Carbohydrates – Classification, Properties of Mono saccharide (Glucose and fructose), structure and configuration of mono saccharide, interconversion, ascending and descending series, muta rotation, epimerisation cyclic structure – Determination of size of sugar rings – Disaccharide – Sucrose, Maltose – Structure elucidation – Polysaccharide – Starch and Cellulose (Elementary treatment).
UNIT 2: CHEMISTRY OF PROTEINS AND VITAMINS (20)
Amino acids – Classification, General methods of preparation and reactions of amino acids, zwitter ion – isoelectric point, action of heat on , and amino acids. Peptides and proteins – Peptide linkage – Polypeptide – Classification of proteins – Synthesis of peptides – Merrifield synthesis – Primary structure – End group analysis – Dansyl chloride, Edman method - Secondary structure – Tertiary structure – Denaturation – Colour reactions of proteins – Vitamins (Structural elucidation not needed) – Classification, biological importance of Vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12 and C.
UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY OF ALKALOIDS AND TERPENOIDS (20)
Chemistry of natural products – Alkaloids – Isolation, classification, general methods of elucidating structure – structural elucidation and synthesis of coniine, piperine, nicotine and ephedrine, Terpenes – classification – isoprene, special isoprene rule, general methods of structural elucidation – structural elucidation and synthesis of citral, limonene, menthol, camphor.
UNIT 4: MOLECULAR REARRANGEMENTS (15)
Molecular rearrangements – Types of rearranges (nucleophilic and electrophilic) – Mechanism with evidence for the following re-arrangements – pinacol – pinacolone, benzil – benzilic acid, benzidine, Claisen, Fries, Hofmann, Curtius, Lossen, Beckmann, dienone-phenol and Orton
UNIT 5: ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY (20)
UV-VIS spectroscopy – Types of electronic transitions – Solvent effects on max-Woodward – Fieser rules – Calculation of max: dienes and , - unsaturated carbonys.
IR spectroscopy – Number and types of fundamental vibrations – Modes of vibrations and their energies, Position of IR absorption frequencies for functional groups like aldehyde, ketone, alcohol, acid and amide, Factors affecting the frequency absorption – Conjugation, inductive effect and hydrogen bond.
NMR spectroscopy – Principle – Equivalent and non-Equivalent protons – Shielded and deshielded protons, anisotropy, chemical shift – TMS, Tau and delta scales, integral, splitting of signals – Spin-Spin coupling, NMR spectrum of EtOH,
To understand the theory of electrical conductance
To understand the transformation of chemical energy into electrical energy in Galvanic cells
To understand the symmetry aspects in chemical systems
To know the principles involved in various spectroscopic techniques
UNIT 1: CHEMICAL KINETICS AND CATALYSIS (20 Hrs)
Rate of reaction, Average and instantaneous rates, rate equation, order of reaction. Rate laws: Rate constants – Deviation of rate constants and characteristics for zero, first order, second and third order (equal initial concentration) – Derivation of time for half change with examples. Methods of determination of order of reactions – Experimental methods of determination of rate constant of a reaction – Volumetry, manometry and polairmetry.
Effect of temperature on reaction rate – concept of activation energy, energybarrier Arrhenius equation. Theories of reaction rates – Collision theory – derivation of rate constant of bimolecular gaseous reaction – Failure of collision theory. Lindemann's theory of unimolecular reaction. Theory of absolute reaction rates – Derivation of rate for a bimolecular reaction – significance entropy and free energy of activation. Comparison of collision theory and ARRT.
Catalysis – Homogenous and heterogeneous – Homogenous catalysis – Kinetics of Acid – base and enzyme catalysis. Heterogenous catalysis – Adsorption – Types – Chemical and physical. Characteristics of adsorption. Different types of isotherms – Freundlich and Langmuir.
UNIT 2: PHOTO CHEMISTRY (10)
Laws of photo chemistry – Lambert – Beer Grothus – Draper and Stark – Einstein. Quantum efficiency. Photo chemical reactions – rate law – Kinetics of H2-Cl2, H2-Br2 and H2-I1 reactions, comparison between thermal and photochemical reactions.
UNIT 3: ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE (20)
Electrical transport and conductance in metal and in electrolytic solution. Specific conductance and equivalent conductance. Measurement of equivalent conductance. Using Kohlraush's bridge. Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation and its limitations. Weak and strong electrolyte according to Arrhenius theory Ostwald's dilution was – applications and limitation. Variation of equivalent conductance with concentration.
Migration of ion-ionic mobility. Kohlraush's law and its applications. The elementary treatment of the Debye-Huckel Onsager equation for strong electrolytes. Evidence for ionic atmosphere. The conductance at high fields (Wein effect) and high frequencies (Debye-Falkenhagen effect). Transport number & Hittorf's rule. Determination by Hittorf's method and moving boundary method. Application of conductance measurements – Determination of O of strong electrolytes. Determination of Ka of weak acids. Determination of solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt. Common ion effect. Conductometric titrations.
UNIT 4: ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS (20)
Electrolytic & Galvanic cells – Reversible and irreversible cells. Conventional representation of electrochemical cells. Electromotive force of a cell and its measurement computation of E.M.F. calculation of thermodynamic quantities of cell reactions (G, H, S and K). Application of Gibbs Helmholtz equation. Concentration of E.M.F. Nernst equation.
