Use of Instructional Time?



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Use of Instructional Time?

  • BOTTOM LINE?
  • Teachers are Left with about
  • 24 School Days
  • OR
  • 18 Eight Hour Days Per Subject Per Year

#3: Make Sure Your Instructional System is Fully and Carefully Aligned…and That Nothing About Teaching and Learning is Left to Chance

Historically, most of the really important decisions about what students should learn and what kind of work was “good enough” left to individual teachers.

Result? A System That:

  • Doesn’t expect very much from MOST students; and,
  • Expects much less from some types of students than others.

‘A’ Work in Poor Schools Would Earn ‘Cs’ in Affluent Schools

  • Source: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in “Prospects: Final Report on Student Outcomes”, PES, DOE, 1997.
  • Students can do
  • no better than
  • the assignments
  • they are given...
  • Grade 7 Writing Assignment
  • Source: Unnamed school district in California, 2002-03 school year.
  • Essay on Anne Frank
  • Your essay will consist of an opening paragraph which introduced the title, author and general background of the novel.
  • Your thesis will state specifically what Anne's overall personality is, and what general psychological and intellectual changes she exhibits over the course of the book
  • You might organize your essay by grouping psychological and intellectual changes OR you might choose 3 or 4 characteristics (like friendliness, patience, optimism, self doubt) and show how she changes in this area.
  • Grade 7 Writing Assignment
  • Source: Unnamed school district in California, 2002-03 school year.
  • My Best Friend:
  • A chore I hate:
  • A car I want:
  • My heartthrob:
  • 2004 by The Education Trust-West

Even in college-prep classes, differences in rigor…

Using the SAME TEXT BOOK College-prep assignments from:

  • School A, District A, California
  • 1467 students enrolled in 2005
  • 82% White
  • 6% Asian
  • 4% Latino
  • 2% Black
  • 2% Low-Income
  • School B, District B, California
  • 2001 students enrolled in 2005
  • 45% White
  • 4% Asian
  • 48% Latino
  • 1% Black
  • 27% Low-Income

Same Text Book: High-Level college-prep assignment.

  • Describe the fundamental problems in the economy that helped cause the Great Depression. Consider agriculture, consumer spending and debt, distribution of wealth, the stock market
  • Describe how people struggled to survive during the Depression
  • How did Hoover’s belief in “rugged individualism” shape his policies during the depression?

Same Text Book: Low Level college-prep assignment.

  • Role play (Meet the Press) & interview key people of the era
  • Draw a political cartoon highlighting a major event of the time
  • Share excerpts from noted literary authors-Lewis, Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Hughes
  • Listen to jazz artists of the 20’s
  • Construct a collage depicting new inventions

High Performing Schools and Districts

  • Have clear and specific goals for what students should learn in every grade, including the order in which they should learn it;
  • Provide teachers with common curriculum, assignments;
  • Assess students every 4-8 weeks to measure progress;
  • ACT immediately on the results of those assessments.

#4. Insist on Rigor and High Standards for All Students. Make the College Prep Curriculum the Default Curriculum.

Not all students have access to college-prep classes.

Latino and Black are less likely to attend High Schools that offer High-Level Math Courses

  • Source: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited, 2006.

Low-SES Students are less likely to attend High Schools that offer High-Level Math Courses

  • Source: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited, 2006.
  • SES quintiles are composites of family income, parental education, prestige of parental occupation(s),
  • and the presence of reading materials and computers in the household.

