University of madras

Download 3,75 Mb.
Date conversion09.08.2018
Size3,75 Mb.
1   ...   53   54   55   56   57   58   59   60   61

The following procedure is to be followed for internal marks(40 marks)

Attendance : 5 marks

Practical test – best 2 out of 3 : 30 marks

Record : 5 marks
Books for Study and Reference :
1. Practical Physics by M.N.Srinivasan S. Chand & Co.,

2. Practical Physics by M.Arul Thalapathy Comptek Publishers.


General characters of Bryophytes, classification ( Watson ) and life cycle and origin and evolution of Bryophytes


General characters of Hepaticopsida, Anthoceratopsida and Bryopsida.

Detailed study of structure and reproduction of

  1. Marchantia

  2. Anthoceros

  3. Polytrichum (no developmental studies)


General characters, classification (Reimer, 1954)., apogamy, apospory, homospory and heterospory. Origin and evolution of Pteridophytes.


Detailed study of morphology, anatomy, reproduction and life cycle of following genera:-

  1. Lycopodium, b) Equisetum, c) Dicranopteris, d) Marsilea (no developmental studies)


Stelar evolution, sporangial organization and evolution in Pteridophytes

Practical :

Detailed study of the genera included in the theory syllabus


  1. Eames.A, 1963 – Morphology of lower vascular plant, McGraw Hill

  2. Forster and Gifford, 1959 – Comparative morphology of vascular plants.

  3. Pandey B.R., 1977 – A text book of Botany, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, K. Nath & Meerut.

  4. Parihar. N.S., 1967 – An introduction of Embryophyta, Vol.III – Pteriodophyta, Central book depot, Allahabad.

  5. Smith.G.M., 1955- Cryptogamic Botany, Volume-II– McGraw Hill

  6. Sporne.K.L., 1976 – Morphology of Pteriodophytes, 4th edition, B.I.Publication.

  7. Vashista.P.C., 1971 – Botany for Degree students : Pteridophyta. S.Chand&Co.

  8. Watson, E.V. The structure and Life of Bryophytes

  9. Prem Puri. 1973. Bryophytes-A broad perspective, Atma Ram & Sons, New Delhi

10. Parihar, N.S. 1991. Bryophytes. Central Book Depot, Allahabad.

11. Parihar, N.S. 1996. The Biology and Morphology of Pteridophytes. Central Book

Depot, Allahabad.

12. Puri, P. 1980. Bryophytes. Atma Ram & Sons, New Delhi.

13 Sporne, K.R. 1991. The Morphology of Pteridophytes. B.I. Publ. Pvt. Ltd.


General characters, distribution, morphology, structure and reproduction of Gymnosperms. Classification of Gymnosperms (Sporne,1954)


Detailed study of morphology, structure and reproduction in Cycas , Pinus and Gnetum (No developmental studies).


Kinds of fossils-impressions, casts, mold and coal ball. Dating of fossils- Radio carbon dating


Geological time scale-era, period, epoch, Contributions of Birbal Sahni.


Study of the following fossil form genera Lepidodendron, Lepidocarpon and Calamites.

Practicals :

Study of morphology, anatomy and structure of the vegetative and reproduction of Cycas and Pinus and Gnetum

Fossil slides of Lepidodendron. Lepidocarpon and Calamites.


Refernce Books :

  1. Sporne. K.R., 1954- Morphology of Gymnosperms, Hutchinson University Library.

  2. Gupta.M.N., 1972, - The Gymnosperms (2nd Edition) Shiva Lal Agarwala & Co., Agra.

  3. Vashista, P. C .,1976, Gymnosperms, S.Chand & Co.

4. Sporne, K.R.1991. The Morphology of Gymnosperme. B.I. Publications, New


5. Bhatnagar, S.P. and Moitra, A. 1996. Gymnosperms, New Age Int. Pvt. Ltd., New


6. Stewart, W.N. and Rathwell, G.W. 1993. Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants.

Cambridge University Press


Unit – I

Morphology – root system – modifications. Shoot system – modifications – (Aerial, sub-aerial and underground). Leaf-simple and compound- phyllotaxy, modifications, (phyllode, pitcher) tendrils, stipules. Inflorescences – definition and types – racemose, cymose, mixed and special types. Fruits- classification .

