Types of biological data; frequency distributions; cummulative frequency distributions.
Populations and samples:
Populations; samples from populations; random sampling; parameters and statistics.
Measures of Central Tendency:
Mean; median; mode; geometric mean; harmonic mean.
Measures of Dispersion:
Range; variance; standard deviation, coefficient of variation; standard error.
Mathematical probability and statistical probability; Laws of probability; addition law and multiplication law; conditional probability.
Normal distribution; binomial distribution and poisson distribution.
Testing for goodness of fit:
Chi-square test for goodness of fit; statistical significance; statistical errors in hypothesis testing; chi-square test for contingency tables; heterogeneity chi-square test.
Test of hypothesis:
Normal deviation test, tests for proportions, t-test.
Simple linear regression and correlations:
Simple linear regression; testing the significance of a regression; comparison of two slopes; correlation coefficient – hypothesis testing about correlation coefficients; comparison of two correlation co-efficients; rank correlation; intraclass correlation.
Analysis of variance:
One-way classification; two-way classification.
ALLIED SUBJECT II
PAPER IV - BIOSTATISTICS PRACTICAL
Frequency distribution – Univariate – Bivariate; Measure of central tendency
Measure of dispersion; Correlation, Regression
Fitting distribution – Binomial – Poison – Method of least squares
Tests of significance – T – F; Tests of significance – Chi-square – Attributes
ANOVA; Design of experiments – CRO, RBD, LSD
SEMESTER - V
PAPER IX - MEDICAL BACTERIOLOGY
Classification and general properties of medically important bacteria. Recommendation for collection, transport of specimens, isolation of bacteria from clinical specimens.
Primary media for isolation and their quality control- Antibiotic sensitivity discs, testing procedures and their quality control.
Staphylococcus; streptococci and related catalase negative Gram-positive cocci; Neisseria and Branhamella Corynebacterium and related organisms. Mycobacterium - typical and atypical. Aerobic pathogenic actinomycetes.
Bacillus, B.anthracis, Vibrios, Aeromonas Helicobacter Pseudomonas, Brucella, Haemophilus, Bordettella. Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus, Escherichia, Klebsiella.
Clostridia, Mycoplasma, Rickettsiae, Spirochetes, Trepenema, Leptiospira and Borrelia.
PAPER X - MEDICAL MYCOLOGY AND PARASITOLOGY
Morphology, Taxonomy, Classification of fungi. Characteristics of Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Duteromycetes.
Dermatophytes and agents of superficial mycoses. Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum. Opportunistic mycoses-Candidiasis, Cryptococcosis, Aspergillosis. Systemic mycoses-Histoplasmosis, Coccidioidomycosis, Blastomycosis. Subcutaneous mycoses- Sporotrichosis, Mycetoma.
ollection, transport of specimens, isolation of fungi from clinical specimens. Newer methods in diagnostic mycology. Mycotoxins, Antifungal agents, testing methods and quality control.
Introduction to medical Parasitology – Classification, Protozoa – Entameoba – Plasmodium, Leishmania – Trypanosoma –Giardia – Trichomonas – Balantidium.
Platyhelminthes – Taenia – Fasciola – Paragonimus – Schistosoma. Nematihelminthes – Ascaris – Ankylostoma – Enterobius – Trichuris – Trichinella – Wuchereria – Dracanculus. Laboratory techniques in parasitology. Examination of faeces for ova and cysts – Concentration methods. Blood smear examination for parasites. Cultivation of protozoan parasites.
PAPER XI - MEDICAL VIROLOGY
General Properties of viruses – Dectection of viruses and antigens in clinical specimens – Serological diagnosis of virus infections. Cultivation of Viruses.
Arthropod borne and rodent borne virus diseases – Picorna viruses and diseases. Hepatitis viruses: Rabies and other neuro viruses: Orthomyxo and Paramyxoviruses.
Pox, Adeno, Herpes, Reo, Rota and HIV Viruses, Oncogenic viruses, Viral vaccines, their Preparation and their immunization schedules.
Viruses of importance to bacteria – Bacteriophages – Their Structure, types – Uses in Microbiology.
