Requirements of an industry - location - water - industrial water treatment - safety measures - pilot plants. Fuels - types of fuels with examples - coal - crbonization of coal - coal far distillation - liquid fuels - gaseous fuels - selection of fuels - nuclear fuels. Energy - sources of energy - renewable and non-renewable energies - non conventional energies. Industrial catalysts - Types of catalysts - Functions and applications of Raney Nickel, Pd, CuCrO4, TiO2, Al, V and Pt based catalysts and zeolites.
UNIT 2: PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES (15)
Crude oil - constitution and distillation - composition of different distillates - pour points, depressants, drag reducers, viscosity reducers, ignition point, flash point octane number - cracking - catalysts used in petroleum industries - strucutre, selectivty and applications. Manufacture of synthetic petrol - Dergius and Fischer Tropsh processes - Manufacture of petrochemicals and petrochemical polymers - Manufacture of higher olefins, Acetaldehyde, Acetic acid, Ethylene glycol, Glycerine, Acetone, Phenol, Carbon disulphide, Vinylacctate, Cumene, Chlorophrene, Butane diols, Xylenes, Lineral alkyl benzenes and their Sulphonates.
UNIT 3: FERTILIZERS AND SPECIALITY CHEMICALS (15)
Manufacture - Properties and industrials uses of solvents - DMF, DMSO, THF and Diozane. Fertilizers - Raw materials, manufacture (flow chart chemical process with equations) of ammonum nitrate, ammonium sulphate, urea, calcium cyanamide, calcium ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, ammonium chloride, ammonium phosphate, super phosphate of lime, NPK fertilizers, Manufacture in pure form of the following - Sodium carbonate, Oxalic acid, Potassium dichromate, Perchloric acid.
UNIT 4: OILS, SOAPS AND DETERGENTS (15)
Mamnufacture of Cl2, NaOH nad Chlorates of Na and K - manufacture of perchlorate. Oils - difference between oils and fats - manufacture of cotton seed oil and soybean oil - refining of oil - manufacture of soaps - toilet and tranpartent soaps - Detergents - synthetic detergents - surface active agents and their classification - manufacture of anionic, cationic and non ionic detergents and shampoo. Sugar industry - manufacture of sugar from cane sugar and beet roof. Manufacture of leather - hides - Vegetable and chrome tanning finishing. Manufacture of DDT, dinitrophenols, BHC, gamaxane, malathion, parathion, schradan and dementon.
UNIT 5: METALLURGY (15)
General methods of metallurgy - ores - types - methods of concentration of ores - hydro metallurgy, phyrometallurgy - various of reduction process, refining of metals - extraction of Cr, Mn, V, Co, Pt, U and Th. Environmental problems of chemicals industries - methods of control - sewage treatment and waste management. Man power in chemical industries - labour problems - Six Sigma (Basic concept only).
Chemical Process Industries, Tata Mc Graw Hill publishing company, Mumbai.
04. Steines H.,
Introduction to Petrochemicals, Pergaman Press.
05. Alan Cottrel,
An Introduction to Metallurgy, Orient Longman (2000)
V or VI
To understand the common diseases and the cure
To know the terms of pharmacology
To understand the mechanism of drug action
To acquire knowledge about chemotherapy and the antibiotics
To understand the drugs used for diabetes, hypertension, cholesteralaemia
To acquire knowledge about various health promoting drugs
UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION (15)
Common diseases - Infective diseases - insect-borne, air-borne and water-borne - hereditary diseases - Terminology - drug pharmacology, pharmacognesy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, antimetaboli-tes Absorption of drugs - routes of administration of drugs, factors affecting absorption - Assay of drugs - chemical, biological, immunological assays, LD50 and ED50 therepeutic index, drug dosage.
UNIT 2: DRUGS (15)
Various sources of drugs, pharamcologically active constituents in plants, Indian medicinal plants - tulsi, neem, keezhanelli - their importance - Classification of drugs - biological chemical - Mechanism of drug action - Action at cellular and extra cellular sites. Drug receptors and biological responses - Metabolism of drugs through oxidation, reduction hydrolysis and conjugate processes; factors affecting metabolism.
UNIT 3: CHEMOTHERAPY (15)
Designation of drugs based on physiological action; Definition and two examples each of Anaesthetics - General, IV and local - Analgesics - Narcotic and synthetic - Antipyretics and anti inflammatory agents - Antibiotics - penicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracyclins - Antivirals, AIDS - symptoms prevention, treatment - Cancer and neoplastic agents.
Nutracenticals - vitamins A B C D E and K micronutrients Na K Ca Cu Zn I - Medically important inorganic compounds of Al P As Hg Fe - Li examples each their role and applications - Organic Pharmaceutical acids; Agents for kidney function (Aminohippuric acid); Agents for liver function (Sulfo bromophthalein); Agents for pitictary function (metyrapone) - Organic pharmaceutical bases - antioxidents, treatment of ulcer and skill diseases (15).