Unit -II

Taxonomy and its importance, herbarium techniques. concept of a taxon – genus and species. citation of authors, binomial nomenclature and ICBN,.

Unit – III

Systems of plant classification – Artificial (Linnaeus), Natural (Bentham & Hooker), Modern and Phylogenic (Cronquist)– merits and demerits .

Unit – IV

A detailed study of the range of characters of the following families and their economic importance.Dicotyledons, Annonaceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Apocynaceae.

Unit – V

Detailed study of the range of characters of the following families and their economic importance. Monochlamydeae – Euphorbiaceae. Monocotyledons – Orchidaceae & Poaceae

Reference Books :

  1. Lawrence.G.H.M, 1985 – An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy, Central Book Depot, Allahabad.

  2. Porter.C.L., 1982 – Taxonomy of Flowering Plants, Eurasia Publications House, New Delhi

  3. Rendle.A.B., 1980 – The Classification of Flowering Plants (Vol. I & II), Vikas Students Education.

  4. Pandely.B.P., 1987 – Taxonomy of Angiosperms.

  1. Clive AS.1989. Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics, Chapman and Hall Inc. New


  1. Harborne, JB & Turner, BL. 1984. Plant Chemosystematics, Acad. Press, London.

  2. Lawrence, GH. 1955. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants, MacMillan Co., USA.

  3. Samuel, BJ & Arlene, EL. 1987. Plant Systematics, Mc Graw Hill Inc. New York

  4. Bhatnagar, S.P. and Moitra, A. 1996. Gymnosperms. New Age International Pvt.

Ltd., New Delhi

  1. Grant, W.E. 1984. Plant Biosystematics. Academic Press London.

  2. Harrison, H.J. 1971. New Concepts in Flowering Plant Taxonomy. Rieman Educational Book Ltd., London.

  3. Heslop-Harrison, J. 1967. Plant Taxonomy -English Language Book Soc. & Edward Arnold Pub. Ltd. U.K.

  4. Heywood, V.H. and Moore, D.M. 1984. Current Concepts in Plant Taxonomy. Academic Press, London.

  5. Jones, A.D. and Wilbins, A.D. 1971. Variations and Adaptations in Plant Species. Hiemand & Co. Educational Books Ltd. London.

  6. Jones, S.B. Jr. and Luchsinger, A.E. 1986. Plant Systematics (2nd edition). McGraw-HilI Book Co., New York.

  7. Nordenstam, B., EI Gazaly, G. and Kassas, M. 2000 Plant Systematics for 21st Century. Portlant Press Ltd., London.

  8. Radford, A.E. 1986. Fundamentals of Plant Systematics. Harper & Row Publications, USA.

  9. Singh, H. 1978, Embryology of Gymnosperms, Encyclopaedia of Plant Anatomy X. Gebruder Bortraeger, Berlin.

  10. Solbrig, O.T. 1970. Principles and Methods of Plant Biosystematics. The MacMillan Co-collier-MacMillan Ltd., London.

  11. Solbrig, O.T. and Solbrig, D.J. 1979. Population Biology and Evolution, Addison-Weslley Publicating Co. Ind USA.

  12. Stebbings, G.L. 1974. Flowering Plant - Evolution Above Species Level. Edward Arnold Ltd. London.

  13. Stace, C.A. 1989. Plant Taxonomy and Biosysteinatics (2nd edition) Edward Arnold Ltd., London.

  14. Takhtajan, A.L. 1997. Diversity and Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press, New York.

  15. Woodland, D.W. 1991. Contemporary Plant Systematics. Prentice Hall. New Jersey.



Introduction – Food Plants – Plant and Plant products of Industrial value. cereals – rice wheat, millets ,cholam and pearl millet. Nuts – nuts with protein content (Soybean). Nuts with fat content (castor and peanuts ).


