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Mounting


4. Fish: Placoid and Ctenoid scales.

Osteology


Frog

1. Skull and lower jaw

2. Vertebral column

3. Pectoral girdle

4. Pelvic girdle

5. Forelimb

6.Hindlimb

Rabbit


7. Rabbit – Dentition

8. Dog – Dentition

9. Pigeon - Palate

10. Crow - Palate

11. Duck – Palate

Specimens and Slides





  1. Amphioxus

  2. Amphioxus – T.S. through pharynx

  3. Balanoglossus

  4. Tornaria larva

  5. Ascidia

  6. Ascidian larva

  7. Doliolum

  8. Salpha

  9. Petromyzon

  10. Ammoceotus larva

  11. Scoliodon sorrakowah

  12. Mugil oeur

  13. Trygon

  14. Narcine

  15. Rhinobatus

  16. Protopterus

  17. Catla

  18. Clarias

  19. Arius

  20. Saccobranchus

  21. Anabas

  22. Hippocampus

  23. Tetradon

  24. Cynoglossus

  25. Echeneis

  26. Bufo melanostictus

  27. Hyla

  28. Rhacophorus

  29. Amblystoma

  30. Axolotl larva

  31. Necturus

  32. Proteus

  33. Icthyophis

  34. Hemidactylus

  35. Chamaeleon

  36. Draco

  37. Mabuya

  38. Varanus

  39. Cobra

  40. Krait

  41. Russell’s viper

  42. Echis carinatus

  43. Typhlops

  44. Eryx

  45. Dryophis

  46. Hydrophis

  47. Geoemyda

  48. Testudo elegans

  49. Carapace

  50. Plastron

  51. King fisher

  52. Parrot

  53. Owl

  54. Hornbill

  55. Wood pecker

  56. Hoopoe

  57. Loris

  58. Manis

  59. Armadillo

  60. Bat


PAPER XIV – PRACTICAL III – CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY

CELL BIOLOGY





  1. Micrometry – Use of Microscopes, Camera Lucida, Stage and Ocular Micrometer.

  2. Blood smear preparation – Differential Count of WBC.

  3. Counting of RBC and WBC using Haemocytometer (Demostration only)

  4. Mounting of Buccal epithelium and observing living cells using vital staining.

  5. Mitosis in Onion root tip squash

  6. Meiosis in grasshopper testis squash

  7. Study of prepared slides of histology

    1. Columnar epithelium b. Ciliated epithelium c. Glandular epithelium

d. Areolar Connective tissue e. Cartilage T.S. f. Bone T.S.

g. Cardiac tissue h. Striated muscle I. Non striated muscle

j. Nervous tissue k. Ovary T.S. l. Testis T.S.

GENETICS





  1. Study of the biology of Drosophila.

  2. Observation of Common mutants of Drosophila

  3. Human blood grouping.

Animal Physiology





  1. Use of Kymograph unit, B.P. apparatus, Respirometer.

  2. Survey of Digestive enzymes in cockroach.

  3. Estimation of Oxygen consumption in a fish with reference to body weight.

  4. Detection of nitrogenous waste products in fish tank water, frog tank water, bird excreta and mammalian urine.

PAPER XV – PRACTICAL IV – ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY

1. Estimation of Dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH, free CO2, Carbonates and bicarbonates, Calcium in water samples.

2. Use of Rain guage, Maximum & minimum thermometer, Hygrometer, Anemometer and Barometer.

3. Plankton study – Fresh water and marine plankton.

4. Adaptations of aquatic and terrestrial animals based on a study of museum specimens. Such as rocky, sandy, muddy shore animals, flying and burrowing animals.

5. Study of natural ecosystem and field report of the visit.



DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

Study of the following prepared slides, museum specimens and materials.


6. Sections of testis and ovary showing the maturation stages of gametes.

7. Slides of mammalian Sperm and Ovum.

8. Study of Egg types – Frog’s egg, Hen’s egg.

9. Slides of cleavage stages, blastula, gastrula and neurula of frog.

10. Slides of different stages of chick embryo. 18 Hours (primitive streak stage), 24 Hours, 48 Hours, 72 hours and 96 Hours.

11. Placenta of sheep, Pig and Man.


02. B.Sc. DEGREE COURSE IN BIOCHEMISTRY

SEMESTER III


Title of the paper

BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES – I - PAPER IV

Category:C

Year & Semester

Second year & Third semester

Credits

5


Subject code

Objectives

To gain theoretical knowledge in biochemical techniques

Course Outline : (Biochemical Techniques)
UNIT I

Laboratory hygiene and safety – storage and handling of carcinogenic, toxic, poisonous, allergic chemicals and radioactive substances. Waste disposal – Disposal of corrosive wastes, toxic chemicals, radioactive substances and clinical specimens. Approaches to biochemical investigations, perfusion of isolated organ, slice techniques, tracer techniques and mutant studies for elucidation of metabolic pathways. (15hrs)


UNIT II

pH, pOH, Henderson – Hesselbalch equation, buffers, pH of body fluids, buffers in body fluids, red blood cells and tissues. Measurement of pH by indicators, zwitter ions, pH dependent ionization of amino acids and proteins. Colliods and their applications, viscosity, surface tension and Donnan membrane equilibrium. (15hrs)


UNIT III

Principles of electrochemical techniques. Measurement of pH by glass electrode and hydrogen electrode. Oxygen electrode – principles, operation of a Clarke electrode, applications of oxygen electrode. (15hrs)



UNIT IV

General principles of chromatography. Principles, operational procedure and applications of Column chromatography, Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Adsorption chromatography, Partition chromatography: Liquid-liquid chromatography, Countercurrent chromatography (CCC). (15hrs)


