • Decision-Making
  • How would you decide…?
  • If you had to choose between…?
  • Defining
  • How would you define…?
  • In your own words, what is…?
  • Describing/Summarizing
  • How could you describe/summarize …?
  • If you were a reporter, how would you describe…?
  • Determining Cause & Effect
  • What is the cause of…?
  • How does ___effect ___?
  • What impact might…?
  • Drawing Conclusions/Inferring Consequences
  • What conclusions can you draw from…?
  • What would happen if…?
  • What would have happened if…?
  • If you changed ___, what might happen?
  • Eliminating
  • What part of ___ might you eliminate?
  • How could you get rid of…?
  • Evaluating
  • What is your opinion about…?
  • Do you prefer…?
  • Would you rather…?
  • What is your favorite…?
  • Do you agree or disagree…?
  • What are the positive and negative aspects of…?
  • What are the advantages/disadvantages of…?
  • If you were a judge…?
  • On a scale of 1-10, how would you rate…?
  • What is the most important…?
  • Is it better or worse…?
  • Explaining
  • How can you explain…?
  • What factors might explain…?
  • 4

Questions to Engage Thinking Skills

  • Experimenting
  • How could you test...?
  • What experiment could you do to…?
  • Generalizing
  • What general rule can…?
  • What principle could you apply…?
  • What can you say about all…?
  • Interpreting
  • Why is ___ important?
  • What is the significance of…?
  • What role…?
  • What is the moral of…?
  • Inventing
  • What could you invent to…?
  • What machine could…?
  • Investigating
  • How could you find out more about…?
  • If you wanted to know about…?
  • Making Analogies
  • How is ___ like ___?
  • What analogy can you invent for…”
  • Observing
  • What observations did you make about…?
  • What changes…?
  • Patterning
  • What patterns can you find…?
  • How would you describe the organization of…?
  • Planning
  • What preparations would you…?
  • Predicting/Hypothesizing
  • What would you predict…?
  • What is your theory about…?
  • If you were going to guess…?
  • Prioritizing
  • What is more important…?
  • How might you prioritize…?
  • Problem-Solving
  • How would you approach the problem?
  • What are some possible solutions to…?
  • Reducing/Simplifying
  • In a word, how would you describe…?
  • How can you simplify…?
  • Reflecting/Metacognition
  • What would you think if…?
  • How can you describe what you were thinking when…?
  • Relating
  • How is ___ related to ___?
  • What is the relationship between…?
  • How does ___ depend on ___?
  • Reversing/Inversing
  • What is the opposite of…?
  • Role-Taking/Empathizing
  • If you were (someone/something else)…?
  • How would you feel if…?
  • Sequencing
  • How could you put… in order?
  • What steps are involved in…?
  • Substituting
  • What could have been used instead of…?
  • What else could you use for…?
  • What might you substitute for…?
  • What is another way…?
  • Symbolizing
  • How could you draw…?
  • What symbol best represents…?
  • Synthesizing
  • How could you combine…?
  • 5

What is Cooperative Learning?

  • Key Concepts
    • ____________
    • _________
    • _______________
    • ________
    • PIES
    • ________________ ________________
    • _____ _________________ __________
  • 6
  • P
  • Positive __________________
  • I
  • Individual _____________________
  • E
  • Equal _______________________
  • S
  • Simultaneous __________________

Using Question Cards

  • Rally Coach
        • Each partner pair gets a set of ________________ __________.
        • Student __ ________ the question out loud to student B.
        • Student __ _______________ (you may want students to record their answers.)
        • Student __ _______, ________________, & ___________ B’s answer.
        • Partners ___________ _________ asking and answering each question.
        • Variation: use white boards to work out answers.
  • Fan-N-Pick
    • Student One ________ cards
    • Student Two __________ a card & ____________ it aloud to the team.
    • Student Three gives an ____________ after _____ ___________ of think time.
    • After another _____ ____________ of think time, student Four __________________, ______________, or _________ to the answer given.
    • Student ___________ roles.
  • Cubing
    • Players take turn ____________ the question cube.
    • The player who rolls the cube thinks for _____ _____________, then ___________ the “thinking question” (TQ) that is face up.
    • Other plays add to the discussion. While the TQ is discussed, the person who rolled the dice acts as the _______________ & ___________________ the conversation before the next player rolls the cube.
  • Numbered Heads Together
    • Students _____________ _____ in their team (each team is numbered)
    • Teacher poses a _______________.
    • Students ____________ the question so that everyone is able to answer.
    • Teacher calls a _____________ ___________ & a ______________ ______________.
    • The student ____________ & ______________ what his or her team discussed.
  • Follow-Up Writing Activity
    • Students __________ ___________ ____________ ________ and make a journal entry or use the question as the prompt for an essay or creative writing assignment.
    • Students ____________ their writing with a partner or in turn with teammates.
  • 7