Fibers and fibrer yielding plants –cultivation, classification, extraction and uses of Fibres. Soft fibres- Corchorous. Hard Fibres- Manila hemp and Musa textiles. Surface Fibres – Gossypium. Timber –Tectona grandis . Rubber –Hevea braziliensis.


Sugar – cultivation, harvesting and extraction with reference to Saccharum officinarum. Spices cultivation and harvesting (Eugenia caryophyllata) . Beverages:- cultivation, harvesting of Coffee arabica and Thea sinensis. Pulp and Paper Industry ( Bamboos)– Raw materials and manufacture of pulp .


Definition, history and scope of pharmacognosy. Indigenous systems of medicine -Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy.


Sources, discriptions, constituents and uses of the following:- antirheumatic – Colchicine antitumour – Vinca, antidiabetic – Gymnema and antiseptic – Neem..

PRACTICAL : Items included in the theory.
Reference Books :

  1. Anonymous 1997. National Gene Bank : Indian Heritage on Plant Genetic Resources (Booklet). National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi.

  2. Arora, R.K. and Nayar, E.R. 1984. Wild Relatives of Crop Plants in India. NBPGR Science Monograph No.-7.

  3. Baker, H.G. 1978. Plants and Civilization (3rd edn.) C.A. Wadsworth, Belmont.

  4. Bole, P.V. and Vaghani, Y. 1986. Field Guide to Common Indian Trees. Oxford University Press, Mumbai.

  5. Chandel, K.P.S., Shukla, G. and Sharma, N. 1996. Biodiversity in Medicinal and Aromatic Plans in India : Conservation and Utilization. National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi.

  6. Chrispeels, M.J. and Sadava, D. 1977. Plants, Food and People, W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.

  7. Cristi, B.R. (ed.) 1999. CRC Handbook of Plant Sciences and Agriculture. Vol. I. In-situ conservation. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

  8. Conway, G. 1999. The Doubly Green Revolution : Food for All in the 21st Century. Penguin Books.

  9. Conway, G. and Barbier, E. 1990. After the Green Revolution. Earthscan Press, London.

  10. Conway, G.and Barbief, E. 1994. Plant. Genes and Agriculture. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston.

  11. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research 1986. The Useful Plants of India. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi.

  12. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (1948 - 1976). The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. New Delhi. Raw Materials I-XII, Revised Vol. I-III (1985-1992) Supplement (200).

  13. Cronquist, A. 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

  14. Directory of Indian Wetlands, 1993. WWF INDIA, New Delhi and AWB, Kuala Lumpur.

  15. Falk, D.A., Olwel, M. and Millan C. 1996. Restoring Diversity, Island Press. Columbia, USA.

  16. FAO/IBPGR 1989. Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm. FAO/IBPGR, Rome.

  17. Frankel, O.H., Brown, A.H.D. and Burdon, J.J. 1995. The Conservation of Plant Diversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

  18. Gadgil, M. and Guha, R. 1996. Ecology and Equity : Use and Abuse of Nature in Contemporary India. Penguin, New Delhi.

  19. Gaston, K.J. (Ed.) Biodiversity : a Biology of Numbers and Differences. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, U.K.

  20. Heywood, V. (Ed). 1995 Global Biodiversity Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

  21. Heywood, V.H, and Wyse lackn, P.S. (Eds) 1991. Tropical Botanical Gardens. Their Role in Conservation and Development. Academic Press, San Diego.

  22. Kocchar, S.L. 1998. Economic Botany of the Tropics, 2nd edition. Macmillian India Ltd., Deihi.

  23. Kothari, A. 1997. Understanding Biodiversity : Life Sustainability and Equity. Orient Longman.

  24. Kohli, R., Arya, K.S., Singh, P.H. and Dhillon, H.S. 1994. Tree Directory of Chandigarh. Lovdale Educational, New Delhi.

  25. Nair, M.N.B. et. al. (Eds.) 1988. Sustainable Management of Non­wood Forest Products. Faculty of Forestry, University Putra Malaysia. 43004 PM Serdong. Selangor, Malaysia.