Latino and Black students are less likely to take the full complement of Science Courses

  • Source: U.S. Department of Education
  • Percentage of 12th Grade Students Taking Biology, Chemistry, and Physics
  • Even though most students want to go to college, the truth is, many low income students and students of color aren’t getting the classes in the first place.
  • Gompers HS:
  • 1543 Students
  • 87.1% Latino & African-American
  • 81.1% low-income
  • 17% of graduates successfully completed A-G in 2004
  • La Jolla HS:
  • 1688 students
  • 25% Latino & African-American
  • 17.8% low-income
  • 56.7% of graduates successfully completed A-G in 2004
  • San Diego City Schools: Two High Schools
  • Source: CA Dept of Education, 2005
  • Number of classes offered in 2004-05
  • Opportunities to take higher level math classes are much more limited at the high-poverty, high-minority high school: Gompers HS vs. La Jolla HS, San Diego City Schools
  • Source: Ed Trust-West Analysis of CA Dept of Education Data, 2005

Regressive Math – A Path to Nowhere Sample Sequence

  • In one California district, a high school student has:
  • passed both sections of the California Exit Exam by the beginning of the senior year.
  • has started her senior year with 175 of the 230 credits needed to graduate.
  • has not fulfilled the 10 credits for Algebra, and still needs 10 more credits in other math courses.
  • She is only enrolled in one math course in her senior year – Business Math.
  • Source: Unidentified Student Transcript, California High School

Regressive Math – A Path to Nowhere

  • In that same district 20% of students are enrolled in Regressive Math.
  • More than half of those are Latino.

But are most of our kids getting anything that even remotely resembles INTENSE?

Jake’s Fall Schedule, Freshman Year

  • English
  • Health Ed/Academic Foundations (Required Course for all freshmen)
  • Conceptual Physics
  • Volleyball

Spring Schedule, Freshman Year

  • Algebra
  • Auto Shop
  • Auto Shop
  • Volleyball

Fall Schedule, Sophomore Year

  • English
  • Spanish
  • Chemistry
  • Open Period (required)

Spring Schedule, Sophomore Year

  • Geometry
  • W. History
  • Volleyball
  • Open Period (required)

Fall Schedule, Junior Year

  • Mythology
  • Algebra
  • Auto Shop
  • Career Choices

Spring Schedule, Junior Year

  • Algebra 2
  • American History
  • Arts Tech
  • English

Senior Year?

  • Too embarrassing to even show

Consequences?

The Highest Level of Math Reached in High School is a Strong Predictor of BA Attainment

  • Source: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited, 2006.

High School Curriculum Intensity is a Strong Predictor of Bachelor’s Degree Completion

  • Source: Clifford Adelman, U.S. Department of Education, The Toolbox Revisited, 2006.
  • Curriculum quartiles are composites of English, math, science, foreign language, social studies, computer science,
  • Advanced Placement, the highest level of math, remedial math and remedial English classes taken during high school.

Most 21st Century Jobs Require Postsecondary Education

College isn’t for everyone. But a college prep curriculum is.

High School Course-Taking Indicates Opportunity for Success in the Workplace

  • The percentage of workers in the highest-paying jobs that took high-level math courses in high school
  • Source: Carnevale and Desrochers, ETS, Connecting Education Standards & Employment: Course Taking Patterns of Young Workers, ADP: Workplace Study, 2002:

American Diploma Project Interviews with Employers:

  • They mostly want the same things that higher education wants!
    • Strong Reading Ability – read/comprehend informational and technical texts
    • Emphatic about literature – understanding other cultures is necessary with diverse customers and co-workers
    • Writing ability key
    • Mathematics Imperative – data, probability, statistics and competent problem solvers. Algebra I, Geometry and Algebra II.
  • Source: Workplace Study by the National Alliance for Business for the American Diploma Project, unpublished report, 2002.
  • But Even in Jobs We Don’t Expect…
  • Requirements for Tool and Die Makers
  • Four or five years of apprenticeship and/or postsecondary training;
  • Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and statistics;
  • Average earnings: $40,000 per year.
  • Requirements for
  • Sheet Metal Workers
  • Four or five years
  • of apprenticeship;
  • Algebra, geometry,
  • trigonometry and
  • technical reading;
  • Requirements for
  • Auto Technicians
  • A solid grounding
  • in physics is
  • necessary to
  • understand force,
  • hydraulics, friction
  • and electrical
  • circuits.
  • Even in Jobs We Don’t Expect…
  • Plumbing-Heating-Air Conditioning
  • Four or five years of apprenticeship and/or post-secondary training;
  • Algebra, plane geometry, trigonometry and statistics;
  • Physics, chemistry, biology, engineering economics.
  • ALL of these jobs require a strong foundation of reading, writing and speaking the English language in order to comprehend instructions and technical manuals
  • Construction
  • and Engineering
  • Four or five years of apprenticeship and/or post-secondary training;
  • Algebra, plane geometry
  • Critical thinking, problem solving, reading and writing
  • Sources: Plumbing :  Shapiro, D., and Nichols, J. Constructing Your Future: Consider a Career in Plumbing, Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) PHCC Auxiliary 2005 downloaded March 13, 3006 http://www.phccweb.org/PDFs/PHCC20pg.pdf, Construction: California Apprenticeship Council Division of Apprenticeship Standards 2001 Annual Legislative Report Downloaded March 15, 2006 http://www.dir.ca.gov/das/DASAnnualReport2001/LegRep2001.pdf#search='architecture%2C%20construction%2C%20engineering%20%28ace%20pathway%29%20course%20outline'
  •  

