The shape of the earth, Poles, Equator, Great circles, Small circles, parallels of Latitude, D’Lat, meridians of Longitude, prime meridian, D’long, position by Latitude and Longitude.
Measurement of distance : Nautical, geographical and statute mile, Knot. Effect of polar compression on nautical mile
Familiarity with contents of Nautical Tables and their use
Departure. Relationship between Departure and D’long, Parallel sailing
Rhumb Line. Mean Latitude, Plane sailing. Relationship between Departure, D’lat, course and distance. Middle latitude.
Principle of Mercator projection : meridional parts, DMP, Latitude and Longitude scales, conversion from one to the other: Mercator sailing. Relationship between course D’ long and DMP
Spherical triangle. Great circle sailing initial course, final course, distance and vertex course on crossing equator. Composite great circle sailing. Figure drawing of a GC track to approximate scale
Solar System: Rotation and revolution. Equinoxes and Solstices. Cause of seasons and unequal length of day and night
SECTION - B PRACTICAL NAVIGATION
A. Nautical Calculations
Practical problems on parallel sailing using formulae
Practical problems on plane sailing using formulae
Practical problems on mercator sailing using formulae
The use of Traverse Tables to obtain the position of the ship at any time, given compass course, variation ,deviation, and the run recorded by the log or estimated speed or engine speed allowing for the effects of wind and current, if any. Day’s work
To find initial course, final course and distance between two positions on the earth’s surface by Great Circle Sailing. To calculate the position of the vertex and intermediate points on the Great Circle Track
The chronometer. Checking chronometer error by radio signals. Finding UT and correct date.
The micrometer Sextant. Are of excess. Error of perpendicularity. Side error. Index error on the arc and off the arc. Taking vertical and horizontal sextant angles. Position fixing by bearing and vertical sextant angle of a lighthouse. Position fixing by horizontal sextant angles between three or more points.
Recognition of important stars with reference to stellar constellations.
The use of Azimuth mirror and Pelorus. Procedure for checking accuracy of azimuth mirrors.
The use and care of magnetic compasses. Precautions to be observed while taking compass bearings. Practical limitations of the magnetic compasses.
Books Recommended for Reference
1. Practical Navigation - Capt.H.Subramaniam
2. Principles of Navigation - Capt.P.M.Sarma
3. Principles of Navigation - Capt.T.K.Joseph and Capt.S.S.S.Rewari
4. Admiralty Manual of Navigation - Vol I & II – HMSO
5. Navigation - A.Frost
6. Nicholl’s Concise Guide
Volumes I & II - Brown Son & Ferguson Ltd.
VOYAGE PLANNING & COLLISION PREVENTION -1
SECTION A - VOYAGE PLANNING
The Nautical Chart : Types of projections, Principle of Mercator projection - Mercator chart, natural scale. Principle of Gnomonic projection - Gnomonic Chart. Title of Chart, Number of Chart and Date of Publication. Deciphering the symbols and abbreviations used on a nautical chart. Units of soundings used. How to read latitude and longitude. The use of parallel rulers to lay down or read courses and using the nearest latitude scale for measuring distance. Chart Correction from Notices to Mariners. To find the date the chart was last brought up to date. Small and large corrections. Degree of reliability of information shown on the chart. Types of charts, Ocean charts, coastal charts, harbour plans and routing charts. Decca charts, Consol charts, Loran charts – brief outline. The use of the Admiralty Chart catalogue to identify the charts required for voyage.
Compass points. True, Magnetic and compass North. Magnetic variation and Changes in annual value - rate of change. How to obtain variation from date given on the compass rose, Isogonals. Deviation of the compass. The Deviation Card. True, magnetic and compass bearings & courses. Conversion of one to another. The compass error for the ship’s head. Gyro Error, high and low, conversion of gyro courses to true course and vice versa.
A. Wind and Current effect
The effect of current on course made good. Set and drift. The effect of wind on course made good. Leeway, the Dead Reckoning position, Estimated position and Observed position.