  26. Paroda, R.S. and Arora, R.K. 1991. Plant Genetic Resources Conservation and Management. IPGRI (Pubiication) South Asia Office, C/o NBPGR. Pusa Campus, New Delhi.

  27. Pimentel, D. and Hall, C.W. (Eds.) 1989. Food and Natural Resources, Academic Press, London, New York.

  28. Pinstrup-Anderson, P. et. al. 1999. World Food Prospects :Critical Issues for the Early 21st Century. International Food Policy Research Institute. Washington, D.C., USA.

  29. Plant Wealth of India 1997. Special Issue of Proceedings Indian National Science Academy B-63.

  30. Plucknett, D.L., Smith, N.J.H., William, J.T. and Murti Annishetty, N. 1987. Gene Banks and Worlds Food. Princeton Univrersity Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

  31. Rodgrs, N.A. and Panwar, H.S. 1988. Planning a Wildlife Protected Area Network in India. Vol. I. The Report. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.

  32. Sahni, K.C. 2900. The Book of Indian Trees. 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, Mumbai.

  33. Schery, R.W. 1972. Plants for Man. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Prentice Hall.

  34. Sharma, O.P. 1996. Hill's Economic Botany (Late Dr. A.F. Hill, adapted by O.P. Sharma). Tata McGraw Hill Co. Ltd., New Delhi.

  35. Swaminathan, M.S. and Kocchar, S.L. (Eds.) 1989. Plants and Society. Macmillan Publication Ltd., London.

  36. Thakur, R.S., Puri, H.S.and Husain, A. 1989. Major Medicinal Plants of India. Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, CSIR, Lucknow.

  37. Thomas, P. 2000. Trees: Their National History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  38. Wanger, H., Hikino, H. and Farnswarth, N. 1989. Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. Vols. 1-3. Academic Press, London.

  39. Walter, K.S. and Gillett, H.J. 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. IUCN, the World Conservation Union. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland





Cell wall –structure, and functions. Tissues – Definition, types – simple permanent – parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibres and sclereids). Complex permanent tissues – xylem and phloem. Meristems – classifications, vegetative shoot apex and root apex, theories of shoot apex and root apex organization.


Tissue systems – Dermal tissue system – Fundamental or ground tissue system, Vascular tissue systemand types of vascular bundles. Stem – primary anatomical structure of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous stem. Secondary growth in dicotyledonous stems. Anomalous secondary growth in Nyctanthes, Boerhaavia and Dracaena. Nodal Anatomy


Root - Primary anatomical structure of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous roots. Secondary growth in dicot roots. Leaf -anatomy of dicot and monocot leaf.


Microsporangium,microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte. Megasporangium (ovule) different types, megasporogenesis, development of female gametophyte – Monosporic – Polygonum and Oenothera, Bisporic –Allium, Tetrasporic – Penaea and Peperomia.


Double fertilization and triple fusion. Heterofertilization. Development of dicot embryo-Capsella. Development of monocot embryo – Najas . Endosperm and its types – free nuclear, cellular, helobial. Endosperm haustoria. Apomixis – definition and types. Polyembryony –types. Parthenogenesis and parthenocarpy.

Anatomy :

Study of simple and complex tissues by maceration. Study of internal structure of primary ( young ) and secondary (old ) stems. Internal structure of monocot stem. Anomalous secondary growth in the stems of Boerhaavia, Nyctanthes and Dracaena. Anatomy of aerial roots. T.S of dicot and monocot leaves. Stomatal types.


T.S. of ( young and mature) anther.( Permanent slides only)

Observation of pollinia ( slide only )

Types of ovules, different stages of embryo sac-development.

Types of Endosperm- Nuclear, cellular and helobial

Stages in development of embryo in Dicotyledons (Capsella) Monocotyledons (Najas)

Dissection and display of any two stages of embryo in Tridax
Reference Books :

  1. Esau.K. (1985) – Anatomy of Seed Plants –John Willey

  2. Cutter.E.G (1989) – Plant Anatomy – Part I – Addison – Wesley Publishing Co..

  3. Vashista.P.C. (1988) – A Text Book of Plant Anatomy. S.Nagin & Co.

  4. Maheswari.P. (1991) – An Introduction to Embryology of Angiosperms, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.,

  5. Swamy B.G.L. and Krishnamoorthy. K.V. (1990) – From Flower to Fruits, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.