Applied virology – Viral diseases, epidemiology diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Vaccines and interferons – Antiviral agents.
PAPER XII – MAJOR PRACTICAL V
GENERAL requirements of collections, transport of clinical Specimens – Methods of enriched, selective and enrichment culture techniques used to isolate organisms from clinical materials. Simple, differential and Special staining of clinical materials viz: Throat swab, Pus, Urine, Sputum, Stool etc. Enumeration of Bacteria in Urine, Quantitative Urine Culture.
Isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens from clinical specimens their biological reactions. Antimicrobial Sensitivity testing by disc-diffusion technique and determination of MIC.
Identification of pathogenic viruses in Slides/ Smears / Spotters. Isolation of phage from natural sources.
KOH and Lactophenol preparations for skin scrapings for dermatophytes. Microscopic identification and cultural characteristics of medically important fungi and lab contaminants.Germ tube, carbohydrate assimilation and fermentation tests for yeasts.
Direct examination of faeces- wet mount and Lugol’s iodine method- demonstration of protozoan cysts and helminthes eggs. Concentration techniques of stool specimen- floatation and sedimentation methods. Examination of blood for malarial parasites- thin and thick smear preparation. dentification of pathogenic parasites in slides/ specimens as spotters.
ELECTIVE I - GENETIC ENGINEERING
Vectors: Plasmid vectors: pSC101, pBR322, pUC series and Ti plasmids based vectors; Bacteriophage vectors: Lambda phage based vectors, phagemids, cosmids, and M13 based vectors; Viral vectors: Vaccinia, Retroviral, SV40 and Baculoviral system; Bacterial artificial chromosome and yeast artificial chromosome.
Principles and methods in genetic engineering: Host cell restriction; Restriction modification; Restriction enzymes: Types and applications; Restriction mapping; DNA finger printing; RFLP and RAPD analysis; Nucleases, Ribonucleases, DNA ligases, Tag DNA Polymerases, Methylases, Topoisomerases, Gyrases, and Reverse Transcriptases.
Basic steps of cloning techniques; Genomic DNA and cDNA library Construction; Screening methods; Cloning in E. coli, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and Yeast; Expression systems; Gene fusion and Reporter genes; Gene targeting; Methods of Gene transfer – transformation, transfection, Electroporation, microinjection and biolistics.
Analysis of Recombinant DNA; Polymerase chain reaction; Principles and techniques of nucleic acid hybridization and cot curves; Southern, Northern, Western and South-Western blotting techniques; Dot and Slot blotting.
DNA and protein sequencing; Applications of genetic engineering in agriculture; health and industry.
SEMESTER - VI
PAPER XIII - ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY
Introduction: Organization of the biosphere and components of ecosystem, Natural habitats of microoganisms, Microbial communities in aquatic and terrestrial habitats, Microorganisms as components of ecosystem-as producers and decomposers.
Microbial life in extreme environments: Effect of temperature, pH, Pressure, salt and heavy metals such as As, Sb,Hg, Pb and Cd, Microbial life in conditions of high irradiation, Radiosensitivity; mechanism of damage and recovery, Growth in nutrient limited environment – mechanism of adaptations, Microbes in space.
Microbes in aquatic environments: The nature of aquatic habitats, Methods used in the study of aquatic (fresh and marine water) microbial community, Pollution of aquatic habitats, Water quality criteria, Water-borne diseases, Microbiological analysis of water purity, Indicator organisms, ground water quality and home treatment system.
Microbes in air: Composition of Air; Number and kinds of organisms in air; Distribution and sources of air borne organisms; Droplet and droplet nuclei; Assessment of air quality; Air sanitation; Airboren diseases;
Environmental application: Waste –types; Treatment of solid wastes –composting, Vermiform composting, silage, Pyrolysis and scarification; Treatment of liquid wastes, degradation of liquid industrial wastes; Degradation of pesticides and detergents; Degradation of lignin; synthetic polymers; Xenobiotic compounds; Alkyl benzyl sulphonates; Petroleum and hydrocarbon degradation.
PAPER XIV - FOOD AND DAIRY MICROBIOLOGY
Food as a substrate for microorganisms–Microorganisms important in food microbiology; Molds, yeasts and bacteria–General Characteristics–Classification and importance.