Employers Are Less Willing to Help

  • “Remedial programs were victims of mid-90s cost cutting initiatives: from a high point of 24% of [businesses] in 1993, the share of companies sponsoring such programs dropped to 15% in 1999 and 12.3% in 2001.”
  • --2001 American Management Association Survey on Workplace Testing

Employers are looking for better educated workers elsewhere Example: Toyota Motor Corporation

Why Ontario, Canada is a better location for a new Toyota plant…

  • “The level of the workforce in general is so high the training program you need for people, even for people who have never worked in a Toyota plant before, is minimal compared to what you have to go through in the southeastern United States,”
  • --Gerry Fedchun, president of Automotive Parts Manufacturers’ Association, 7/8/2005
  • Source: www.cbc.ca/cp/business/050630/b0630102.html
  • “In Alabama, trainers had to use ‘pictorials’ to teach some illiterate workers how to use high-tech plant equipment.”
  • --Gerry Fedchun, president of Automotive Parts Manufacturers’ Association, 7/8/2005
  • Source: www.cbc.ca/cp/business/050630/b0630102.html

With college-prep curricula, students of all sorts will learn more...

Low Quartile Students Gain More From College Prep Courses*

  • Source: USDOE, NCES, Vocational Education in the United States: Toward the Year 2000, in Issue Brief: Students Who Prepare for College and Vocation
  • *Grade 8-grade 12 test score gains based on 8th grade achievement.

San Jose Unified – College Prep Curriculum For All AP Scores with a score of AP >=3

  • 748 Test Taken
  • 1197 Tests Taken

Students taking rigorous courses will fail less often...

Challenging Curriculum Results in Lower Failure Rates, Even for Lowest Achievers

  • Source: SREB, “Middle Grades to High School: Mending a Weak Link”. Unpublished Draft, 2002.
  • Ninth-grade English performance, by high/low level course, and eighth-grade reading achievement quartiles

Gaps will close.

SJUSD SAT9 & CAT6 Matched Reading Scores at Grades 4-9 for Students who Have Been Tested with STAR Every Year Since 1998

  • Gap
  • reduced by 48%
  • Median National Percentile
  • Source: San Jose Unified School District
  • *CAT6 scores adjusted to SAT9 scale

SJUSD SAT9 & CAT6 Matched Mathematics Scores at Grades 3-9 for Students who Have Been Tested with STAR Every Year Since 1998

  • Gap reduced
  • by 43%
  • *CAT6 scores adjusted to SAT9 scale
  • Median National Percentile
  • Source: San Jose Unified School District

Students will work harder.

  • Source: The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts, Civic Enterprises, March 2006
  • Recent poll shows that 66% of dropouts would have worked harder if expectations were higher.

And they’ll succeed more.

