University of madras

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Unit III

Earth-moon system, the moon’s orbital and axial rotation, phases of the moon, liberation, and lunar month. Eclipses – solar and lunar. Conditions necessary for occurrence of solar and lunar eclipse. Umbra and pen-umbra. Path of totality. Occultation of a planet or star. Precession of equinoxes. Amplitude and azimuth of moon. Horizontal parallax. Augmentation of semi-diameter of moon and effect on true altitude. Calculations of moonrise/moonset/meridian passage using almanac.

Relationship between tides and phases of the moon. Spring and neap tides. Priming and lagging.

Unit IV

Twilight – civil, nautical and astronomical. Conditions necessary for twilight all night. Calculation of time of twilight by perusal of the almanac with appropriate corrections. Simple calculations based on the above.

Circumpolar bodies, condition necessary for a body to be circumpolar, maximum azimuth. Problems based on these topics.


Unit V

To obtain a position by use of position lines obtained from two or more observations with or without a run (simultaneous or staggered). The cocked hat and its interpretations.

Moon’s amplitude, azimuth and sight calculations by latitude by meridian altitude, longitude by chronometer and intercept methods.

Fixed errors in sight calculations, computation of altitudes.

Identification of stars.


Sextant: to use for measurement of VSA and HAS. To identify adjustable errors of the sextant and correct them.

Gyrocompass – to know procedure of stopping/starting of gyrocompass, routine maintenance, use of azimuth ring to take bearings of both terrestrial and celestial objects.

Books recommended for reference:

  1. Principles of Navigation - Capt. P.M. Sarma / Capt. T.K.Joseph

                1. and Capt. S.S.S. Rewari

  2. Practical Navigation - Capt. H. Subramaniam

  3. Admiralty manual of navigation volumes I & II

  4. Principle and practices of navigation - Capt. A. Frost

  5. Nichol’s concise guide volumes I & II

  6. Nutshell booklet on sextant - Capt. H. Subramaniam




To find the time and height of HW and LW at standards ports and secondary ports by tidal differences, to find the time at which the tides reaches a specific height or the heights of the tide at given time and hence the correction to be applied to soundings or charted heights of shore objects.
2A. A systematic knowledge and use of the contents of the following documents in relation to safety.

Navigation sailing directions.

List of lights & fog signals.

List of radio signals.

Ocean passages of the world.

Notices to mariners

M & Ms notices

Guide port entry.

2B. Selection of ocean routes, shore based weather routing, planning & executing a coastal passage, Navigation in pilotage waters, approaching and passing through a traffic separation scheme.


3A. Position fixing by various methods, current & leeway, running fix and three point bearing and use of hyperbolic charts.

3B. Demonstration of ability to plan passage taking into consideration important factors such as depth of water, distance off dangers, current, traffic separation schemes, navigational aids available etc.,


4A. Through knowledge of all rules, annexes of international regulations for prevention of collision and IALA buoyage system.
4B. Radar plotting exercises, True plot, Relative pilot
4C. Action for collision avoidance taking into consideration the rules of the road.

5A. The students will be required to identify various collision situations by day and night using magnetic board, wooden models or any other aid to simulate such conditions.
5B. Candidates will be required to deal with each collision situation broadly under the heading recognitions, responsibility, action, appropriate sound signal and ordinary practice of seamanship. Recognition of various buoys & marks under IALA system and appropriate action required under the rules. Collision situations in restricted visibility with or without radar. Stationary obligations under both circumstances.
1. Chartwork Capt .S.K.Puri

2. Rule of the Road Bhandarkar Publication

3. B.A Chart 5011 HMSO

4. Shipborne Radar Capt.H.Subramaniam

5.Voyage Planning & Chartwork Capt.M.V.Naik & Capt.Varty

6. International Light, Shape & Sound Signals Moore D.A

7. A Guide to Collision Avoidance A.N.Cockroft

8. Chartwork Capt.S.S.Chaudhari

9. Modern Chartwork Capt W.H.Sauair


Unit 1

A. Concept of Law





Private and public law

International Law

Municipal law

B. Branches of Law

Civil Law – Public and Private Laws – Brief outline

Criminal Law - Brief outline

Law of Torts - Brief outline

Unit 2

A. International Maritime Law

UNO – Organisation, role and functions

IMO – Organisation, role and functions

Treaties, Conventions, Protocols, Amendments, Codes, Guidelines, Circulars and Notifications

Diplomatic Relations and Immunities

UNCLOS – zones of jurisdiction (inland waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone, Exclusive economic zone (EEZ), extended fisheries zone, continental shelf, archipelagic waters and artificial islands

Innocent Passage – when terminated due circumstance.

B. Indian National Legal System

Constitution of India – an overview

Hierarchy of courts – Supreme court of India, High courts of the states and other courts

Jurisdiction of courts – territorial, pecuniary, original and appellate

Admiralty jurisdiction

Unit 3

Process of Litigation

A. Active Litigation

Suits, petitions, applications, complaints and appeals

Litigants – plaintiff, defendant, petitioner and respondent etc.

Mode of preferring a complaint and related procedure of adjudication

Award and execution

B. Passive Litigation



Good offices




Unit 4

A. Law of Contracts

Offer and Acceptance

Agreement and Contract




Capacity to contract

Valid, Void and Voidable contracts


Breach of contracts and remedies for breach

Discharge of contracts

Special contracts – Bailments and Liens

Contract of affreightment – Overview of carriage of Goods Act 1925, Indian Multimodal Transport of Goods Act 1993, Hague Visby Rules, Hamburg Rules, Charter Parties and brief interpretation of various clauses.