Principles of food preservation – Asepsis – Removal of micro organisms, anerobic conditions – High temperature – Low temperature- Drying –Food additives.
Contamination and spoilage- Cereals, sugar products, vegetables and fruits, meat and meat products, milk and milk products – Fish and sea foods – poultry, spoilage of canned foods.
Food borne infections and intoxications – bacterial, non-bacterial – Food borne disease outbreaks – Laboratory testing – preventing measures – Food sanitation – plant sanitation – Employees’ heals standards – waste treatment and disposal –quality control.
Food fermentation: Bread cheese, vinegar, fermented vegetables, fermented dairy products. Spoilage and defects of fermented dairy products – oriental fermented foods.
PAPER XV - MAJOR PRACTICAL VI
Detection of number of Bacteria in milk by breed count. Detection of number of bacteria in milk by standard plant count.
Determination of quality of milk sample by methylene blue reductase test and Resorzurin method.
Isolation of yeast and molds from spoiled nuts, fruits, and vegetables. Bacteriological examination of specific food a) Curd b) Raw meat c) Fish d) Ice cream.
Determination of BOD and COD of wastewater. Water analysis a) MPN method
b) Memberane filter method.
Quantification of microorganisms in air by settle plate and air sampler methods. Detection of aflatoxin B1 from moldy grains using thin layer chromatography.
ELECTIVE II - INDUSTRIAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY
General introduction to fermentation process. Microbial growth kinetics-batch, continuous and fed batch culture. Large scale cultivation of industrially important microbes (Streptomyces, Saccharomyces, Hansenela, Spirulina and Penicillium) Fermentation media-desired qualities- media formulation strategies- carbon, nitrogen, vitamin, mineral sources, role of buffers, precursors, inhibitors, inducers and antifoams.
Types of fermentation-fermentors-basic functions, design and components, asepsis and containment requirement. Specifications of fermentors- sterilization of fermentors- aseptic inoculation methods. Brief idea on monitoring control device.
Microbial products of commercial use-penicillin, ethanol, vinegar, vitamin B12, protease, citric acid and glutamic acid.
Down stream processing - objective and criteria, foam separation, precipitation methods, filtration, industrial scale centrifugation and cell disruption methods. Liquid-liquid extraction, solvent recovery- chromatography. Two phase aqueous extraction, super – critical fluid extraction, ultra filtration, drying device, crystallization and whole broth processing.
Ecology of microorganisms affecting pharmaceutical industries- atmosphere-water- raw materials- packaging- equipment. Factors affecting microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical products - Control of contamination during manufacture- good pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Quality control of pharmaceutical products. Manufacture of sterile pharmaceutical products- injections and ophthalmic preparations.
ELECTIVE III - BIOTECHNOLOGY
Biotechnolgy–definition & history; Microbial production of industrial enzymes; methods for immobilization of enzymes; kinetics of soluble and immobilized enzymes; application of soluble and immobilized enzymes; enzyme-based sensors. Micro array technology. Heterologous protein expression systems in bacteria, yeast etc.
Principles and application of genetic recombinant technology and strain improvement (mutational, rDNA technologies). Production of biotechnological products: Food –SCP (algae, yeast, mushroom). Biofertiliser (BGA, VAM) Biopesticides (Bascillus thruinginsis). Fuel –ethanol; Pharmaceuticals – antigens, interferons, vaccines, insulin, gene-therapy methods.
Architecture of plant genome; plant tissue culture techniques; methods of gene transfer into plant cells; manipulation of phenotypic traits in plants; plant cell fermentations and production of secondary metabolites using suspension/immobilized cell culture;
Methods for plant micro propagation; crop improvement and development of transgenic plants. Expression of animal proteins in plants.
Animal cell metabolism and regulation; cell cycle; primary cell culture; nutritional requirements for animal cell culture; techniques for the mass culture of animal cell lines; vectors for gene transfer and expression in animal cells. transgenic animals and molecular pharming.
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13. B.Sc. DEGREE COURSE IN NAUTICAL SCIENCE
NAVIGATION - I