SJUSD Graduation Rates

  • Source: Ed Trust West analysis of CA Dept of Ed data, 2005
  • Estimated completion rate using Cumulative Promotion Index methodology
  • Estimated completion rate using Manhattan Institute methodology

LAUSD High Schools That Have High Percentages of Their Graduates Completing College Prep Curriculum (A-G) Have Fewer Suspensions and Lower Failure Rates

  • Source: Ed Trust West Analysis of School-Level Data, School Accountability Report Cards, 2005.

#5. Monitor the Distribution of Teacher Talent…and Make Sure Low-Income and Minority Students Have the High Quality Teachers They Need

Teachers Matter Big Time.

Students Who Start 2nd Grade at About the Same Level of Math Achievement…

  • Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.

…Finish 5th Grade Math at Dramatically Different Levels Depending on the Quality of Their Teachers

  • Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.

Students Who Start 3rd Grade at About the Same Level of Reading Achievement…

  • Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.

…Finish 6th Grade at Dramatically Different Levels Depending on the Quality of Their Teachers

  • Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.

But poor and minority students don’t get their fair share of our strongest teachers.

Poor and Minority Students Get More Inexperienced* Teachers

  • Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring Quality: An Indicators Report,” December 2000.
  • *Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience.
  • High poverty Low poverty
  • Note: High poverty refers to the top quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low poverty-bottom quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High minority-top quartile; those schools with the highest concentrations of minority students. Low minority-bottom quartile of schools with the lowest concentrations of minority students

More Classes in High-Poverty, High-Minority Schools Taught By Out-of-Field Teachers

  • *Teachers lacking a college major or minor in the field. Data for secondary-level core academic classes.
  • Source: Craig D. Jerald, All Talk, No Action: Putting an End to Out-of-Field Teaching, The Education Trust, 2002.
  • High poverty Low poverty
  • High minority Low minority
  • Note: High Poverty school-50% or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low-poverty school -15% or fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch.
  • High-minority school - 50% or more of the students are nonwhite. Low-minority school- 15% or fewer of the students are nonwhite.

Middle Grades – Classes Taught by Teachers Without at Least a College Minor in the Subject

  • Source: Craig D. Jerald, All Talk, No Action: Putting an End to Out-of-Field Teaching, The Education Trust, 2002.
  • High-Poverty Low-Poverty
  • Schools Schools
  • High-Minority Low-Minority
  • Schools Schools
  • Percent of middle school classes taught by a teacher without at least a minor in the subject
  • (>50%)
  • (<15%)
  • (>50%)
  • (<15%)
  • *Data is for core academic classes.

High Schools – Classes Taught by Teachers Lacking an Undergraduate Major

  • Source: Craig D. Jerald, All Talk, No Action: Putting an End to Out-of-Field Teaching, The Education Trust, 2002.
  • High-Poverty Low-Poverty
  • Schools Schools
  • High-Minority Low-Minority
  • Schools Schools
  • (>50%)
  • (<15%)
  • (>50%)
  • (<15%)
  • *Data is for core academic classes.

Teacher Quality Index Illinois Education Research Council

  • School Level Teacher Characteristics
    • % of Teachers with Emergency/Provisional Certification
    • % of Teachers from More/Most Selective Colleges
    • % of Teachers with < 4 Years Experience
    • % of Teachers Failing Basic Skills Test on First Attempt
    • School Average of Teachers’ ACT Composite and English Scores
  • School
  • Teacher
  • Quality
  • Index
  • (TQI)
  • DeAngelis, K., Presley, J. and White, B. (2005). The Distribution of Teacher Quality in Illinois. http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/Teacher_Quality_IERC_%202005-1.pdf

IERC College Readiness Index

  • Uses ACT scores and self-reported GPA
  • Five levels
    • Not/least ready
    • Minimally ready
    • Somewhat ready
    • More ready
    • Most ready
  • Presley, J. and Gong, Y. (2005). The Demographics and Academics of College Readiness in Illinois. http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/College%20Readiness%20-%202005-3.pdf

Illinois: Distribution of School TQI by School Percent Minority

  • Very high percent minority schools are likely to have very low school TQIs.
  • There is little difference in TQI distribution below the highest minority quartile (i.e. below about 60% minority).