B. Depths and Lights
Meaning of Chart Datum. Reference point used for heights, Nature of bottom. Depth contours, Information regarding lights. Height, colour and characteristics of lights. Use of leading lights for safe navigation in harbour. Horizontal sectors of lights and their use by navigators in keeping clear of submerged dangers to navigation. Use of sectors in laying courses. Use of clearing marks and horizontal and vertical danger angles. Sailing round an arc.
UNIT – III
To find compass error by transit bearing
To find the position of a point on the chart by its latitude and longitude
To find the position of a point on the chart by it’s bearing and distance from a navigational mark.
To plot ship’s position given the compass bearings of two or more shore objects. The cocked bat and the reasons for its formation.
To plot ship’s position given the rising or dipping bearing of light. Caution during abnormal refraction.
To plot ship’s position using three shore objects by horizontal sextant angles (given horizontal sextant angles less than 90, equal to 90 or greater than 90)
To plot ship’s position, given vertical sextant angels and bearing of a lighthouse.
To plot a position line obtained by a astronomical observation.
To find compass course between two positions on the chart.
To find compass course to steer between two positions on the chart so as to counteract the given set and drift of current and given ‘leeway’
To find the course and speed made good and the set and drift. Given the course steered, speed, duration and the initial and final observed positions.
To find the course from a given position so as to pass a lighthouse at a given position so as to pass lighthouse at a given distance when abeam.
SECTION B - COLLISION PREVENTION
Definitions and Applications:
International regulations for preventing collisions at sea. Application Exceptions for local rules or harbours etc. Exceptions for special class of ships. Responsibility for the consequence of neglect of rules. Definitions of term ‘vessel’ ‘power driven vessel’ ’sailing vessel’ ‘fishing vessel’ ‘seaplanes’ ‘vessel not under command’’vessel restricted in ability to manoeurvre’ ‘constrained by draft’ ‘underway’‘restricted visibility’ ‘steering and sailing rules’
A. Conduct of vessels in any condition of visibility:
Maintenance of proper look out. Maintenance of safe speed. Factors to be considered for determining safe speed. Determination of risk of collision with another vessel. Use of radar in determining risk of collision. Use of visual bearings. Types of actions to be taken to avoid collision or close quarter situation. Conduct of vessels in narrow channels and when approaching blind bends. Conduct of vessel in traffic seperation schemes on International Maritime Organisation
B. Conduct of vessels in sight of one another :
Responsibility to keep out of way when two sailing vessels are on collision course. Responsibility to keep out of way when one vessel is overtaking another vessel of any type .Action to be taken by a vessel when meeting another vessel head on. Responsibility to keep out of way when two vessels are crossing each other. Action to avoid collision. Duty of the vessel which has the right of way,Action to be taken by such vessel required to keep out of way is not taking avoiding action.Right of way between a normal power driven vessel, a vessel not under command, a vessel restricted in the ability to maneuver, a vessel engaged in fishing , a sailing vessel and a vessel constrained by her draft.
C. Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility
Applicability . Determination of risk of collision when another vessel is detected by radar alone. Actions to be taken / avoid to prevent close quarter situation with a vessel detected on radar alone. Action to be taken when fog signal of another vessel is heard but vessel is not seen though it may have been detected by radar.
Books Recommended for Reference:
Chart Work for mariners - Capt.Puri.S.K
Voyage Planning & Chart work - Capt.M.V.Naik & Capt.Varty
Nicholls Concise Guide Vol .l - Brown Son and Ferguson
Marine Chart Work - Moore.D.A
Rules for the Prevention of Collision at Sea - Bhandarkar publications
Rule of the Road Manual - Capt.puri.S.K
International Lights, Shape, and Sound Signals - Moore.D.A
Ship Operation Technology – I
Names of various parts of a ship, Names and timings of watches, Ranks of Officers, Sea terms – glossary and explanation.
Safety apparel – goggles, helmet, gloves, safety shoes and importance of adherence to safety procedures.
Flags and Flag etiquette – Types of flags and ensigns, courtesy flag.
Location of jackstaff, ensign staff, gaff, foremast yardarm, mainmast head. Use of halyards – close up, at the dip, half mast
Ships name, port of registry and IMO number.
