Muscles-Types of muscles, structure and their functions: myofilamentation and contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscles.
Respiratory system: Outline of various components of respiratory system- organs involved in respiration and their structure, types of respiration- external and internal, transport of respiratory gases by the blood, gaseous exchange in lungs, at tissue level, mechanism of breathing. (18 hrs)
Digestive system: Structure and function of different components of digestive systems, digestion of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, mechanism of HCl formation in stomach, role of various enzymes and hormones involved in digestive processes, absorption of monosacharides, aminoacids, fatty acids , role of bile salt in digestion and absorption, structure of microvilli and its role in absorption. (18 hrs)
Excretory system: Overall design of urinary system: Kidney structure and its organization. Nephron- structure and its role, Mechanism of urine formation – function of glomerular filtration, GFR, selective reabsorption, active and passive transport of various substances and secretion. (18 hrs)
Circulatory system: Structure and function of different components of circulatory system- arterial and venous blood vessels, types of circulation- pulmonary and systemic . Blood composition and function, types of blood cells, morphology and function. Blood groups – ABO and Rhesus system. Composition and function of lymph and lymphatic system. Structure of heart, cardiac cycle.
Brief outline of nervous system – Brain (Parts and ventricles), Spinal cord, nerve fibres, synapses, chemical and electrical synapses, nerve impulses, action potential and neurotransmitters. (18 hrs)
Human Physiology – Stuart Era Fox, 10thedition , 2008.S
Textbook of Medical Physiology – Guyton and Hall, 2001, 10th edition.
Human Physiology – Vander et al, 10th edition, 2006.
General Physiology – A. Mariakuttian & N. Arumugam.
Biological Science – N. P.O Green, G.W .Stout and D. J. Taylor 2nd edition 1996.
Textbook of Physiology and Nutrition – Swaminathan M. S
Web Sites: www.sciencedirect.com
03. B.Sc. DEGREE COURSE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY Semester – III
PAPER V - GENETICS
Classical Genetics – Mendelian laws, monohybrid and dihybrid inheritance. Chromosome structure and organization in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Multiple alleles and blood group antigens. Sex chromosomes and sex linked inherited disorders- X linked recessive, dominant inheritance, gender defective phenotypes.
Linkage, Crossing over and genetic mapping of chromosomes.
Identification of the DNA as the genetic material. Classical experiments of Hershey Chase, Avery McLeod etc. Genetic recombination in bacteria: Conjugation, transduction, and transformation.
Mutagens and Mutation. Principles of variation and selection process of speciation genetic drift, pedigree analysis and Human genome project.
Lewis, R.2001. Human genetics- concepts and application. 4th edition. McGraw
Griffiths, Miller, J.H., An introduction to genetic analysis W.H.Freeman. New
Winter, P.C., Hickey, G.J. and Fletcher, H.L.2000. Instant notes in
genetics.Viva books, Ltd.
Gardener E.J. Simmons M.J.Slustad DP. 1991. Principles of Genetics.
Goodenough U. 1985. Genetics. Hold Saunders international.
PAPER VI - GENETICS AND BIOCHEMISTRY - (PRACTICAL) Biochemistry Practical
Estimation of Glycine by formal titration – Estimation of glucose by Benedict’s method – Estimation of ascorbic acid using dichlorophenol indophenol as link solution.
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITAIVE ANALYSIS:
Qualitative analysis of carbohydrates – Glucose, Fructose, Lactose, maltose and sucrose - Qualitative analysis of amino acids: Arginine, cystein, tryptophan and tyrosine.
Colorimetric estimation a) protein by Lowry’s method, b)DNA using diphenylamine, c) Glucose using orthotoludine method and d)Phosphorous by Fiske – Subba Rao method: Separation of amino acids by Paper chromatography.
Preparations of culture medium and culture of Drosophila – methods of maintenance – identifications of species and mutants. Identifications of human blood groups – mitotic stages of onion (Alium ceepa) root tip and meiotic stages of cockroach testes – giant chromosomes from Chironomous larvae/ Drosophila salivary glands.
ALLIED SUBJECT II- Paper – I - BIOCHEMISTRY UNIT I
Structure, chemistry and properties of Carbohydrates; Lipids; and Proteins:
Classification of porphyrins, their structure and properties; structure of metalloporphyrins- haeme and chlorophyll; Vitamins and Hormones.
Principles of Bio-energetic; Metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, purines, pyrimidines- their biosynthesis & degradation; mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation & its inhibitors, photo phosphorylation.
Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxines, interferons and interleukins; antibodies; alkaloids; plant and animal pigments.
Separation methods: Chromatography - electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, high voltage electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Isolation methods – centrifugation, ultra – centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation.
BOOKS FOR STUDY
Sathyanarayana. U. 2002. Biochemistry. Books and allied Pvt. Ltd.
Murray, R.K., Granner, D.K., Mayes, P.A. and Rodwell, V.W. 2000.
Harper’s Biochemistry, 4th edition. McGraw-Hill.
Stryer, L. 1999. Biochemistry, 4th edition. W.H.Freeman & Company, New York.
Voet, D.and Voet, J.G.1995. Biochemistry, 2nd edition. John Willey and Sons, Inc.
Lehninger, A.L., Nelson, D.L and Cox, M.M.1993. Principles of Biochemistry,
2nd edition. CBS Publishers and Distributors, Delhi.
PAPER VII - PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
Plant genome: Organization, structure of representative plant genes and gene families in plants – chloroplast genome organization of mitochondrial genome.
Agrobacterium and crown gall tumors – Mechanism of T-DNA transfer to plants, Ti Plasmid vectors and its utility – Plant viral vectors. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Rhizobia.
Seed storage proteins. Regeneration of gene expression in plant transgenic plants and applications – plant vaccine and plant development.
Plant Hormones – IAA, GA and cytokinins – molecular basis of action – phytochrome – role in photomorphogeneisis – Regulation of gene expression – abscisic acid – and stress – induced promoter switches in the control of gene expression – Ethylene and fruit ripening.
Narayanaswamy S. 1994. Plant cell and tissue culture. Tata McGraw Hill
Publishing Company limited, New Delhi.
PAPER VIII - PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY (PRACTICAL)
Hands on training in cell and tissue culture and maintenance of culture
lines - Callus development and micropropagation of plants – Protoplast manipulation – Agrobacterium technology – Electropropagation – Biolistic transformation – Southern and Northern hybridization.
ALLIED SUBJECT II
PAPER II- BIOPHYSICS AND BIOSTATISTICS
Scope and methods and biophysics – levels of molecular organization – detailed structure of protein molecules at primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels.
Analysis of protein, protein interaction and protein – nucleic acid interaction. Structure and chemical nature of polysaccharides.
Statistics – collection, classification, tabulations of Statistical Data – Diagrammatic representation – graphs – plotted curve – Sampling method and standard errors – random sampling – means – confidence limits – standard errors – variance.
Measures of central tendency – measures of dispersion – Skew ness, kurtosis, moments – Correlations and regression.
Probablity distributions – Binomial and negative binomial, compound and multinomial distributions – Tests of significance – t tests – F tests – Analysis of variance – Spread sheets – Data entry – Graphics display – word processes.
BOOKS FOR STUDY Creighton, T.E.2002. Protein structure and molecular propertie. W.H. Freeman
Micklos, D.A. and Freyes, G.A. 2002. DNA Science. Cold Spring harbour
Sundar Rao P.S.S., Jesudian G. and Richard J. 1987. An introduction to Bio-
Statistics (2nd Ed). Prestographik, Vellore, India.
Gupta, S.P. 1997. BiostatisticalMethods, S.Chand and Sons.
Elhance, d.n.1972. Fundamentals of Statistics, Kitab Mhal, Allahabad.
Sokal, P.R and Rohif, F.R. 1969. Biometry: The Principles and Practice of
Statistics, in Biological Research, Freeman and company, San Francisco.
Snedecor, George, W.Cochran and William, G. 1967. Statistical Methods, Sixth
edition, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., Oxford
Federer W.R 1955. Experimental Design: Theory and Applications, Oxford
Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
SEMESTER - V PAPER IX - ANIMAL AND MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
Basic principles of Biotechnology – manipulation of reproductive process – Artificial insemination – freezing of semen – Embryo technology – in vitro maturation and fertilization – Pregnancy diagnosis – Assisted reproductive technology – cloning strategies – transgenic animals.
Historical aspects – Medical Biotechnology – Pathogenic microbes – Bacterial, Viral, Fungal and Protozoan disease – diagnosis using modern techniques – probes – Cure, control and prevention.
Health Disease Diagnosis: Hybridoma Technique, Monoclonal antibodies, application of Probes for diagnosis of existing and emerging disease in animal and human disease.
Vaccines – Production of recombinant vaccines – bacterial, viral or parasitic infections – DNA Vaccines. Synthetic peptide, anti-idiotype, deletion mutant and vaccine vectored vaccine – Prophylaxis.