Types of reversible electrodes – Gas/metal ion-metal/metal ion; metal/insoluble salt/anion and Redox electrodes. Electrode reactions – Nernst equation – Derivation of cell. E.M.F. and single electrode potential standard hydrogen electrode – reference electrodes – standard electrodes potentials – sign convention – Electrochemical series and its significance.
Concentration cell with and without transport. Liquid junction potential. Application of EMF concentration cells. Valency of ion, solubility product and activity co-efficient. Potentiometric titrations. Determination of pH using Hydrogen, quinhydrone and glass electrodes. Determinationof pKa of acids by potentiometric method. Corrosion - general and electrochemical theory - passivity - prevention of corrosion.
UNIT 5: GROUP THEORY AND SPECTROSCOPY (20)
Symmetry elements and symmetry operation symmetry operation of H2O molecule, Illustration of Group Polstulates using symmetry operations of H2O molecule. Construction of multiplication table, for the symmetry operation of H2O molecule. Point group - Definition Elements (symmetry operations) of the following points groups Cn(C2, C3), Sn (S1, S2), C1v (C2V, C3V) and (C2R).
Electromagnetic spectrum - The regions of various types of spectra. Microwave spectroscopy: Rotational spectra of diatomic molecules treated as rigid rotator, condition for a molecule to be active in microwave region, rotational constants (B), and selection rules for rotational transition. Frequency of spectral lines, calculation of inter-nuclear distance in diatomic molecules.
Infrared sepctroscopy: Vibrations of diatomic molecules - Harmonic and anharmonic oscillators, zero point energy, dissociation energy and force constant, condition for molecule to be active in the IR region, selection rules for vibrational transition. Determination of force constant.
Raman spectroscopy : Raleigh scattering and Raman scattering. Strokes and antistokes lines in Raman spectra, Raman frequency, quantum theory of Raman effect, condition for a molecule to be Raman active, Comparison of Raman and IR spectra, Structural determination from Raman and IR spectroscopy, Rule of mutual exclusion.
5. Sharma, K.K. and Sharma, D.S. Introduction to Practical Chemistry, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, (2005).
ELECTIVES (Any three of the following)
a. Material and Nano chemistry.
b. Industrial Chemistry
c. Pharmaceutical chemistry
d. Applied Electrohemistry
e. Leather Chemistry
f. Polymer Electro Chemistry.
V or VI
ELECTIVE - MATERIAL AND
To learn the conductance of solids and the different types of crystal defects.
To acquire knowledge about different types of magnetic and insulating materials.
To understand modern engineering materials like metallic glasses, biomaterials and advanced ceramics.
To learn the different techniques for the synthesis of nanophase materials and their applications
To acquire knowledge about the modern techniques in nanotechnology and namomaterials.
UNIT 1 : IONIC CONDUCTIVITY AND SOLID ELECTROLYTES (15)
Types of ionic crystals - Alkali halides - Silver chloride - Alkali earth fluoride - Simple stoichoimetric oxides. Types of ionic conductors - halide ion conductors - oxide ion conductors - solid electrolytes - applications of solid electrolytes. Electrochemical cell - principles - batteries, sensors and fuel cells - crystal defects in solids - line and plane defects - point defects - schottky and frenkel defects. Electronic properties and band theory: metals, semiconductor - Inorganic solids - colour, magnetic and optical properties, luminescence, laters.
UNIT 2: MAGNETIC MATERIALS (15)
Introduction - types of magnetic materials - diamagnetism - paramagnetism, ferromagnetism. Ferrites: Preparation and their applications in microwave - floppy disk - magnetic bibble memory and applications. Insulating Materials : Classification - on the basis of temperature - Blymer insulating materials and ceramic insulating materials. Ferro electric materials : Examples - applications of ferroelectries.
UNIT 3 : MODERN ENGINEERING MATERIALS (15)
Metallic glasses - Introduction - Composition, properties and applications. Shape memory alloys : Introduction - examples, application of SMA - advantage and disadvantages. Biomateials:
Introduction - metals and alloys in biomaterials - ceramic biomaterials, composite biomaterials - polymer biomaterials.
UNIT 4: NANOPHASE MATERIALS (15)
Introduction - techniques for synthesis of nanophase materials - sol-gel synthesis - electrodeposition - inert gas condensation - mechanical alloying - properties of nanophase materials - applications of nanophase materials. Composite materials : Introduction - types.
UNIT 5: NANO TECHNOLOGY (15)
Introduction : Importance - various stages of nanotechnoclogy - nanotube technology - nanoparticles - fullerenes - nanodendrimers - nonopore channels, fibres and scaffolds - CVD dimond technology - FCVA technology and its applications - nanoimaging techniques.
Books for Reference
01. Aathony R. West,
Solidstate chemistry and its applications, John Wiley & Sons (1989).
02. Raghavan V.R.
Materials Science and Engineering, Prentice Hall (India) Ltd., (2001).
03. Kenneth J. Klabunde,
Nanoscale Materials in chemistry, A.John Wiley and Sons Inc., Publication.
V or VI
ELECTIVE - INDUSTRIAL
To under the requirements to start an industry - different fuels used and the industrial catalysts used.
To know about different petrochemical industries thoroughly.
To understand the manufacture of fertilizers and speciality chemicals.
To acquire knowledge about oils, soaps, detergents, sugar industry, leather and pesticide industries.
To understand the important process of metallurgy extraction of metals and environmental problems caused by chemical industries.