Book for Study
Jayashree Ghosh, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, S. Chand and Company Ltd., 2006, New Delhi.
Books for Reference
1. Lakshmi S., Pharmaceutical chemistry, S. Chand & Sons, 1995, New Delhi.
To understand the chemistry of metallic corrosion and methods of prevention
UNIT 1: INDUSTRIAL ELECTROCHEMISTRY (15)
Electrochemical process in industry - components of electrochemical reactions - Types of electrolytes - Cathodes and anodes in electrochemical reactor - separatros. Inorganic Electrochemicals: Caustic soda and chlorine production, mercury cells, diaphragm cells, membrance cells - Advantage chlorates, perchlorates, hydrogen peroxide. Organic Electrochemicals: Special feature of electro-organic synthesis - electro chemical oxidation. Kolbe synthesis - Electro reduction of carbonyl compounds - adiponitrile synthesis.
Unit 2: Electrometallurgy (15)
Electro deposition of metals - principles - nucleatio and growth of crystals - nature of electro deposits. Hydrometallurgy: Recovery of meals from aqueres electrolegtes. Recovery of silver from photographic emulsion - electro refining - production of high copper; process description. Pyrometallurgy: Necessity for using moltex electrolytes - reactors for molten salt electroly - Production of aluminium - electrodes and electrode reactions in cryolite melt. Electrochemical purification of aluminium - other metals through molten salt electrolysis - Magnesium and sodium brief outline.
UNTI 3 : ELECTROPLATING (15)
Fundamental principles - nature of deposits for electroplating - Hull cell experiments - operating conditions and nature of deposits - throwing power - preparation of samples for electroplating - chemical and electrochemical cleaning - electroplating of copper, nickel and cadmium. Electroless plating: Importance, plating of non metals - Both composition - electroless plating of copper and nickel.
UNIT 4: ELECTROCHEMICAL POWER SOURCES (15)
Basic principles, chemical and electrical energies - inter conversion - changing and discharging - requirements for a good power source - Types of power sources. Primary Batteries: Description of primary cells - alkaline, manganese cells - silver oxide - znic cells - lithium primary cells - applications. Secondary Batteries: Importance applications - charge discharge efficiency - cycle life - energy density - lead acid batteries for electric vehicles. Fuel Cells: Basic principles - Hydrogen, oxygen fuel cells - gas diffusion electrodes for fuel cells - alkaline fuel cells.
UNIT 5: CORROSION AND PREVENTION (15)
Principles - stability of metals - EMF series - active and noble metals. PH effect of stability - pourrbaix diagram - Kinetics of corrorsion - Mixed potential process - Cathodic reaction - anodic reaction - corrosion current - active dissolution - passivation - break down of passivity - Evans diagram. Methods of Corrosion Protection. Principles - Inhibition of anodic, cathodic processes - Inhibitive additives for corrosion protection - protective coatings - types of coatings - protection of structures and pipelines - cathodic protection - examples - sacrifical anodes - protection of ships in sea water.
Books for Reference
1. Pletcher D. and Waish F.C., Industrial Chemistry (II Edition).
2. Hamann C.H. Hamnett A., and Vielstich W., Electrochemistry.
3. Hibbert D.B., Introduction to electrochemistry.
V or VI
ELECTIVE - LEATHER
To understand the distinction between hide, skin and leather and their structure and composition.
To acquire knowledge on the different types of tanning and the pre-tanning processes.
To understand in detail the chemistry of tanning process.
To study the chemical methods of curing and preservation of hider and skins
To understand the impact of tannery effluents on the environment, project on effluent analysis.
UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO LEATHER CHEMISTRY (15)
Importance of leather industry - scope of leather chemistry - distinction between hides, skins and leather - a detailed steed of the structure and composition of hider and skins - Proteins and their characteristics - Anatomy and histology of protein constituents of leather.
UNIT 2: TANNING PROCESSES (15)
Basic principle involved in pre-tanning - soaking, liming, deliming, bating, pickling and depickiling. Types of tanning - Vegetables and mineral tanning - different types of vegetables tanning - materials - classification and chemistry of vegetable tanning - factor and physico-chemical principles involved in vegetable tanning - Fixation of vegetable tanning - Synthetic tanning - classification - General methods.
UNIT 3 : CHEMISTRY OF TANNING (15)
The preparation and chemistry of chrome tanning liquids - olationm oxolation and hydrolysis of chrome liquids. Effect of adding tanning agents. Role of pH in the reaction of chromium complexes with hide proteins. Factors governing chrome tanning. Chemistry of neutralisation process. A brief survey of chemistry of other tanning agents like Al, Zr and Te salts and their relative merit in contrast with chrome tanning.