Law of agency
B. Marine Insurance Act 1963

Scope, content and application

Insurable interests.

Types of insurance contracts – policy covers, floating policy, run off, open cover

Gaming and wagering policy

Marine adventures

Maritime queries

Losses not covered by perils of the sea

Mode of contracting marine insurance

Procedure for marine insurance claims

‘Inch Maree’ clause


Warranty and institute warranty


York-Antwerp rules 1994

Unit 5

A. Legal Remedies in Common Law

Liens – Maritime liens and Possessary liens

Maritime Bailments

B. Wrecks, Salvage and Claims

Definition of coastline

Receiver – duties, powers and responsibilities

Power to Passover adjoining land

Suppression of plunder and disorder

Procedure to follow on locating wreck


Sale of wreck

Claims of owners

Search warrants


Salvage – brief outline

C. Investigations and Inquiries

Aims of investigation

Master’s role in collecting evidence

Importance of operational records, all log books, photographs, videos and policies

Books recommended for reference:

  1. Indian Multimodal Transport of Goods Act 1993 Govt. Of India publication

  2. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1925 Govt. Of India publication

  3. Marine Insurance Act 1963 Govt. Of India publication

  4. The Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996 Govt. Of India publication

  5. The Indian Contract Act 1879 Govt. Of India publication

  6. STCW convention 1978 IMO Publication

  7. STCW convention 1995 IMO Publication

  8. Hague Visby Rules, Hamburg Rules IMO Publication

  9. Relevant Shipping Manuals, Conventions & Rules IMO Publication

  10. Maritime Law Bhandarkar Publications

  11. Charter Parties Scrutton

  12. Legal Regime of Merchant Shipping Dr. Nagendra Singh

  13. Maritime Law of India Gopalan Nair

  14. Maritime Liens Dr. Thomas

Semester VI
Core III

Bridge Procedures and Legal Knowledge

Unit 1

Bridge Equipment

Guidelines for Bridge watch-keeping at sea and at anchorage.

Radar & ARPA – Description, features, operating procedure with respect to position fixing and collision avoidance.

Echo sounder - Description, features, working principle and operating procedure. Causes for false readings.

Course Recorder – Description of types, features, working principle.

Satellite Navigation system - Description, features, working principle and operating procedure

GPS & DGPS - Description, features, working principle and operating procedure. Advantages of the GPS over other commercial satellite navigation systems

EPIRB – types and areas of coverage, description, features, working principle including transmission pattern and operating procedure. Methods of testing the equipments. Activation of distress signal and consequent events including location and rescue.

ECDIS - Description, features, working principle and operating procedure. Vector and Rastor chart displays. Radar picture overlay.

Automatic Identification System (AIS) - Description, features, working principle and operating procedure.

Unit 2

Marine Communication

Radio communication equipment on board ships – introduction to various equipment, principle of operation, selection of frequencies.

Radio regulations relating to Maritime Services including maritime frequency allocation.

Satellite communication and alerting systems – equipment aboard ship and ashore. Methods of communication used.

Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) – Principles and actual applications.

Worldwide Navigational Warning System - Principles and actual applications. The Navtex receiver – description, working principle and use as an aid to safe navigation.

Search and Rescue (SAR) communications including relay of distress messages (MERSAR, IAMSAR and AMVER).

Inmarsat communication systems – Sat B, Sat C, Sat M and recent development of advanced communication systems.

Unit 3

Legal Knowledge

A. Merchant Shipping Act 1958

Registry of ships, Flag state, Port of registry – jurisdiction of flag state with respect to a vessel. Overseas representation of Flag state interest. Significance of courtesy flag when a foreign vessel enters national port or waters.

Certification of Officers, Seamen and Apprentices. Engagement, management and discharge of crew. Manning scales. Contracts of employment, conditions of service, wages and other remuneration. Advances and allotments. Desertion, deceased seaman, repatriation.

The Official Log book – Entries to be recorded and laws relating to the entries. Entries related to indiscipline and misconduct. Treatment of disciplinary offences. The importance of entries in the Official Log Book as evidence in the case of a maritime enquiry or litigation.

ILO regulations with respect to shipboard hygiene. Related inspections and reports. Port Health requirements. Quarantine procedures. Maritime Declaration of Health. Deratting certificate

Custom House procedure – entering and clearing a ship.

Port State Control – Overview, reasons for detention of vessels.

Unit 4

International Conventions and Codes

The International Safety Management (ISM) code (Chapter IX of SOLAS) – Brief outline, salient features, increase of shore-based accountability. Understanding of definitions and related certification for ship and shore-based company. Processes of verification and control.

The International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) code - Brief outline, salient features. Understanding of definitions and related certification for ship, owner/company and shore-based port facility. Processes of verification and control.

The Ballast Water Management code - Brief outline, salient features. Understanding of definitions and related certification for ship and shore-based company. Processes of verification and control.

Unit 5


Knowledge of Morse Code

Morse signaling with the Aldis Lamp

Familiarization with bridge equipment during ship visits.

Books recommended for reference:

  1. Nautical Watchkeeping Capt. H. Subramaniam

  2. Shipborne Radar Capt. H. Subramaniam

  3. Electronic Navigation Aids Sonnenberg

  4. Merchant Shipping Act 1958 Govt. of India publication

  5. SOLAS (Consolidated edition) IMO publication

  6. ISPS code IMO publication

  7. Ballast Water Management code IMO publication


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