University of madras

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Unit I

  1. Use of Simpson’s Rules for the computation of areas, second moment of areas, volumes, moments of volumes and centroids. Centre of Pressure for regular shapes and parabolic shapes, when given horizontal and vertical co-ordinates.

  2. Derivations of the formulae for TPC, FWA, BM (Transverse), MCTC, Angle of Loll, virtual loss of GM due to Freesurface effect. Virtual loss of GM on dry-docking, list with zero GM, wall-sided formula and Attwood formula.

  3. Stability at moderate and large angles of heel. Use of the wall-sided formula.

  4. Effect of beam and freeboard on stability.

Unit II

  1. Dynamic Stability – calculation by the GZ curve.

  2. Stability and Trim when Dry-docking or Grounding.

  3. Theory of rolling – synchronization

  4. The danger to a ship at the angle of Loll. Ballasting sequence to rectify the same.

  5. Dangers to a ship with a heavy list. Dangers associated with deck cargoes including timber. Preventive and corrective actions.

Unit III

  1. Bilging of compartment. Permeability of a compartment. Calculation on bilging of a compartment – amidship, end and intermediate compartments.

  2. The inclining experiment.

  3. Shearing forces and Bending moments. The ship as a box girder. The calculation and graphical representation of the SF and BM for box-shaped vessels on even keel under various conditions of Loll.

  4. Modern methods of determining the effect of different conditions of Loll and ballast on the ship’s structure and stability – Loadicator.

  5. Calculations based on the foregoing and on the syllabi of Naval Architecture in the first and second year.


Unit IV

  1. Properties of steel, aluminium and other construction materials used for shipbuilding. Effects of fire, heat, shock etc. in these materials

  2. Type of ships. General ideas on strength and construction. Midship sections of specialized carriers, passenger ships, Rolash, refrigerated cargo, LNG, LPG, chemicals etc.

  3. An outline knowledge of shipyard practice and procedure including drawing office methods, place and section marking, process control and pre-fabrication.

  4. Methods used in welding of steel ships. Welding of Ferrous and non-ferrous metals as practiced in shipyards. Testing and inspection of welds. Types of joints and edge preparations. Stresses set up due to welding and stress relieving.

Unit V

  1. Classification Societies and their functions.

  2. Surveys for assignment and retention of Class.

  3. Harmonized system of surveys and certification (HSSC)

  4. Port State Control (PSC)

  5. Outline knowledge of Tonnage regulations.

  6. Loadline regulations. Assignment of Freeboards.

Books recommended for reference:

  1. Ship Construction - Pursey

  2. The Rules and Practice of Ship Construction - Capt. Erol Fernandes

  3. Ship Construction Notes - Kemp & Young

  4. Ship Construction - Taylor

  5. Ship Stability I, II & III - Capt. H. Subramaniam

  6. Problems on M.V. Hindship - Capt. T.K. Joseph & Capt. S.S.S


  1. Merchant Ship stability for Masters & Mates - Derrett



a) Fuels—Different types & properties.—Fuel supply & storage arrangements on board

ships—Treatment of fuel

b) Turbines – Impulse & Reaction Turbines, gas Turbines.—Steam turbine operation &

care--Turbines as prime movers for various duties including cargo pumping

operation in Tankers.
c) Propeller & Main Shafting—Types of propellers—Fixed pitch & Variable pitch

propellers—Pitch, Pitch angle, Real & Apparent Slip, Propeller efficiency &

calculations—Shafting, Tail shaft, Intermediate shaft, Thrust shaft & Thrust

block- Alignment of shafts.

d) Deck Machinery---Cargo winch, Windlass, Life boat winches—Hydraulic,

Pneumatic & Electric devices—Description & operating principles--Safety features

e) Pollution control—Sewage disposal, Method, Limits, Regulations—Bilge Oil Water

Separator, Regulations—Control of pollution from machinery exhaust.



a) Process of Exhausting, Scavenging & Super-charging—Scavenge fires.
b) Lubricating oil & Cooling water systems- Types of lubricating oils for different

duties—Simple Cooling water, Lube oil & Fuel oil flow circuits for large diesel

c) Reasons & method of chemical treatment & testing of jacket cooling water.
d) Operation of I C Engine as main propulsion engine- Warming-up, Starting,

Manoeuvering, Reversing & Full Power running of Main engines- Limitations &

cares to be taken during operation- The Electric telegraph description & operation

a) Selection criteria for I C Engines—Power to Weight ratio- Specific fuel consumption-

Indicated power, Brake power, Shaft power, Delivered power, Thrust power &

Effective power—various efficiencies & calculations—Maximum continuous

Rating (MCR)— Calculation of fuel consumption, Economical Speed—Heat

balance, various losses & calculations.
b) Other Propulsion units- Steam Turbine & Gas Turbine as main propulsion units


a) Introduction & growth in shipboard operation—understanding terminology—Sensors

& Measuring elements for temperature, pressure, level, flow etc—

Transmitters & Actuators.
b) Automatic control systems—Open& Closed Loop control systems- - Controllers &

proportional controllers.

c) Pneumatic, Hydraulic, Electric & Electronic control systems—Applications to various

shipboard operations.

d) Bridge control of main Propulsion system—Maneuverings aids – C.P.Propeller,

Bow Thruster—Care & Applications.

e) Trim Indicator, Heel Indicator, Draft Gauge, and Load & stress Indicators.
f) Liquid cargo loading- Storage & Discharge operations—Monitoring –Remote level

gauges-Remote control valves.

g) Remote control operation of hatch covers—Remote operation of Loading,

Discharging & Ballast operations.