Rally Coach

  • Name__________________
  • Date_____________
  • Name__________________
  • Date_____________
  • A grandfather had 3 grandchildren. He bought each grandchild a pair of mittens. How many mittens did he buy?
  • Write an equation for each question and solve it.
  • A girl saw 10 snowmen on her way home from school. Two had red hats, the others had green hats. How many snowmen had green hats?
  • Molly waited for her son at the bus stop. She saw eighteen eyes on the bus. How many people were on the bus?
  • There were five children sledding on the hill. How many legs did the children have all total?
  • There were 24 cookies in the container. The three Johnson children each wanted some. What is the most amount of cookies each child could have if they split them evenly?
  • Lauren had fifteen dolls. Her mother told her she could only keep ten dolls because they were taking up too much space. How many dolls did Lauren get rid of?
  • Write your own story problem here and solve it.
  • Write your own story problem here and solve it.
  • Write your own story problem here and solve it.
  • Write your own story problem here and solve it.
  • 8

Rally Coach

  • Name__________________
  • Date_____________
  • Name__________________
  • Date_____________
  • 9

Historical Character Question Cards

  • 10
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9

Historical Character Question Cards

  • 11
  • 16
  • 17
  • 18
  • 13
  • 14
  • 15
  • 10
  • 11
  • 12

Cubing Template

  • 12

Historical Character Journal Writing Question

  • 13
    • Write your response to the question below. Be ready to share your response.
    • Question:__________________________________________
      • _____________________________________________
      • _____________________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________________
  • _____________________________________________________
  • ____________________________________________________
  • ___________________________________________________

Historical Character Question Starters

  • 14
  • Use the question starters below to create complete questions. Send your questions to a partner or to another team to answer.
  • 1. At what point _______________________________
  • _____________________________________________
  • 2. What characteristics __________________________
  • _____________________________________________
  • 3. If you were this character ______________________
  • _____________________________________________
  • 4. What is another way __________________________
  • _____________________________________________
  • 5. What influence ______________________________
  • _____________________________________________
  • 6. How could you summarize ____________________
  • _____________________________________________

Strategies to Extend Student Thinking

  • Call on students randomly (not just those who raise their hands.)
  • Remember “wait time” (ten to twenty seconds following a “higher level” question.)
  • Ask follow-ups (“Why?” “Do you agree?” “Can you elaborate?” “Can you give an example?”)
  • Withhold judgment by responding to student answers in a non-evaluative fashion (“Thank you.” “Thanks for sharing.”)
  • Ask for summary to promote active listening (“Could you please summarize Mike’s point?”)
  • Survey the class (“How many people agree with the author’s point of view?”)
  • Allow for student calling (“Ashley, will you please call on someone else to respond?”)
  • Play devil’s advocate (require students to defend their reasoning against different points of view.)
  • Ask students to “unpack their thinking” and describe how they arrived at an answer (Think-aloud.)
  • Student questioning (let students develop their own questions.)
  • Cue student responses (“There is not a single correct answer for this question, I want you to consider alternatives.”)
  • 15

Organizing Students into Cooperative Teams

  • Wagon Wheel:
  • St. Louis City Partners:
  • 16
  • Billy
  • Trisha
  • Brad
  • Melissa
  • Sam
  • Kim
  • Brittney
  • Aaron
  • Kelly
  • Mike T.
  • Gary
  • Rachel
  • Shannon
  • Sharne
  • Amanda
  • Chad
  • Emily
  • Kelsey
  • Zach
  • Ethan
  • Tim
  • Kayla
  • Joe
  • Ashley
  • Steph
  • Sara
  • Chris
  • Charlie
  • Emma
  • Leah
  • Jasmine
  • Mike A.
  • Jay
  • Aisha

St. Louis City Partners

  • 1. ____________________________
  • The Arch
  • 2. ____________________________
  • Busch Stadium
  • 3. ____________________________
  • Soulard Market
  • 4. ____________________________
  • Forest Park
  • 5. ____________________________
  • Laclede’s Landing
  • 6. ____________________________
  • Botanical Gardens
  • 7. ____________________________
  • Fox Theater
  • 8. ____________________________
  • Powell Symphony Hall
  • 17

References

  • Bloom, Benjamin. Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York ; Toronto: Longmans, Green. 1956.
  • Kagan, Spencer. Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing. 1994.
  • Kagan, Spencer. Thinking Questions for Primary Literature. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing. 1994.
  • Kagan, Spencer. Thinking Questions for Social Studies. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing. 1994.
  • Taylor, T. Roger. Strategies to Extend Student Thinking. www.dist102. k12.il.us/resources/staffresources/igapisat/think.htm
  • Webb, Norman. University of Wisconsin Center for Education Research. (Accessed via dese.missouri.gov/divimprove/sia/ msip/DOK_ Chart.pdf)
  • *For more information about cooperative learning,
  • and to access many of these strategies, templates,
  • and handouts, please visit NoxEduK8n.1faculty.com.
  • 18


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