  6. Bhojwani S.S. and Bhatnagar.S.P. (1987) – Embryology of Angiosperms, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.,

  7. Bhojwani, S S. & Bhatnagar, SP. 1994. Embryology of Angiosperms, Vikas

  8. Bhojwani, S.S. and Bhatnagar, S.P. 2000. The Embryology of Angiosperms (4th revised and enlarged edition). Vikas Publishing House, New Deihi.

  9. Burgess, J. 1985. An Introduction to Plant Cell Development. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  10. Fageri, K. and Van der Pijl, L. 1979. The Principle of Pol1ination Ecology. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

  11. Fahn, A. 1982. Plant Anatomy. (3rd edition). Pergamon Press, Oxford.

  12. Fosker, D.E. 1994. Plant Growth and Development. A Molecular Approach. Academic Press, San Diego.

  13. Howell, S.H. 1998. Molecular Genetics of Plant Developmem. Cambridge University press, Cambridge.

  14. Leins, P., TucKer, S.C. and Endress, P.K. 1988. Aspects of Floral Development, J. Cramer, Germany.

  15. Lyndon, R.F. 1990. Plant Development. The Cellular Basis, Unnin Byman, London.

  16. Murphy, T.M. and Thompson, W.E, 1988. Molecular Plant Development. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

  17. Proctor, M. and Yeo, P. 1973. The Pollination of Flowers. William Collins Sons, London.

  18. Raghavan, V. 1997. Molecular Embryology of Flowering Plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  19. Raghavan, V. 1999. Developmental Biology of Flowering Plants. Springer-Verlag, New York.

  20. Raven, P.H., Evrt, R.F. and Eichhorn, S. 1992. Biology of Plants (5th edition). Worth, New York.

  21. Steeves, T.A. and Sussex, I.M., 1989. Patterns in Plant Development (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  22. Waisel, Y., Eshel, A. and Kafkaki, U. (eds.). 1996. Plant Roots : The Hidden Hall (2nd edition). Marcel Dekker, New York.

  23. Shivanna, K.R. and Sawhney, VK. (eds.) 1997. Pollen Biotechnology for Crop Production and Improvement. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  24. Shivanna, K.R. and Rangaswamy, N.S. 1992. Pollen Biology : A Laboratory Manual. Springer-Verlag. Berlin.

  25. Shivanna, K.R. and Johri, B.M. 1995. The Angiosperm Polien : Structure and Function. Wiley Eastern Ltd.. New York.



Biotic and abiotic factors and their influence on vegetation – a brief account of microbes, plants, animals, soil, wind, light, temperature, rain fall and fire. Plant succession – primary and secondary – xerosere, hydrosere. Adaptation in xerophytes, hydrophytes and epiphytes.


Ecosystem – concept processes and components. Food chain, food web, energy flow in ecosystem. Types of Ecosystems : Coastal and grassland. Ecological pyramids and nutrient cycling.


Biodiversity : Ecological species and genetic species diversity, concept :-classical and modern. Inter and intra specific species diversity. Allopatric and sympatric speciation. Endemism .


Principles and need for conservation in situ conservation and on-farm conservation. Ex situ conservation and afforestation. Seed banks, gene banks, culture collections, disadvantages of ex situ conservation. A brief account of national and international agencies of conservation. Pollution – Air, Water, soil-causes and consequences. Types of pollution : Primary and Secondary. Secondary pollution: physical and chemical.

Remedial measures.

Phytogeography : principles - vegetation types of India – tropical rain forest, mangrove vegetation and scrub jungle.


  1. Study of morphological and structural adaptations of locally available hydrophytes, mesophytes, halophytes and epiphytes and correlate to their particular habitats.

Hydrophyte : Nymphaea, Hydrilla.

Xerophyte : Nerium, Casuarina.

Mesophyte : Tridax, Vernonia.