Genetic engineering of Microorganisms and molecules – Recombinant DNA, DNA/RNA probes – monoclones – diagnosis – Animal cell culture – maintenance and culture of primary, secondary and continuous cell lines – applications.
BOOKS FOR STUDY Click, B.R. and Pasternark. 2002. Molecular Biotechnology: Principle and applications of recombinant DNA. ASM press.
Ramasamy. P. 2002. Trends in Biotechnology, University of Madras of Publications, Pearl Press.
Kreuzer, H. and Massey, A. 2001. Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology: A guide for teachers, 2nd edition. ASM Press Washington.
Traven. 2001. Biotechnology. Tata McGraw – Hill.
Walker, J.M. and Gingold, E.B. 1999.Molecular biology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition. Panima Publishing Corporation.
Jenkins, N. (ed). 1999 Animal cell Biotechnology: Methods and protocols. Humana press, New Jesey. Pp 1-302.
Watson, J.D., Gilman, M., Witknowski, J. and Zoller, M. 1992. Recombinant DNA (2nd ed) Scientific American Books, NY.
Murray, E.T. 1991. Gene transfer and expression protocols – Methods in Molecular biology Vol.7. Humana Press.
Watsen, J.D., Hopkins, N.H., Roberts, J.W. Steitz, J.A. and Weiner, A.M. 1987.Molecular biology of gene. Benjamin/ Cummings 4th Ed. Vol.1&2.
PAPER X - BIOINFORMATICS
Genomic and cDNA sequences: output management from different biological output sources, gene prediction rules and software – Human Genome Project – Mutations, Population studies.
Gene therapy: Analysis of genomic and proteomic information with respect to biological systems – Genome application – Transgenic animals and plants – pathway regulatory networks. Drug design / discovery and identification, synthesis of new drugs; Management of diverse chemical libraries.
Gene expression: Microarrays and recent developments in expression analysis: Genes; Oncogenes – protooncogenes – Classification of Cancer types: Application of Microarrays in Drug toxicity testing, metabolic pathways.
Sequence analysis (Proteins and Nucleic acids) Sequence alignment
methods – Proteomics: Proteins analysis – structural comparisons – 2D gel, Mass spec, protein and antibody arrays.
Protein Database: Comparison of Protein sequences and Database
searching – methods for protein structure prediction – conserved patterns in protein sequences and structures – Comparison of protein 3D structures – predicting functions based on DNA and protein sequences.
BOOKS FOR STUDY:
1. Pennington, S.R. and Punn, M.J. 2002.Proteomics: from protein sequence to
function. Viva books Pri. Ltd.
2. Maleolm and Goosfship. J. 2001. Genotype to phenotype, 2nd edition. Bios
Scientific Publishers Ltd.
3. Misener, S. and Krawetz. S.A. 2000. Bioinformatics: Methods and Protocols.
4. Attwood, T.K. and Parry-Smith, D.J.1999. Introduction to Bioinformatics.
6. Durbin, R., Eddy, S., Krogh, A. and Mitchison, G. 1998. Biological sequence analysis. Cambridge University Press.
7. Friedman, C.P. and Wyatt. J.C. 1997. Computers and Machine: Evaluation methods in medicinal information. Springer-verlag, New York.
8. Bishop, M.J. and Rawhings. C.J. 1997. DNA and protein sequence analysis: A practical approach. Oxford University press. New press.
9. Kolodner, R.M. 1997. Computer in Health care: Computerizing large integrated health networks. Springer – Verlag, New York.
PAPER XI - IMMUNOLOGY
Antigen: Isolation, purification and characterization of various antigens and haptens from pathogens and other biological molecules.
Purification of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood: Isolation and Characterization of T cell subsets; B cells and macrophages; Macrophage cultures; Assay for Macrophage activation; Isolation of dendritic cells.
Hybridoma and monoclonal antibody production: Production of antibodies: purification of antibodies, Quantification of Immunoglobulins, Immunodiagosis and Applications of Monoclonal antibodies in biomedical research.
Assessment of delayed hypersensitivity reactions; In situ and in vivo characterization of cells from tissues; HLA typing.
Biology and assay of cytokines; Vaccine technology including DNA vaccines; Immunotechnology and infectious diseases.
BOOKS FOR STUDY
1. Ramasamy, P and R.E.B.Henna, 2002. Immunity and inflammation. University of Madras Publications Division, M/S. Pearl press, Chennai, India.
