University of madras

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SECTION A – Principles of Navigation

Unit 1

The celestial sphere, celestial poles, Equinoctial, declination, celestial meridian, vertical circles, prime vertical, the Ecliptic, first point of Aries, RA, SHA, GHA. LHA, v and d corrections for moon and planets. Position of heavenly body on celestial sphere by its declination and GHA or by its altitude and azimuth or its celestial latitude and longitude.

Familiarity with contents of nautical almanac and their use.

Visible, sensible and rational horizons. Zenith, nadir, sextant altitude, apparent altitude, correction of altitude, dip, refraction, semi-diameter, parallax in altitude, artificial horizons and correction of altitudes there from, back-angle altitudes, principle of sextant, computation of sextant errors

Unit II

True and apparent motion of bodies. Solar time, solar day, apparent sun, mean sun, dynamical sun. Equation of time, time and hour angle, hour circles, Greenwich time, local time and standard time, keeping time at sea, advancing and retarding of clocks with change of longitude. International date line.

Sidereal time, sidereal day, why stars rise four minutes earlier each day. Conversion of solar time to sidereal time and vice-versa.

Unit III

Azimuths of sun, stars and planets. Amplitudes, derivation of formula sin Amp. = Sec. Lat x sin. Dec. apparent altitude of sun at time of theoretical rising and setting. Principle of azimuth mirrors.

Rising, culmination and setting of heavenly bodies. To find time of meridian passage, sunrise, sunset by calculation and perusal of nautical almanac with appropriate corrections.

Unit IV

Principles of position lines. Geographical position, circle of position, why PL is at right angles to the azimuth – exceptions. Position to draw the PL – intercept method, Longitude by chronometer method and ex-meridian method. Effect of change of DR position on position for PL and practical application


Unit V

To find the true azimuth of a heavenly body, the compass error and hence the deviation of the magnetic compass for the direction of the ship’s head. (ABC tables)

To find the compass error and deviation from the amplitude of the sun.

To find the latitude by meridian altitude of the sun, stars and planets. To calculate the meridian passage time and approximate meridian altitude for setting of the sextant (computed altitude).

Latitude and position line by observation of Polaris.

From an observation of sun, star and planets near the meridian, to find the direction of the position line and the latitude corresponding to the DR longitude through which it passes

To find the longitude corresponding to the DR latitude through which the position line passes and the direction of the PL from an observation of a heavenly body (Long by Chron).

To find the intercept termination point and the direction of position line from an observation of a heavenly body (Intercept method).


Sextant: to use for measurement of altitudes of heavenly bodies viz. sun and planets, thence to correct the sextant altitude to true altitude required for astronomical calculations.

Use of azimuth mirror and Pelorus.
Books recommended for reference:

  1. Principles of Navigation - Capt. P.M. Sarma / Capt. T.K.Joseph

and Capt. S.S.S. Rewari

  1. Practical Navigation - Capt. H. Subramaniam

  2. Admiralty manual of navigation volumes I & II

  3. Principle and practices of navigation - Capt. A. Frost

  4. Nichol’s concise guide volumes I & II

  5. Nutshell booklet on sextant - Capt. H. Subramaniam




Elementary knowledge of passage planning and its execution, landfall in thick and clear weather, suitable anchorage.
To find the time and height of high and low water at standard ports. The use of admiralty tide tables and tidal curves to find the time and at which the tide reaches a specified height or heights of tide at a given time and hence the corrections to be applied to soundings of charted heights of shoe objects.


The interpretation of a chart or plan, particularly the information given a bout lights, buoys,radio beacons and other navigational aids. Depths and height contours, tidal streams, traffic lanes and separation zones. Recognition of the coast and radar responsive targets. Chart corrections.


Geographical range, luminious range, nominal range and their significance. Development of ecdis.



  1. To determine ships position by running fix method with or without current.

  2. To find the ships position by doubling angle on the bow .

  3. Use of single position line obtained from a celestial observation when near a coast to keep safe distance off the coast.

  4. To find course made good using the three point bearing

  5. Practicals of Core IV Voyage Planning & Collision Prevention - I to be included.



  1. More detailed knowledge of international regulations for prevention of collision.

  2. IALA system of buoyage – lateral and cardinal system

  3. Precautions while floating navigational aids such as light vessels etc

  4. Radar plotting exercises, relative plot, action by own ship. Action by target ship, set and drift.


The students will be required to identity various collision situations by day and night, using magnetic board, wooden models, overhead projections, video tapes or any other aid to simulate such conditions.

Candidates will be required to deal with each collision situation broadly under the headings recognition, responsibility, action, appropriate sound signal and ordinary practice of seaman.
Collision situations in restricted visibility with or without radar, statutory obligations under both circumstances.


Recognition of various buoys and marks under IALA system and appropriate action required under the rules.


1. Bhandarkar Publications Rule of The Road

2. Moore International Light, Shape

& Sound Signals

3. Cockcroft Guide To Collision Avoidance

4. Iala Maritime Buoyage System

5. Capt.S.K.Puri Chart Work

6. Squair Modern Chartwork

7. Fifield Navigation For Watch Keepers

8. Capt.H.Subramaniam Ship Borne Radar

9. Capt M.V.Naik & Capt Vatry Voyage Planning & Chart Work

10. Nicholl's Concise Guide Vol.I

11. Moore, D.A Marine Chart Work

12. Capt S.K. Puri Manual of the Rule of the Road

Core III
Ship Operation Technology – II

Unit 1

Deck and cargo appliances

Blocks – types of blocks, parts of a block, internal & external binding and strapping. Size of a block, sheave and the corresponding size of rope to be used. Relation between sheave diameter and rope diameter. Markings on a block, Care and maintenance of blocks.