Impact?

College Readiness at High Poverty, High Minority Schools by TQI

  • Presley, J. and Gong, Y. (2005). The Demographics and Academics of College Readiness in Illinois. http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/College%20Readiness%20-%202005-3.pdf

Percent of Students More/Most Ready by High School TQI and Highest Math Level

  • Presley, J. and Gong, Y. (2005). The Demographics and Academics of College Readiness in Illinois. http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/College%20Readiness%20-%202005-3.pdf

Let’s Get That Again!

  • STUDENTS WHO STUDIED ALL THE WAY THROUGH CALCULUS IN SCHOOLS WITH THE LOWEST TEACHER QUALITY LEARNED LESS MATH THAN STUDENTS WHO ONLY WENT THROUGH ALGEBRA 2 IN SCHOOLS WITH JUST AVERAGE TEACHER QUALITY.

Some of the differences occur between poor and rich school districts.

  • But there are big differences within school districts, as well. In fact, in most states these differences are larger than between-district differences.

California: Study after study shows large differences in experience and education of teachers in high vs. low-poverty schools.

  • These differences, of course, reflected in different salaries.

A Tale of Two Schools

  • Granada Hills High School
  • Los Angeles Unified
  • 32% Latino & African American
  • 27% of students receive free or reduced price lunch
  • Academic Performance Index = 773
  • Locke High School
  • Los Angeles Unified
  • 99% Latino & African American
  • 66% of students receive free or reduced price lunch
  • Academic Performance Index = 440
  • Source: CA Department of Education, 2003-04 data

In accordance with district and state practice, both schools report the same average teacher salary.

The average teacher at Locke High School actually gets paid an estimated $8,034 less every year than his counterpart at Granada Hills High School.

  • The average teacher at Locke High School actually gets paid an estimated $8,034 less every year than his counterpart at Granada Hills High School.
  • If Locke spent as much as Granada Hills on teacher salaries for its 119 teachers, the school budget would increase by nearly a million dollars ($956,056) every year.

A Tale of Two Schools

  • Washington High School
  • San Francisco Unified
  • 13% Latino & African American
  • 37% of students receive free or reduced price lunch
  • Academic Performance Index = 760
  • Mission High School
  • San Francisco Unified
  • 67% Latino & African American
  • 75% of students receive free or reduced price lunch
  • Academic Performance Index = 518
  • Source: CA Department of Education, 2003-04 data

The average teacher at Mission High School actually gets paid an estimated $9,901 less every year than his counterpart at Washington High School.

  • The average teacher at Mission High School actually gets paid an estimated $9,901 less every year than his counterpart at Washington High School.
  • If Mission spent as much as Washington on teacher salaries for its 57 teachers, the school budget would increase by $564,357 every year.

Again, both report the same average teacher salary.

Average School Gaps in 10 Largest CA Districts by School Type

  • DISTRICT
  • Poverty
  • Minority
  • Elementary
  • Middle
  • High School
  • Elementary
  • Middle
  • High School
  • Elk Grove Unified
  • 36,561
  • -157,937
  • 325,113
  • 102,762
  • -319,075
  • 252,503
  • Fresno Unified
  • 125,881
  • 104,980
  • 85,534
  • 108,113
  • 126,829
  • 125,639
  • Long Beach Unified
  • 362,683
  • 251,012
  • 574,387
  • 381,587
  • 218,585
  • 289,968
  • Los Angeles Unified
  • 83,363
  • 175,960
  • -23,763
  • 112,743
  • 200,178
  • 161,686
  • Sacramento City Unified
  • 140,144
  • -39,078
  • 227,073
  • 142,012
  • 89,692
  • 522,459
  • San Bernardino City Unified
  • 228,668
  • 239,357
  • 463,426
  • 231,464
  • 345,367
  • 382,690
  • San Diego Unified
  • 139,972
  • 216,460
  • 267,900
  • 223,072
  • 268,907
  • 254,832
  • San Francisco Unified
  • 43,817
  • 44,905
  • 195,426
  • 86,399
  • 146,006
  • 263,816
  • San Juan Unified
  • 81,899
  • 202,423
  • 103,330
  • 53,964
  • 150,314
  • 139,570
  • Santa Ana Unified
  • 120,456
  • 309,381
  • -215,960
  • 84,678
  • 175,133
  • 64,291

You don’t have to just sit by and watch that happen. SB 687. RBB.