2. Parslow, T.G., Stites, D.P. and Terr, A.L. 2001. Medical immunology, 10th edition. McGraw-Hill publishing.
3. Goldsby, R.A., Kindt, T.J. and Osborne, B.A. 2000. Kuby immunology. 4th edition. Freeman and company.
4. Zola, H. 2000. Monoclonal antibodies. Bios Scientific Publishers ltd.
5. Roitt, I. 1996. Immunology. Black well Scientific Publications.
6. Weir, D. M. 1992. Immunological techniques. 3 Volumes. Black well Scientific Publishers.
PAPER XII - ANIMAL, MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (PRACTICAL) Animal and Medical Biotechnology
Preparation of tissue culture medium and membrane filtration; preparation of single cell suspension from spleen and thymus; Cell counting and cell viability; Macrophage monolayer from PEC and measurement of phagocytic activity; Trypsinization of monolayer and sub culturing; Cryopreservation and thawing; Measurement of doubling time; Role of serum in cell culture.
Blood groups and Rh Typing – Handling of animals and Raising Antibodies – Direct agglutinations – Slide and Tube methods:- Whole cell agglutination – Slide and Tube methods – Whole cell agglutination – Slide and tube methods – Serotyping by slide Agglutination – Indirect Agglutination test: Particle Agglutination – Letex Hbs Ag, ASLO – Passive Haemagglutination – TPH – Precipitation – Single Radial Immuno Diffusion (SRID) – Double Immuno Diffusion – Amboceptor titration (Demonstration) – ELISA (Demonstration) – Skin test for demonstration cutaneous hypersensitivity.
ELECTIVE I - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY UNIT 1
Pharmaceutical biotechnology an introduction. Microbes in pharmaceutical industry. Formulation of biotech products including biopharmaceutical considerations (Microbiological Considerations). Shelf life of protein based pharmaceuticals. Delivery of proteins - Rate and target site - specific delivery. Site specific delivery of protein drugs.
Pharmacokinetics and Phermacodynamics - Peptide and protein drugs. Elimination of protein Therapeutics and Distribution of therapeutics, Protein binding of proteins therapeutics, Heterogeneity of protein therapeutics. Chemical modification of protein therapeutics and immunogenicity.
Protein engineering, Peptide chemistry and Peptidomimetics, catalytic Antibodies, Glycobiology and biosensors. Impact of biotechnology on drug discovery. Gene therapy - ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy. Hematopoietic growth Factors, Chemical description, pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Concerns, clinical and Practice aspects.
Pharmacology and Formulations- Vaccines, Modern vaccine technologies, pharmaceutical aspects. Monoclonal antibody -Based pharmaceuticals, development of antibody based therapeutics. Formulation of monoclonal antibody- Based therapeutically.
Biotechnology products in pipeline - Drug development, Protein Pharmaceutical in development. Nucleic acid therapies in development. development of Adhesion molecules, glycoprotein, and carbohydrate based pharmaceuticals and other products of glycobiology.
BOOKS FOR STUDY
1. Daniel Figeys (Ed.) 2005. Industrial proteomics: Applications for Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals. Wiley and Sons, Incorporated.
2. O. Kayser, R.H. Muller. 2004. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Drug Discovery and clinical applications. Wiley - VCH.
7. Walker, M. and Gingold, E.B. 1999. Molecular biology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition. Panama Publishing Corporation.
8. Old, R.W. and Primrose, S.B.1998. Principles of An introduction to Genetic Engineering Blackwell Science.U.K.
9. Brown, T.A. 1995. Gene cloning an introduction. Chapman & Hall. London.
PAPER XIV - BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY
Introduction to bioprocess: An overview of traditional and modern applications of biotechnological process, integrated bioprocess and the various (Upstream and down stream) unit operations involved in bioprocesses.
Fermentation processes: General requirements of fermentation processes, main parameters to be monitored and controlled in fermentation processes, aerobic an anaerobic fermentation processes and their application in the biotechnology industry.
Enzymatic bioconversion processes: Kinetics and thermodynamics of enzyme – catalyzed reactions, basic design and configuration of immobilized enzyme enzyme reactors, applications of immobilized enzyme technology. Media design and sterilization for fermentation processes: Medium requirements for fermentation processes and for industrial fermentation.
Metabolic stoichiometry and energetics: Stoichiometry of cell growth and product fermentation, elemental balances, degrees of reduction of substrate and biomass, yield coefficients of biomass and product formation, maintenance coefficients energetic analysis of microbial growth and product formation.