Tackles – names of types of tackles and purchases used on ships. Parts of a tackle, usage to advantage and disadvantage, Velocity ratio or ‘power gained’ and efficiency of a tackle. Relation between Load and Effort for each type of tackle. Calculation of size of wire to be used on a particular tackle for a given Load.

Shackles – types of shackles. Areas of usage for lugged and lugless shackles. Markings on shackles. Difference between tested and untested shackles. Care and maintenance.

Cargo hooks – various types of cargo hooks. Markings on hooks.

Turnbuckles – types of turnbuckles. Modes of use. Care and maintenance.

Slings – types of slings. Precautions during use. Care and maintenance.

Pilot ladder – description, mode of use and maintenance. Description of a ‘combination ladder’ and when it is used.

Unit 2

A. Derricks

Description of parts of a derrick

Union Purchase – description of parts of a union purchase system and working principle. Importance of preventer guys. Relation between Load and the angle between the runner wires.

Swinging derricks and powered (‘steam’) guys.

Yo-yo gear – description and working principle.

Precautions during hoisting, lowering and securing of derricks.

Checks, tests and maintenance of derricks.

Calculation of the stresses in various parts of a derrick rig.

Calculation of the tension on various ropes and wires of a purchase.

B. Cranes

Description of parts of a crane. Description of various types of cranes.

Principle of operation, precautions and maintenance

Unit 3


  1. Description of different types of anchors.

  2. Description of different parts of an anchor. Description of markings on an anchor.

  3. Description of anchor cables, joining shackles and lugless shackle.

  4. Markings of the anchor cables. Reading off and reporting the length of the cable paid out.

  5. Procedure for hanging off the anchor, opening and restoring a lugless shackle during changing an intermediate length of cable, slipping the cable.

  6. Description of features of forecastle deck in the vicinity of the anchors – hawse pipe, spurling pipe, chain locker, connection of bitter end, bow stopper and gypsy wheel.

  7. Anchoring procedure – basic, running moor, standing moor, open moor

  8. Reporting of cable paid out, cable scope, cable direction and when vessel is brought up.

  9. Indications that vessel is dragging anchor.

  10. Actions when vessel dragging anchor

  11. Fouled hawse or anchor – description and remedial measures

  12. Measurement of size of studded cable link, joining shackle. Knowledge of common damages of an anchor cable.

Unit 4

A. Ship Manoeuvering

  1. Motion of a vessel at sea – rolling pitching, heaving, panting, pounding and corkscrewing.

  2. Motion of a vessel at anchor or alongside a berth – heeling, listing, surging, yawing and heaving.

  3. Effect of rudder - Turning circles. Effect of vessel size, load or ballast condition on rate of turn and vessel response to helm.

  4. Effect of propeller – transverse thrust, other hydrodynamic effects.

  5. Manoeuvering characteristics of a vessel. Changes due to wind, current, tides, sea, swell and load or ballast condition of vessel.

  6. Crash Stop distance. Cruising range.

  7. Shallow water – definition of shallow water, shallow water effects.

  8. Interaction between vessels in a narrow channel and in shallow water.

  9. Mooring procedures and patterns. Berthing and unberthing operations.

  10. Man Overboard – Williamson’s turn and other manoeuvers for recovery of victim

B. Dry-docking

  1. General preparation for dry-docking of a vessel.

  2. Hot work Permit – issuance, validity and authorizing body.

  3. Vessel’s stability criteria prior docking.

  4. Dry-docking procedure – Critical period, critical moment, use of side shores, bilge blocks and bilge shores.

  5. Precautions during drying of dock with vessel on the blocks.

  6. Bottom plugs – location, indication on ship’s plan. Opening, closing and securing.

  7. Bottom cleaning and painting procedure in dry-dock. Modern systems for cleaning, blasting, water-washing of hull bottom.

  8. Treatment and disposal of oily residues.

  9. Re-floating procedure.

Unit 5


  1. Familiarity with all practicals associated with Ship Operation Technology I

  2. Identification of various tackles and purchases

  3. Reaving of a tackle/purchase to advantage and disadvantage

  4. Practical demonstration of the use of various blocks, snatch blocks and the differential pulley (chain blocks)

  5. Different types of tackles and purchases and the power gained in each case.

  6. Maintenance of various turnbuckles, blocks and purchases.

  7. Given a block, to determine permissible rope diameter based on sheave diameter

  8. Given a studded link, to determine the size of the link.

  9. Rigging, climbing of pilot and Jacob’s ladder of a Pilot ladder. Use of manropes.

  10. Parts of a stockless anchor

  11. Explain the following terms with respect to anchorwork – cable, link, swivel, joining shackle, shackle as a term of length, bitter end.

  12. Explain use of anchor, dropped, hoisted and secured.

  13. Reporting of scope and direction of an anchor cable.

  14. Opening and restoring of a lugless shackle

  15. Explain mooring arrangements

  16. Demonstrate ability to climb ship’s mast

  17. Cargo gear used. Safe working load and breaking stress

  18. Construction of cement box to arrest leaks.

Books recommended for reference:

  1. Danton Theory and practice of seamanship

  2. Nicholls Seamanship and Nautical knowledge

  3. Kemp and Young Seamanship notes

  4. Bhandarkar Seamanship



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