If we had the courage and creativity to change these patterns?

“The Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain estimates of teacher performance suggest that having five years of good teachers in a row* could overcome the average seventh-grade mathematics achievement gap […].”

  • * “1.0 standard deviation above average, or at the 85th quality percentile”
  • SOURCE: Eric A. Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin, “How to Improve the Supply of High-Quality Teachers,”
  • In Brookings Papers on Education Policy: 2004,” Diane Ravitch, ed., Brrookings Institution Press, 2004.
  • Estimates based on research using data from Texas described in “Teachers, Schools, and Academic
  • Achievement,” Working Paper Number 6691, National Bureau of Economic Research, revised July 2002.

Bottom Line: If we’re serious about all kids college and work ready we have got to move the teacher quality and gap conversation to the top of civic and political agendas.

Why is it so hard? Despite our greater understanding of how important teachers are, it has been very hard to get traction on an improvement agenda.

Problem 1: Too polite to criticize, demand.

  • Not much to say here, except…

SPEAK UP!!!

  • Just as we’ve needed pressure from higher ed and business to help us ratchet up standards for high school students, does higher ed needs pressure from K-12 and business to ratchet up quality of teacher preparation? If so, what would be productive for you?

Problem 2: Paralyzed by supply fears . . . And so we never get to equity.

  • Confront the Myths and Fears Head – On.

What do we really know about supply and turnover?

  • That most of the myths are…just that.

Myth #1

  • “Turnover in the teaching profession is just terrible! More than 50% are gone in 3 years.”

Overall, the three-year teacher retention rate for recently graduated teachers is one of the best new-professional retention rates in the country.

  • Overall, the three-year teacher retention rate for recently graduated teachers is one of the best new-professional retention rates in the country.
  • Nationally, 76% of recently graduated K-12 teachers who worked full time in 1994 remained teachers in 1997.
  • Full-time and part-time new teachers remained on the job at higher rates than full-time or part-time engineers, scientists, lab and research assistants or employees in the legal profession.
  • Source: Presley, Jennifer. (2003). Occupational Stability of New College Graduates. Edwardsville, IN: Illinois Education Research Council, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. 1 & 3.
  • © 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
  • © 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
  • Source: Presley, Jennifer. (2003). Occupational Stability of New College Graduates. Edwardsville, IN: Illinois Education Research Council, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. 2.

Annual turnover in teaching profession? 7%

  • Annual turnover elsewhere in the workforce? 7%

Myth #2

  • “Teachers are terribly dissatisfied with their work—much more so in recent years, especially because of the pressure from NCLB.”

Fact - Teacher satisfaction has remained fairly constant over the past 15 years.

  • Fact - Teacher satisfaction has remained fairly constant over the past 15 years.
  • The percentage of teachers who noted they are “very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied” (as opposed to “somewhat dissatisfied,” “very dissatisfied,” or “not sure”) has hovered around 87% since 1988, peaking at 92% in 2001.
  • In 2003, 57% of teachers reported that they were “very satisfied” with their job, up from 52% in 2001 and 54% in 1995.
  • [1] 1988—87%, 1989—86%, 1995—87%, 2001—92%, 2003—87%
  • © 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.
  • Source: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher. (2003). An Examination of School Leadership: A Survey of Teachers, Principals, Parents and Teachers. New York: Harris Interactive, Inc. Exhibit 4.2—Teachers’ Job Satisfaction (1984-2003). 66.

Myth #3

  • “We’re facing shortages of up to 2.2 million new teachers over the next decade.”