Kinetics of microbial growth and product formation: Phases of cell growth in batch cultures, simple unstructured kinetic models for microbial growth – Growth associated (primary) and non- growth associated (secondary) product formation kinetics – leudeking – Piret models.
BOOKS FOR STUDY
1. Shuler, M.L. and Kargi, F. 2002. Bioprocess engineering – Basic concepts. Prentice Hall of India.
2. Shuler, M.L. and Kargi, F. 1992. Bioprocess engineering, Prentice Hall.
3. Bailey and Ollis, 1986. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals, McGraw
Hill (2nd Ed.).
PAPER XV –GENETIC ENGINEERING AND BIOPROCESS (PRACTICAL)
Extraction and estimation of intracellular proteins from E. Coli – Lowry’s Method – Production of competent cells for transformation – Bacterial transformation – Isolation of genomic DNA – Extraction and estimation of RNA – Restriction Digestion of DNA – Absorption spectra of Nucleic acid – Estimation of DNA by Diphenyl amine method – Melting temperature of DNA, Agarose gel electrophoresis – SDS – PAGE – Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer – Isolation of plasmid DNA – Screening of Recombinants- Southern hybridization (DEMO) – Western Blotting (DEMO) – DNA amplification – PCR (DEMO).
Bioprocess – Fermentor – Part and design, types of fermentor / Bioreactor – Prodection of Biomass and its estimation (dry weight) – Isolation and characterization of microorganisms involved in biodegradation of amylolytic activity by DNS method – Compost making – Production of wine from grapes using bakers yeast – Production of alcohol by S. cerevisae – Isolation of Rhizobial colonies involved in biofertilization – Isolation of lactic acid bacteria.
ELECTIVE II - MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY UNIT I
History and scope of microbial biotechnology, microbial diversity and its use, cultivation and preservation of microorganisms in small scale in fermentors, bioreactors, immobilized cells and microbial polysaccharides- Microbial Biomass
Production of microbial enzymes and applications, production of organic solvents- single cell proteins.
Beverages Production of beverages, beer, wine, microbes in banking- production of baker yeast, milk products.
Biofertilizers and Biopesticides, Biomass from carbohydrates, higher alkanes, methanol, biofertilizers – manufacture, formulation and utilization, biopesticides.
Bioremediation: Microbes in mining, ore leaching, oil recovery, waste water treatment, biodegradation of non cellulose and cellulosic wastes for environmental conservation, protein.
BOOKS AND STUDY:
1. El-mans, E.M.T., and Bryce, C.F.A 2002. Fermentation microbiology and Biotechnology. Taylor and Francis group.
2. Prave, P., Faust, V., Sitting W. and Sukatseh, D.A. (eds.). 1987. Fundamentals of Biotechnology. WCH Weinhein.
3. Moo-Young, M. (ed.) 1985. Comprehensive biotechnology - Volume 2,3 and 4. Pergamon Press.
4. Stanbury, P.F. and Whitaker. A. 1984.Principles of fermentation Technology. Pergamon Press.
5. Coulson, J.M. and Rocjardspm, J.F. 1984. Chemical Engineering. Pregamon press.
ELECTIVE III - ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY UNIT I
Biofilm Kinetics: Soluble microbial products and inert biomass. Reactors: Reactors types – A batch reactor – A continuous- flow stirred- tank reactor with effluent recycle – A plug – flow reactor – A Plug flow reactor with effluent recycles – Reactors with recycle of settled cells.
Linking stoichiometric equations to mass balance equations – Engineering design of reactors – Reactors in series. Reactor configurations – Special factors for the design of anaerobic sludge digesters.
Denitrification: Physiology of denitrifying bacteria – Tertiary denitrification – One – sludge denitrification – Drinking water treatment: Anaerobic treatment by methanogenesis – Uses for methanogenic treatment.
Detoxification of Hazardous chemicals: Factors causing molecular recalcitrance – Biodegradations of problem environmental contaminants – Bioremediation of problem environmental contaminants – Bioremediation: Engineering strategies for Evaluating bioremediation.
Sewage and waste treatment: Pollution monitoring, control and remediation (petroleum industry, paper industry, chemical industry etc).
BOOKS FOR STUDY:
1. Rittmann, B.E. and McCarty, P.L. 2001. Environmental Biotechnology: Principles and applications. McGraw – Hill, New York.
2. Ahmed, N. Qureshi, F.M. and Khan, O.Y. 2001. Industrial Environmental Biotechnology. Horizon press.