University of madras

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Unit 3: Chemical Bonds and Crystallography

Interatomic forces - Different types of chemical bonds - Ionic bond - Cohesive energy of ionic Crystals and Madelung constant - Covalent bond - Metallic bond - Van der Waal's bond - Hydrogen bond.

Superconductivity - General properties - Type I and II Superconductors - Meissner effect - BCS theory - applications of super conductors.
Unit 4 : Dielectric Properties
Dielectric materials - Polarization, susceptibility and dielectric constant - Local field or internal field - Clausius - Mossoti relation - Sources of polarizability - Electronic polarizability - lonic polarizability - Orientational polarizability - Frequency and temperature effects on polarization - Dielectric breakdown – Properties of different types of insulating materials.
Unit 5 : Magnetic Properties
Different types of magnetic materials - classical theory of diamagnetism (Langevin theory) - Langevin theory of paramagnetism - Weiss theory of paramagnetism - Heisenberg interpretation on internal field and quantum theory of ferromagnetism - Antiferromagnetism - Hard and soft magnetic materials.

Books for Study
1. Materials Science by M.Arumugam, Anuradha Agencies Publishers.(2002)

2. Solid State Physics by R L Singhal, Kedarnath Ram Nath & Co., Meerut (2003)

3. Introduction to Solid State Physics by Kittel, Willey Eastern Ltd(2003).

4. Materials Science and Engineering by V. Raghavan, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi(2004).

Books for Reference
1. Solid State Physics by S.O.Pillai, New Age International (P) Ltd.,(2002).

2. Solid State Physics by A. J.Dekker, Macmillan India(1985).

3. Solid State Physics by HC Gupta, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (2001).

Web Site

Unit 1 : Semiconductor
Bandgap - forbidden energy gap - valence and conduction bands, pure semiconductor - Law of mass action, Impurity in semiconductors - energy band diagram and fermi level - PN junction barrier voltage across the junction.
Unit 2 : Transistor Amplifier
Transistor – different modes of operations – CB mode & CE mode - Two port representation of a transistor - h parameter - AC equivalent circuit using h parameters - analysis of an amplifier using h parameters common emitter only - expression for current gain, voltage gain, input impedance, output impedance and power gain - RC coupled amplifier - frequency response - analysis of low, mid and high frequency regions - classification of amplifiers - class A power amplifier – push pull, class B power amplifier - emitter follower.
Unit 3 : Feedback oscillators
Feedback in amplifiers - effect of negative feedback - concept of feedback – Barkhuesen condition - oscillators - phase shift and Wien's bridge oscillators - expression for frequency of oscillation and condition for oscillation in each case.
Unit 4 : Wave shaping circuits and multivibrators
Clipping and clamping circuits - biased clipper - integrating and differentiating circuits - RC time constant - Multivibrators - astable, monostable and bistable multivibrator - using transistors.
Unit 5 : Special semiconductor devices and applications
Field effect transistor (FET) - characteristics - FET amplifier - Unijunction transistor (UJT) - characteristics - saw tooth generator - VVR action - relaxation oscillator - frequency of oscillation - SCR characteristics - SCR as a switch - SCR rectifier.
Books for Study
1. Hand Book of Electronics by Gupta and Kumar - Pragati Prakashan – Meerut(2002).

2. Principles of Electronics by V.K. Mehta, Rohit Mehta S. Chand & Co.(2006).

3. Electronics by M. Arul Thalapathi, Comptek Publishers(2005).

4. Elements of Electronics by M.K.Bagde and Singh S.P., S. Chand & Co., New Delhi(1990).

5. Applied Electronics by A. Subramanyam – National Publishing Co.(1997)

Books for Reference
1. Electronic Devices by Mittal.G.K., G.K. Publishers Pvt. Ltd., (1993).

2. Basic Electronics by B.L. Theraja, S. Chand & Co., (2008).

3. Solid State Electronics by Ambrose and Vincent Devaraj, Meera Publication.

4. Applied Electronics by R.S. Sedha, S. Chand & Co.(1990).

Web Site 395.html.

Unit 1 : Relativity

Frames of reference - Galilean transformation - Michelson - Morley experiment - Postulates of special theory of relativity - Lorentz transformation - length Contraction - time dilation - Relativity of simultaneity - addition of velocities - variation of mass with velocity – Mass energy relation - Elementary ideas of general relativity.