Each year, approximately:

  • 220,000+ teachers retire or otherwise leave profession;
  • Nation’s colleges produce approximately 200,000 new teachers;
  • 200,000+ vacancies filled, approximately 40% from returning teachers, and the remainder from new or recent grads.

BUT…

  • BUT…
      • Although there may be enough teachers in the aggregate, there may not be enough teachers qualified to teach each of the subject areas.
      • Likewise, there may not be enough teachers available who want to teach in certain geographic locations.
      • And, we know there are not enough high-quality teachers going to high-poverty, high-minority schools.
  • Source: Ingersoll, Richard M. (2003). Is There Really a Teacher Shortage? Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington. 8. and Murphey, Patrick J. and Michael M. DeArmond. (2003). From the Headlines to the Front Lines: The Teacher Shortage and Its Implications for Recruitment Policy. Seattle, WA: Center for Reinventing Public Education, University of Washington. 21-22.
  • © 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.

Myth #4

  • “Nobody wants to teach in urban school districts.”

Fact - The good news is that strong recruitment techniques can attract highly-qualified teachers to high-needs schools.

  • Fact - The good news is that strong recruitment techniques can attract highly-qualified teachers to high-needs schools.
  • The New Teacher Project reported that aggressive recruiting yielded far more qualified applicants per position, including in high-needs subject areas, than the district could hire.
    • In one urban school district, the ratio of applicants to positions was 20 to 1, with other districts garnering a ratio of between 5 to 1 and 7 to 1.
  • Source: Levin, Jessica and Meredith Quinn. (2003). Missed Opportunities: How We Keep High-Quality Teachers Out of Urban Classrooms. New York: The New Teacher Project. 5.
  • © 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.

Chicago Public Schools

  • Chicago Public Schools
    • CPS received 13,700 applications for about 1,500 teacher vacancies from candidates applying for the 2006-2007 school year.
    • The district estimates that by the end of the hiring season, they will receive 18,500 applications.

Teach For America - which only places teachers in high-needs schools - reports record high numbers of applicants for teaching positions.

  • Teach For America - which only places teachers in high-needs schools - reports record high numbers of applicants for teaching positions.
    • In the 2005-06 recruiting season, Teach For America received a record 19,000 applications for about 2,400 positions.
  • Source: Teach for America Press Release. (June 1, 2006) “In Strong Job Market, Record Number Of Graduating Seniors
  • Apply To Teach For America.” http://www.teachforamerica.org/documents/060106_2006.Application.Numbers.pdf
  • © 2006 The Education Trust, Inc.

We need to look very closely at our data, avoid repeating myths and aggressively counter those who are spreading misinformation.

Problem #3:We haven’t learned enough from high impact teachers.

What do we know?

  • Way too little. But several actionable conclusions.

Today, drawing primarily from five new studies:

  • Comparing the Effects of Different Routes to Teaching in NYC (The Teacher Pathway Project--Boyd, Grossman, Lankford, Loeb, Wyckoff)
  • Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the Job (The Hamilton Project--Gordon, Kane, Staiger) LAUSD
  • Everyone’s Doing It, But What Does Teacher Testing Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?—Dan Goldhaber, Univ of Washington and the Urban Institute.
  • Illinois Education Research Council.
  • Louisiana Blue Ribbon Commission.

#1. No matter how good teachers will eventually become, they are NOT as good in their first year or two of practice.

  • Teacher effectiveness grows for at least 3-5 years. Growth biggest from year 1 to 2.

“…student performance increases as a result of increased experience over the first three or four years of experience, with little or no difference thereafter.”

  • “…student performance increases as a result of increased experience over the first three or four years of experience, with little or no difference thereafter.”
  • Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, P.,Wyckoff, J. (2005). How Changes in Entry Requirements Alter the Teacher Workforce and Affect Student Achievement. www.teacherpolicyresearch.org

Some Payoff for Experience

  • Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Goldhaber: Gains in first few years. But “I find little evidence of productivity gains associated with experience beyond 5 years.

#2. ROUTE OF ENTRY…

  • …doesn’t matter very much.