Halophyte : Avicennia, Rhizophora.

Epiphyte : Vanda..

  1. Field trips to places for study and observation of vegetational types prescribed in the syllabus for 2 to 5 days under the guidance of teachers.

  2. Map of the phytogeographical regions of India.


  1. Atlas. R.M. and Bartha.R. (1987) – Microbial Ecology : Fundamentals and applications. The Benjamin/ Cummings Publishing Co. Inc.

  2. Colinvaux.P. (1986) – Ecology, John Wiley and Sons.

  3. Kumar.H.D. (1990) – Modern concepts of Ecology, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.,

  4. Krishna Iyer.V.R (1992) Environmental protection and legal defence. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.,

  5. Mabberley.D.J. (1983) – Tropical Rain forest \ecology, Blackie and Son Ltd.,

  6. Odum.E.P. (1983) – Basic Ecology, Holt-Saunders International Editions.

  7. Shukla.R.S. and Chandel.PS. (1990) – Plant Ecology, S.Chand & Co. Pvt. Ltd.,

  8. Singh.D.V (1985), The Eco Vote : - People’s representatives and global environment.

  9. Smith.W.H. (1981) – Air pollution and forest : Interactions between air contaminants and forest ecosystems.

  10. Vickery.M.L. (1984) – Ecology of Tropical plants, John Wiley and Sons.

  11. Krishnamurthy KV. 2003. An advanced text book on Biodiversity - Principle and Practice. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

  12. Melchias, G., 2001. Biodiversity and Conservation, Science Publishers Inc. USA.

  13. Sharma, PD. 1999. Ecology and Environment, Rastogi Publishers, Meerut.

Books for Reference

  1. Asthana, DK & Meera Asthana. 2006. A text book of Environmental studies. S.Chand & Company Ltd. New Delhi.

  2. Brian Groombridge. 1992. Global Biodiversity, Chapman and Hall, UK.

  3. IUCN, 1985. The World Conservation Strategy, IUCN, Switzerland.

  4. Odum, EP. 1970. Fundamentals of Ecology, 3rd edn, W.B.Saunders Ltd., UK

  5. Simmons et al., 1980, Conservation of Threatened Plants, NATO Scientific affairs, New York.



Introduction – definition, scope, cell organization – Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. Plasma membrane ,occurrence, structure. ( Fluid mosaic model), chemistry, function and origin.


Occurrence, structure, function and origin of endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, ribosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria and chloroplast. Semi genetic autonomy of Mt and plastid DNA.


Nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromosomes, euchromatin, heterochromatin, giant chromosomes polytene and lampbrush. Cell cycle, cell division, mitosis and meiosis and cytokinesis.


Nature and function of genetic materials-DNA-structure and replication – RNA structure and types . DNA repair mechanism. Protein synthesis-transcription, translation, genetic code .


Gene regulation in prokaryotes-lac-operon Genetic engineering – recombinant DNA technology , isolation of DNA, vector, restriction enzymes and DNA ligase. Transformation – screening for recombinants.


  1. Verma, P.S. & V.K. Agarwal, 2002, Cytology. S. Chand & Co.Ltd.,

New Delhi-55.

  1. Verma, P.S. & V.K. Agarwal, 2003, Genetics. S. Chand & Co.Ltd.,

New Delhi-55.

  1. Freifelder, D.1987. Essentials of Molecular Biology, Jones & Bartlett, Boston.

  1. Gardner, EJ., Simmons, MJ. & Snustad, D. 1991. Principles of Genetics, John Wiley Sons Inc., 8th Edn., New York.

5. Sinnott, EW., Dunn, LL. & Dobzhansky, T. 1997. Principles of Genetics, Tata Ma

Graw Hill Publishing Co., New Delhi.

6. Brown W.V. and Bertke.E.M., 1974, A text book of Cytology C.V.Mosley Co.,

St. Louis.