UNIT 4: PRESERVATION AND PROCESSING OF LEATHER (15)
Chemical methods of curing and presentation of hides and skins in acid and alkaline solutions. Principles of methods employed in curing, liming, deliming, bating and pickling - Process of dyeing leather - Use of mordants - Dyeing auxiliaries such as leveling, wetting and dispersing agents - Dye fixations.
UNIT 5: ENVIRONMENT IMPACT OF TANNERY INDUSTRIES AND PROJECT WORK
Tannery effluent and treatment - Types of water pollution - Different types of tannery effluents and wastes - Solid waste - Origin disposal.
Project : A small group project on collecting tannery effluents from various sources and their chemical analysis (10 Hrs Theory + 5 Hrs Practical)
Books for Reference
1. Woodroff, John Wiley, Fundamentals of leatehr science.
2. Visit to a leather processing unit to understand the process of tanning and leather processing.
3. Visit to CLRI to have an idea of the research and development in leather industry.
V or VI
ELECTIVE - POLYMER
To know about the types of polymers and the chemistry of polymerisation.
To understand the physical properties of polymers, their reactions and degradation.
To acquire knowledge about the polymerisation techniques and polymer processing.
To know the chemistry of individual polymers, their preparation and properties
To have an idea about the recent advances in polymer science.
UNIT 1 : INTRODUCTION TO POLYMERS (15)
Importance, of polymers: Basic concept - Monomers and polymers - definition. Classification of polymers on the basis of microstrucutres, macrostructures and applications (thermosetting and thermoplastics) Distinction among plastics, elastomers and fibres. Homo and heteropolymers Copolymers.
Polyaddition and polycondensation misceellaneous ring-opening and group transfer polymerisations.
UNIT 2: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND REACTIONS OF POLYMERS (15)
Properties : Glass transition temperature (Tg) - Definition - Factors affecting Tg-relationships between Tg and molecular weight and melting point. Importance of Tg. Molecular weight of polymers: Number average, weight average, sedimentation and viscosity average molecular weights. Molecular weights and degree of polymerisation. Reactions: hydrolysis - hydrogenation - addition - substitutions - cross-linking vulcanisation and cyclisations reactions. Polymer degradation. Basic idea of thermal, photo and oxidative degradations of polymers.
UNIT 3: POLYMERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PROCESSING (15)
3. Arora M.G., Singh and Yadav M.S., Polymer Chemistry, 2nd Revised edition, Anmol Publications Private Ltd., New Delhi, 1989.
Methods and Media
Visit to a polymer processing unit, seminar. Test - based term paper.
05. B.Sc. DEGREE COURSE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
Title of the Course/
Paper –V PROGRAMMING IN C++ AND DATA
II Year & Third Semester
Objective of the course
This course introduces the basic concepts of programming in C++ and Data Structures
Unit 1: Introduction to C++; Tokens, Keywords, Identifiers, Variables, Operators, Manipulators, Expressions and Control Structures in C++; Pointers - Functions in C++ ‑ Main Function ‑ Function Prototyping ‑ Parameters Passing in Functions - Values Return by Functions - Inline Functions - Friend and Virtual Functions
Unit-2: Classes and Objects; Constructors and Destructors; and Operator Overloading and Type Conversions - Type of Constructors - Function overloading. Inheritance : Single Inheritance ‑ Multilevel Inheritance ‑ Multiple Inheritance ‑ Hierarchical Inheritance ‑ Hybrid Inheritance. Pointers, Virtual Functions and Polymorphism; Managing Console I/O operations.
Unit 3: Working with Files: Classes for File Stream Operations ‑ Opening and Closing a File ‑ End‑of‑File Deduction ‑ File Pointers ‑ Updating a File ‑ Error Handling during File Operations ‑ Command‑line Arguments. Data Structures: Definition of a Data structure ‑ primitive and composite Data Types, Asymptotic notations, Arrays, Operations on Arrays, Order lists.
Unit-4: Stacks - Applications of Stack ‑ Infix to Postfix Conversion, Recursion, Maze Problems - Queues ‑ Operations on Queues, Queue Applications, Circular Queue. Singly Linked List ‑ Operations, Application ‑ Representation of a Polynomial, Polynomial Addition; Doubly Linked List ‑ Operations, Applications.
Unit-5 : Trees and Graphs: Binary Trees ‑ Conversion of Forest to Binary Tree, Operations ‑ Tree Traversals; Graph ‑ Definition, Types of Graphs, Hashing Tables and Hashing Functions, Traversal ‑ Shortest Path; Dijkstra's Algorithm.