LAUSD: 3 Pathways to Teaching

  • Traditional;
  • Alternate;
  • Uncertified

Similar Effectiveness, Regardless of Certification

  • Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

“…in many cases, a teacher’s pathway

  • “…in many cases, a teacher’s pathway
  • makes little difference in the achievement
  • of students…”
  • “… the measured differences* are not large
  • in magnitude…”
  • Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, P.,Wyckoff, J. (2005). How Changes in Entry Requirements Alter the Teacher Workforce and Affect Student Achievement. www.teacherpolicyresearch.org

Some nuances…

  • Traditional a little better with younger children, especially in reading;
  • Alternates a little better with older children, especially in math;
  • Most differences in lower grades wash out by year 3.

#3. Differences WITHIN each category, though, are huge.

Effectiveness More Important than Certification

  • “The difference between the 75th percentile
  • teacher and the 50th percentile teacher for all three groups of teachers was roughly five times as large as the difference between the average certified teacher and the average uncertified teacher.”
  • Three groups = traditionally certified, alternatively certified, and uncertified
  • Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Huge Differences in Teachers’ Effectiveness

  • An average student assigned to a bottom
  • quartile teacher lost 5 percentile points while
  • a demographically similar student with a top
  • quartile teacher gained 5 percentile points.
  • Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

10 Point Average Difference Between Top and Bottom Teachers

  • Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

#4. There is some disagreement about whether those differences can be predicted from measurable teacher characteristics.

Research pretty consistent about…

  • Teacher test performance, especially verbal;
  • Teacher content mastery, especially in higher grades;
  • Selectivity of undergraduate college also sometimes predictive. Race can be relevant, too.

In NYC, Alternate Route Teachers much higher on all these measures.

  • Traditional
  • Teaching Fellow
  • Teach for America
  • Failed Gen. Knowledge Exam
  • 16%
  • 1.8%
  • 0%
  • Score on LAST Test
  • 246
  • 267
  • 275
  • From Highly Selective College
  • 11%
  • 44%
  • 70%
  • % Black and Latino
  • 20%
  • 31%
  • 23%

But at least in NYC and LAUSD, the relationships between these things and achievement not clear.

Goldhaber: Clear positive effect of higher performance on licensure exams, especially in mathematics. But some false negs and false positives.

Bottom Line: Improving the Value Added of Teacher Force Has to be at Heart of Our Strategy.

“Massive Impact”

  • “If the effects were to accumulate, having a
  • top-quartile teacher rather than a bottom
  • quartile teacher four years in a row would be:
  • enough to close the black-white test score
  • gap…; and,
  • Have twice the impact of reducing class size from 22 to 16.”
  • Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Lastly, and what everyone will always want to talk about. . . #6. Would more money help?

Nation: Inequities in State and Local Revenue Per Student

  • Gap
  • High Poverty vs. Low Poverty Districts
  • -$907 per student
  • High Minority vs. Low Minority Districts
  • -$614 per student
  • Source: The Funding Gap, 2005. The Education Trust. Data are for 2003

But how much more money will help depends on how wisely we spend it.

  • But how much more money will help depends on how wisely we spend it.

Some districts get more for less.

Some districts that out-perform spend less NAEP 2005 Grade 8 Math -Overall Scale Scores

  • Source: National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde and Standard and Poor’s www.schoolmatters.com
  • $7,284
  • $7,132
  • $12,562
  • $8,311
  • $6,923
  • $11.920
  • $7,799
  • $8,283
  • $10,199
  • $11,312
  • $11,847

In the end, it is about choices adults make.

  • At the Main, Achievement and Opportunity Gaps Come from Choices That Educators and Policymakers Make. Choices About:
  • - How Much to Spend on Whom.
  • - What to Expect of Different Schools and Students.
  • - Choices Even About Who Teachers Whom.
  • - Choices About How to Organize Classroom and Schools.
  • The Education Trust-West
  • 510-465-6444
  • www.edtrustwest.org
  • The Education Trust
  • 202-293-1217
  • www.edtrust.org


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