7. Cohn.N.S., 1979, Elements of Cytology, Freeman Book Co.,

8. De Robritis E.D.P. and DeRobrities. E.M.F.jr 1987 – Cell and Molecular biology Lea and Febiger..

9. Feifelder.D., - Molecular Biology, Narosa. Publication

10. Watson. J.D., Molecular biology of the Gene The Benjamin/ Cummings.

11. Freifelder, D. 1987. Essentials of Molecular Biology, Jones Bartlett, Boston, USA.

12. De Robertis & De Robertis. 1990. Cell and Molecular Biology, Saunders College,

Philadelphia, USA.

13. Gardner, EJ., Simmons, MJ. & Snustad, D. 1991. Principles of Genetics, 8th Edn.,

John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.

14. Glick, B.R. and Thompson, J.E. 1993. Methods in Plant Molecular, Biology and

Biotechnology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

15. Hackett, P.B., Fuchs, J.A. and Messing, J.W. 1988. An Introduction to Recombinant. DNA Techniques : Basic Experiments in Gene Manipulation. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co. Inc., Menlo Park, California.

16. Hall, J.L. and Moore, A.L. 1983. Isolation of Membranes and Organelles from Plant Cells. Academic Press, London, UK.

17. Harris, N. and Oparka, K.J. 1994. Plant Cell Biology : A Practical Approach. IRL Press, at Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

18. Shaw, C.H. (Ed.), 1988. Plant Molecular Biology: A Practical Approach. IRL Press Oxford.





Mendelian genetics – monohybrid, dihybrid and test cross. Allelic and non-allelic gene interactions. Polygenic inheritance, pseudo alleles and lethal alleles.

Chromose theory of linkage, crossing over, recombinations and mapping of genes on chromosomes. Sex determination in plants.


Chromosome number and structure. Polyploid origin, types and significance. Extra nuclear inheritance and its significance. Male sterility in corn. Mutation – types mutagenic agents (physical & chemical) and significance. Population genetics – Hardy – Weinberg principle.


Principles involved in plant breeding and its importance in green revolution with reference to wheat, rice, sugarcane, maize and cotton.Methods of crop improvement : selection (pure line, mass and clonal), hybridization, introduction and acclimatization. Heterosis – causes and effects. Polyploidy in plant breeding. Breeding for disease resistance. Improved seed production and seed testing techniques.


Origin of life-chemosynthetic theory on the origin of life. Evolutionary theories of Lamarck and Charles Darwin.


Measures of central tendency – mean, median and mode and measures of dispersion. Standard deviation, mean deviation.Testing of hypothesis. Simple definition of Null hypothesis, t-test, chi-square test.


  1. Genetic problems-test cross, back cross and allelic interactions.

  2. Biostatistical Problems covered in the theory.

  3. Gene mapping-3 point test cross.

  4. Models/ photographs/ charts/ equipment/ chemicals.

Any Mutagen

Protein Synthesis.

DNA structure & replication.

t-RNA structure


1. Albert B. Bray, D., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Robert, K. and Watson, J.D. 1989.,

Molecular Biology of the Cell (2nd editions), Garland Publishing Inc., new York.

  1. Atherly, A.G., Girton, J.R. and McDonald, J.F. 1999. The Science of Genetics. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth, USA.

  2. Burnham, C.R. 1962. Discussions in Cytogenetics. Burgess Publishing Co. Minnesota.

  3. Busch, H. and Rothblum, L. 1982. Volume X. The Cell Nucleus rDNA Part A. Academic Press.

  4. Hartl, D.L. and Jones, E.W. 1998. Genetics : Principles and Analysis (4th edition). Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Massachusetts, USA.

  5. Khush,G.S. 1973. Cytogenetics of Aneuploids. Academic Press, New York, London.

  6. Karp, G. 1999. Cells and Molecular Biology : Concepts and Experiments.John Wiley & Sons, Inc., U.S.A.

  7. Lewin, B. 2000. Gene VII. Oxford University Press, NewYork,USA.

  8. Lewis, R. 1997. Human Genetics : Concepts and Applications (2nd editions). WCB McGraw Hill, USA.

  9. Malacinski, G.M. and Freifelder, D. 1998 : Essentials of molecular Biology (3rd edition). Jones and B Artlet Publishers, Inc., London.