B. Ropes and Wires
Fibre ropes – types of material used, natural and synthetic fibres, types of lay and their advantages, plaited ropes, characteristics of different types of fibre ropes. Comparison of strength and elasticity of different types of ropes. Damages caused to ropes. Care and maintenance of ropes. Explanation of terms in rope-work as well as marlin, spun yarn, tarred hemp, 2 and 3 ply twines, halyards, loglines and leadlines.
Steel wire ropes – grades of steel used in manufacture of ropes, construction of wire ropes, explanation of wire core and fibre core, advantages of fibre core, factors determining flexibility, explanation of terms malleable and ductile, meaning of – 6/12, 6/24, 6/37. Plaited wire rope, plastic sheathed rope, and non-rotating wire rope. Damages caused to wire ropes, care and maintenance of wire ropes.
Rigging – explanation of running and standing rigging and the rope used in each case.
Safe Working Load – Explanation of Safe Working Load and Breaking Strength of ropes, wires and chains.
Size – Measuring size of various ropes, wires and chains, tools and methods used.
Life Saving Appliances (LSA)
Lifeboat – Description, methods of construction, parts of a lifeboat, buoyancy tanks, types of lifeboats, means of propulsion, lifeboat equipment, rations, pyrotechnics and distress signals, determination of carrying capacity of a lifeboat. Types of lifeboat davits and their operational procedure. Launching and boarding procedures. Duties of boat crew during launching and recovery of lifeboats
Liferaft – Description of inflatable and rigid liferafts, construction and salient parts, equipment, rations, pyrotechnics and distress signals, repair of leaks and punctures for inflatable liferafts, launching and boarding procedures.
SART – Description, features, tests and mode of use.
Boat Drills and musters – description and frequency as per SOLAS.
Lifebuoy – Description, features and mode of use.
Lifejacket – Description, features and mode of use.
Thermal Protective Aid (TPA) – Description, features and mode of use.
Immersion Suit – Description, features and mode of use.
Line Throwing Apparatus (LTA) – Description, features and mode of use
Pyrotechnics – Description, features and mode of use. Carriage requirements for ships as per SOLAS.
Outline knowledge of SOLAS 74 and requirements as per SOLAS for LSA. Classification of ships for carriage of LSA. LSA requirements for cargo ships and tankers.
Safety, care, testing and maintenance of all LSA.
Fire Fighting Appliances (FFA)
Causes and types of fire, the Fire Triangle, principle of firefighting and methods of extinguishing each type of fire.
Fire hoses and hydrants – Description of types, features and mode of use. Types of nozzles.
International Shore Connection - Description, features and mode of use.
Fire extinguishers – Description of various types and their suitability for various types of fire. Operation and refilling of each type of extinguisher.
Fireman’s Suit – Description, features, mode of use, checks and maintenance.
Smoke Helmet and Self-contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) - Description, features, mode of use, checks and maintenance.
Safety Lamp & Fire axe – Description, features, mode of use and maintenance.
Lifeline and harness – Description, features, mode of use and maintenance.
Outline knowledge of SOLAS 74 requirements for FFA.
Safety, care, testing and maintenance of all FFA
Fire Drills and musters – Description and frequency as per SOLAS
Deck appliances and processes
Hand lead line and deep sea lead line – Description and method of taking a cast.
Sounding rod/tape and ullage tape – Description and mode of use. Difference between sounding and ullage.
UTI (Ullage/Temperature/Interface) tapes – Description and mode of use.
De-scaling and de-rusting – causes of rusting and corrosion. Manual and pneumatic chipping of plate surfaces, tools used in each case, advantages and disadvantages of each method. Wire-brushing, tools used in manual and pneumatic wire-brushing, advantages. Degree of surface preparation.
Paints – types of paint used on board ships. Composition, features and mode of use of each type of paint. Effect of sea and weather on different types of coats. Difference between primers and finish coats. Paint additives, their features and mode of use. Types of brushes and their features. Methods of paint application – manual, pneumatic and airless application equipment and mode of use. Measurement of paint thickness – description and tools used.
Grease – types of grease used on board ships. Composition, features and mode of use of each type of grease. Greasing schedules on board ships.
Rigging – rigging a stage, name of parts and mode of use. Bosun chair – description and mode of use.
Ladders – description of various types of ladders (Jacob’s, coolie, jump and metal telescopic) and their mode of use.