Unit 2 : Wave Nature of Matter

Phase and group velocity - wave packet - expression of De Brogile's wave length - Davisson and Germer's experiment - G.P.Thompson's experiment - Electron microscope - Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and its consequences.

Unit 3 : Schrodinger Equation

Inadequacy of classical mechanics - Basic postulates of quantum mechanics - Schrodinger equation - Properties of wave function - Probability interpretation of wave function - linear operators - self adjoint operators - expectation value - eigenvalues and eigenfunctions - commutativity and compatibility.

Unit 4 : Angular Momentum in Quantum Mechanics

Orbital angular momentum operators and their commutation relations - separation of three dimensional Schrodinger equation into radial and angular parts - Elementary ideas of spin angular momentum of an electron - Pauli matrices.

Unit 5 : Solutions of Schrodinger Equation

Free particle solution - Particle in a box - Potential well of finite depth (one dimension) - linear harmonic oscillator - rigid rotator and hydrogen atom.
Books for Study

1. A Text book of Quantum mechanics by P.M.Mathews and S.Venkatesan, Tata McGraw - Hill, New Delhi(2005).

2. Quantum Mechanics by V.K.Thankappan, New Age International (P) Ltd. Publishers, New Delhi(2003).

3. Quantum mechanics by K.K.Chopra and G.C. Agrawal, Krishna Prakasam Media (P) Ltd., Meerut First Edition(1998).

4. Modern Physics by R. Murugeshan and Kiruthiga Sivaprasath, S. Chand & Co.,(2008).
Books for Reference

1. Mechanics and Relativity by Brijlal Subramanyam, S.Chand & Co., New Delhi, . (1990).

2. Concepts of modern physics by A.Beiser. Tata McGraw - Hill, 5th edition, New Delhi(1997).

3. Introduction to quantum mechanics by Pauling and Wilson, McGraw – Hill.

4. Quantum mechanics by A.Ghatak and Loganathan, Macmillan India Pvt. Ltd.
Web Site
Unit 1 : Matrices and Special Functions
Characteristic equation of a matrix - Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors - Hermition and Unitary matrices - Properties of their eigenvalues and eigenvectors - Diagonalisation of matrices.
Special functions - Gamma and Beta functions - Series solutions of Legendre, Bessel and Hermite equations - Orthogonality properties of Legendre and Hermite Polynomials and Bessel functions.
Unit 2 : Elementary Complex Analysis
Functions of a Complex variable - Continuity and differentiability - single and multivalued functions - Analytic function - Cauchy - Riemann conditions (necessity and sufficiency). Cauchy - Riemann Conditions in the Polar (r,θ) coordinates.

Unit 3 : Vector Analysis
Scalar and Vector fields - Gradient, Divergence and Curl - Equations of motion in the vector notation - equations of motion (components) in cartesian coordinates and spherical polar coordinates - equation of motion in the polar coordinates.
Unit 4 : Classical Mechanics
Generalised coordinates - configuration space - Lagrange's equation - simple applications : to find equations of motion given a lagrangian; central potential and conservation of angular momentum - Hamilton function and Hamilton's equations - harmonic oscillator.
Unit 5 : Statistical Physics
Quantum statistics of identical particles - Maxwell - Boltzmann, Bose - Einstein and Fermi - Dirac statistics - Derivation of Planck's radiation formula from Bose - Einstein statistics - Degenerate Fermi gas.
Books for Study
1. Mathematical Physics by Sathya Prakash, Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi (1996)

2. Classical Mechanics by J.C. Upadhyaya, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai(2003).

3. Introduction to Statistical Mechanics by S.K. Sinha Narosa Publication(2007).

4. Heat Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics by Brijlal N.Subrahmanyam, P.S. Hemne S.Chand & Co., New Delhi.(2007).
Books for Reference
1. Mathematical Physics by B.D. Gupta, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi(1996).

2. Advanced Engineering Mathematics by E.Kreyszig, Eighth Edition, Wiley Publishers, New York(1989).

3. Classical Mechanics by H.Goldstein, Special Indian student edition, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi(1985)
Web Site methods.