  10. Russel, P.J. 1998. Genetics (5th edition). The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company INd., USA.

  11. Snustad, D.P. and Simmons, M.J. 2000. Principles of Genetics (2nd edition). John Wiley & Sons Inc., USA.

  12. Glick, B.R. and Thompson, J.E. 1993. Methods in Plant Molecular, Biology and Biotechnology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

  13. Glover, D.M. and Hames, B.D. (Eds.), 1995. DNA Cloning 1 : A Practical Approach, Core Techniques. 2nd edition. PAS, IRL Press at Oxford University Press Oxford.

  14. Gunning, B.E.S. and Steer, M.W. 1996. Plant Cell Biology : Structure and Function. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Boston, Massachusetts.

  15. Hackett, P.B., Fuchs, J.A. and Messing, J.W. 1988. An Introduction to Recombinant DNA Techniques : Basic Experiments in Gene Manipulation. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co. Inc., Menlo Park, California.

  16. Hall, J.L. and Moore, A.L. 1983. Isolation of Membranes and Organelles from Plant Cells. Academic Press, London, UK.

  17. Harris, N. and Oparka, K.J. 1994. Plant Cell Biology : A Practical Approach. IRL Press, at Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

  18. Shaw, C.H. (Ed.), 1988. Plant Molecular Biology: A Practical Approach. IRL Press Oxford.

  19. Fukui, K. and Nakayama, S. 1996. Plant Chromosomes : laboratory Methods. CRC Press, Boca ratan, florida.

  20. Sharma, A.K. and Sharma, A. 1999. Plant Chromosome Analysis, Manipulation and Engineering. Hoarwood Academic Publisher, Australia



Atomic structure, chemical bonds- ionic bond and covalent bond- pH and- buffer- basic knowledge of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids .

Water relations – diffusion, permeability, osmosis, water potential and its components. Absorption of water , apoplast and symplast, mechanism – passive and active. Transpiration – types and factors affecting transpiration and significance. Opening and closing of stomata- mechanisms.
Elementary concept of bioenergetics – entrophy and free energy. Enzymes:- properties, coenzymes and activators, nomenclature, classification, mode of action, factors affecting enzyme action.
Photosynthesis :- Radian energy, absorption spectrum and action spectrum of chlorophyll moleculesInteraction between photosynthetic pigments and radiant energy. Red drop phenomenon, Emerson’s enhancement effect, pigment systems I and II. electron transport system in the chloroplast ( Z scheme), cyclic and noncyclic photo phosphorylation. PCR pathways- Calvin cycle, Hatch and Slack pathway and photorespiration- mechanism and significance.

Respiration :- Types. Aerobic – Glycolysis, HMP ( outline only ) Krebs Cycle, electron transport system, oxidative phosphorylation, respiratory quotient. Anaerobic respiration and fermentation

Nitrogen assimilation :- Importance of nitrogen in plant life, conversion of nitrate to ammonia by plants, biological nitrogen fixation – nitrogen fixing organisms, legume – Rhizobium symbiosis; synthesis of aminoacids – reductive and transamination.

Growth – plant growth regulators (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene and abscisic acid) – mechanism of action and practical applications.

Photomorphogenesis – photoperiodism, vernalization, phytochromes, dormancy (seed and bud), seed viability and germination.


Experiments to be performed and recorded by students individually :

  1. Determination of water potential by plasmolytic method.

  2. Determination of water potential by gravimetric method.

  3. Effect of temperature and chemicals on membrane permeability.

  4. Study of rate of transpiration under different environmental factors..

  5. Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatogrphy.

  6. Study of rate of photosynthesis under different light intensities.

  7. Study of rate of photosynthesis under different wavelengths (red & blue) of light.

  8. Comparison of rate of respiration of different respiratory substrates..

  9. To test the germination capacity of seeds using Tetrazolium chloride.

  10. Measurement of pH of expressed cell sap and different soils using pH meter.
1   ...   53   54   55   56   57   58   59   60   61

The database is protected by copyright © 2016
send message

    Main page