h) Information Display, Data Logging & Alarm Systems—Testing & Maintenance



a) Detectors- Fire, Smoke, Heat & Flame—Fire Alarm Circuits.

b) Fire Fighting Systems-0- Fixed fire fighting systems for Engine Room,

Accommodation Space & Cargo Holds – Co-2 Flooding, High pressure water

system, Water sprinkling system, Bulk dry powder & Foam systems—High

expansion foam systems.

c) Inert Gas System Plant—Inert Gas production, Generation from boiler flue

gases—use of O-2 Analyser, Explosive meter Dragger Pump & other

portable measuring instruments.
d) Smoke helmets, Breathing Apparatus, Fire Suit & other Safety Equipments
e) Role of Classification Society in quality of Construction, Machinery& Operation

Surveys & Importance of the same

f) Life Boat Engine, Emergency Fire Pump Engine—Operation & care


  1. Familiarity with parts of internal combustion engine-medium and large size.

  2. Familiarity with parts of pumps, compressor heat exchangers, valves and valves


  1. Assembly of certain engine components.

  2. Starting and running operations of motor boat engines, emergency fire pump


  1. Starting, running and care of centrifugal pumps and air compressors.

  2. Simple turning operations on lathe machine.

  3. Use of instruments like portable O 2 analyser, explosivemeter, dragger pump.



1. General Engineering L.Jackson Thomas Reed

Knowledge for Marine & T.Morton Publications Ltd

2. Reeds Engineering W.Embleton Thomas Reed

Knowledge for Deck Officers & T.Morton Publications Ltd
3. Basic Electro Technology Thomas Reed

for Engineers Publications Ltd

4. Marine Engineering Series - Gth Flanogan Henemann

Marine Boilers Professional

Publications Ltd

5. Marine Engineering Series Wharton A.S. Henemann

Diesel Engines Professional

Publications Ltd

6. Marine Auxiliary Machinery D.W.Smith Thomas Reed

Publications Ltd

7. Marine Electrical Practice G.O.Watson Thomas Reed

Publications Ltd

8. Instrumentation and Control Thomas Reed

for Engineers Publications Ltd

9. Fire Fighting Equipment and its Thomas Reed

uses on Ship Marine Engineering Publications Ltd

Volume - 1
10. Principles and Practice of D.K.Sanyal Thomas Reed

Marine Diesel Engines Publications Ltd

Cargo Work and Marine Communication

Cargo Work

Unit 1

A. Cargo gear

  1. Stress and strain, Elastic Limit, Yield Point, Breaking Strength, Proof Load, Factor of Safety, Safe Working Load (SWL).

  2. The Factory Act. Requirements for annealing, normalizing and periodic testing of cargo gear.

  3. The Chain Register and other requirements of the Factory Act.

B. Cargo equipment

Grabs – Description of types of grabs (mechanical and remote operated), working principle, precautions when in operation.

Chutes and Conveyor belts – Description of types, working principle, precautions when in use.

Gantry cranes – Description of types, working principle, precautions when in operation

Pumps – Brief description of various types of cargo pumps used on board tankerships. Working principle. Explanation of terms – cavitation, pump racing, suction head, discharge head, priming of pumps and testing of pumps.

Eductors – Description of parts of an eductor, working principle, precautions for operation.

Unit 2

A. Codes, Regulations and Guidelines

Categories of cargo.

Introduction to codes and guidelines for carriage of bulk cargoes, petroleum products in bulk, chemicals in receptacles as well as in bulk and gas cargoes.

Dangerous Goods Code – Brief description of categories and contents of the code. Symbols and markings used in packaging of dangerous goods.

Methods of cargo carriage including container and refrigerated (reefer) modes

MARPOL 73/78 – Brief description of MARPOL 73/78, highlighting of salient features.

B. Cargo stowage

  1. Principle of stowage and securing of all types of cargo including the lashing arrangements, if any, in each case.

  2. Planning stowage of different types of cargo based on nature of cargo, cargo compatibility, port rotation and any special stowage requirements.

  3. Safety precautions – including measures for fire, water ingress, cargo sweat, cargo shifting, heavy weather enroute

  4. Hatch covers – Brief description of different types of hatch covers and their closing/securing arrangements.

Unit 3

Cargo operations

  1. Cargo watches in port and in the anchorage – description of duties and responsibilities of the duty officer, day/night orders by the Chief officer, port regulations, duties of support staff during cargo operations.

  2. Ship to ship operations – Lightering, bunkering and offshore replenishment. Brief description of each operation, related precautions.

  3. Vapour Recovery and Vapour Balancing operations.

  4. Draft surveys and calculations for cargo loadable quantity in bulk carriers. Concept of Lightship and Loadship with respect to cargo calculations.

  5. Liquid cargo calculations (for tankers) – including wedge formula.

  6. Explanation of conversions – API to Specific Gravity and vice-versa, Temperature in deg C to deg F and vice-versa, US barrels to cubic metres and vice-versa.

Unit 4

Marine Communication

  1. Radio communication equipment on board ships – introduction, features, method of usage, selection of suitable frequencies

  2. Radio regulations relating to Maritime Services including maritime frequency allocation.

  3. Satellite communication and alerting systems – equipment on board and ashore. Methods adopted.

Unit 5


  1. Understanding of the Morse code

  2. Morse signaling with the Aldis Lamp

  3. Morse signaling with daylight signaling apparatus

Books recommended for reference:

  1. Stowage of cargo O.P. Thomas

  2. IMDG Code IMO Publication

  3. Cargo Work Capt. Errol Fernandes

  4. Cargo Work Notes Kemp and Young

  5. International Code of Signals HMSO

  6. MARPOL (Consolidated edition) IMO Publication


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