Unit 1 : Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations

Method of triangularisation - Gauss elimination method - Inverse of a matrix - Gauss - Jordan method
Unit 2 : Numerical Solution of Algebraic, Transcendental and Differential Equation

Bisection method – Regula falsi method - Newton - Raphson method - - Horner's method - Solution of ordinary differential equation - Euler's method.

Unit 3 : Interpolation

Finite differences – operators ,,,,D – relation between operators –linear interpolation – interpolation with equal intervals – Newton forward interpolation formula – Newton backward interpolation formula.

Unit 4 : Curve Fitting

Principles of least squares - fitting a straight line - linear regression - fitting an exponential curve.

Unit 5 : Numerical Integration

Trapezoidal Rule - Simpson's 1/3 rule and 3/8 rule - Applications - Weddle's rule

Books for Study

1. Numerical methods - M.K.Venkatraman, National Publishing Company, (1990).

2. Numerical methods by V. Rajaraman, Prentice - Hall India Pvt. Ltd., (2003).

3. Numerical methods by P. Kandasamy, K. Thilagavathy and K. Gunavathy, S. Chand & Co. (2002).

Books for References

1. Numerical methods for Scientific and Engineering computation by Jain Iyenger and Jain, New Age International (P) Ltd.,(2004).

2. Numerical methods by S.S.Sastry, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi(2003).
Web Site receipier online book in C & Fortran).

Unit 1 : Fundamental Digital Electronics
Number systems – binary – hexadecimal – Binary addition – subtraction (1’s and 2’s compliment method) – multiplication - division - BCD – Conversion – simplification of logic circuits - using (i) Boolean algebra, (ii) Karnaugh map – Demorgan’s theorems - NAND and NOR as universal building blocks.
Unit 2 : Combinational Logic Circuits
Half adder, full adder, half subtractor and full subtractor – 4 bit adder/subtractor - decoder, encoder - multiplexer - demultiplexer.
Unit 3 : Sequential Logic Circuits
R.S flip flop, D flip flop and JK flip flops - JK Master Slave flip flop - synchronous and ripple counters - BCD counter – Up/Down counters - shift registers - serial and parallel registers - ring and twisted ring counter.
Unit 4 : OP-AMP Basic Applications
Characteristics parameters – differential gain – CMRR – Slew rate – bandwidth - applications – inverter, non-inverter, integrator, differentiator, summing, difference and averaging amplifier - solving simultaneous equations - comparator - square wave generator - Wien's bridge oscillator - Schmitt trigger
Unit 5 : Timer, DAC/ADC
Timer 555 - Internal block diagram and working - astable multivibrator - schmitt trigger.

D/A converter - binary weighted method - A/D converter - successive approximation method.

Books for Study
1. Digital Principles and Application by Malvino Leach, Tata McGraw Hill, 4th Edition(1992).

2. Digital Fundamentals by Thomas L. Floyd, Universal Book Stall, New Delhi(1998).

3. Introduction to Integrated Electronics by V.Vijayendran, S. Viswanathan (Printers and Publishers) Pvt. Ltd., Chennai(2005).

4. OP - AMPs and Linear Integrated Circuits by Ramakant A. Gayakwad, Prentice

Hall of India(1994).
Books for Reference

1. Digital Electronics by Practice Using Integrated Circuits - R.P.Jain - Tata McGraw Hill(1996).

2. Linear Integrated Circuits by D. Roy Choudhury and Shail Jain - New Age International (P) Ltd.(2003).

3. Electronics - Analog and Digital by I.J. Nagrath - Prentice - Hall of India, New Delhi(1999).

4. Integrated Electronics by J.Millman and C.Halkias, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi (2001)
Web Site

Unit 1 : Architecture
Architecture of 8085 – registers, flags, ALU, address and data bus, demultiplexing address/data bus – control and status signals – control bus, Programmer’s model of 8085 – Pin out diagram – Functions of different pins.
Unit 2 : Programming Techniques
Instruction set of 8085 – data transfer, arithmetic, logic, branching and machine control group of instructions – addressing modes – register indirect, direct, immediate and implied addressing modes.

Assembly language & machine language – programming techniques: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, ascending, descending order, largest and smallest (single byte)

UNIT 3 : Interfacing memory to 8085
Memory interfacing – Interfacing 2kx8 ROM and RAM, Timing diagram of 8085 (MOV Rd, Rs – MVI Rd,data(8)) .

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