UNIT V

Principles, operational procedure and applications of Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) Ion-exchange chromatography Exclusion (permeation) chromatography Affinity chromatography High performance (pressure) liquid chromatography (HPLC). (15hrs)


Books recommended

Principles and Techniques of Practical Biochemistry (Paperback)

by Keith Wilson (Editor), John Walker (Editor), John M. Walker (Author) " Fifth Edition 2000

Introductory Practical Biochemistry (Hardcover)

by S. K. Sawhney; Randhir Singh (Editor) 2005

Principles of Physical Biochemistry (2nd Edition) by Kensal E van Holde, Curtis Johnson, and Pui Shing Ho (Hardcover - April 16, 2005)

Physical Biochemistry: Applications to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology by David M. Freifelder (Paperback - Aug 15, 1982)

Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis by G R Chatwal and S K Anand (Hardcover - Jun 1980)

Elements of Analytical chemistry – R. Gopalan, K. Rangarajan. Second edition, 2000, Sultan Chand and sons.

Modern experimental biochemistry – Rodney Boyer. Third edition, 2001, Benjamin Cummings Publishers.

Medical laboratory technology, A procedure manual for routine diagnostic tests Volume I – Kanai L. Mukherjee, 2005, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishers.




SEMESTER IV

Title of the paper

BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES II – PAPER V

Category:C

Year & Semester

Second year & fourth semester

Credits

5


Subject code

Objectives

To gain theoretical knowledge in biochemical techniques

Course Content : (Biochemical Techniques –II) (75hrs)

UNIT I

Basic principles of centrifugation. Differential, density gradient, isopyenic and equilibrium centrifugation. Preparative and analytical ultracentrifugation techniques. Determination of molecular weight by centrifugation method (derivation included). (15hrs)



UNIT II

Basic principles of electromagnetic radiation. Energy, wavelength, wave numbers and frequency. Absorption and emission spectra. Beer – Lambert law, light absorption and its transmittance. (15hrs)


UNIT III

General principles. Factors affecting the migration rate – sample, electric field, buffer and supporting medium. Tiselius moving boundary electrophoresis. PAGE.

SDS – PAGE. Immunoelectrophoresis.Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis.Agarose gel electrophoresis. (15hrs)
UNIT IV

Spectrofluorimetry – principles, instrumentation and applications in vitamin assays (riboflavin and thiamine), enzyme assays, fluorescent probes in the study of protein and membrane structure. Flame photometry – principles, instrumentation and applications in trace elements (sodium, potassium analysis). Atomic absorption and spectrophotometry – principles, instrumentation and applications. (15hrs)



UNIT V

Atomic structure, radiation, types of radioactive decay, half life, units of radio activity. Detection and measurement of radioactivity – methods based upon ionization (GM counter), methods based upon excitation (Scintillation counter).Autoradiography and isotope dilution techniques. Applications of radioisotopes in the elucidation of metabolic pathways, clinical scanning and radio dating. Biological hazards of radiation and safety measures in handling radio isotopes. (15hrs)


Books recommended

Principles and Techniques of Practical Biochemistry (Paperback)

by Keith Wilson (Editor), John Walker (Editor), John M. Walker (Author) “ Fifth Edition 2000

Introductory Practical Biochemistry (Hardcover)

by S. K. Sawhney; Randhir Singh (Editor) 2005

Principles of Physical Biochemistry (2nd Edition) by Kensal E van Holde, Curtis Johnson, and Pui Shing Ho (Hardcover – April 16, 2005)

Physical Biochemistry: Applications to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology by David M. Freifelder (Paperback – Aug 15, 1982)

Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis by G R Chatwal and S K Anand (Hardcover – Jun 1980)


Title of the paper

PRACTICAL II – PAPER VI

Category:C

Year & Semester

Second year & fourth semester

Credits

4


Subject code

Objectives

To gain knowledge in biochemical assays


Course Contents : Practical II (90 hrs)
1. OXIDOMETRY

A. Use of potassium permanganate in the estimation of iron, oxalates,

hydrogen peroxide, nitrite.

B. Estimation of calcium in milk.


2. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION

A. Paper chromatography separation and detection of amino acids and simple sugars.

B. Chromatographic separation of chlorophyll, carotenes of flower pigments and protein using column, Chromatography.

C. Separation of polar and non-polar lipids by thin layer chromatography.



3. ELECTROPHORETIC TECHNIQUE

Separation of protein by SDS-PAGE.


4. COLORIMETRY

A. Estimation of inorganic phosphorus by Fiske and Subbarow method.

B. Estimation of amino acids by ninhydrin method.

C. Estimation of protein by Biuret method.



5. BIOCHEMICAL PREPARATION

A. Preparation of starch from potatoes.

B. Preparation of casein and lactalbumin from milk.

C. Preparation of hemoglobin from blood.

D. Preparation of albumin from eggs.

E. Preparation of cellulose from plant material.




SEMESTER V

Title of the paper

ENZYMES – PAPER VII

Category:C

Year & Semester

Third year & Fifth semester

Credits

5


Subject code

Objectives

To gain knowledge about enzymes, enzymatic reactions and inhibition

Course Contents : Enzymes (90 hrs)
UNIT I

Introduction, general characteristics, nomenclature, IUB system of enzyme classification and enzyme units. Exoenzymes, endoenzymes, zymogens, isoenzymes and mutlienzyme complex, coenzymes, metalloenzymes and metal activated enzymes (basic concepts only) (18hrs)


UNIT II

Enzyme specificity, active site, lock and key model, induced fit model, kinetics of single substrate enzyme catalyzed reaction. Michaclis Menten equation, transformation of Michaclis Menten – Lineweaver Burk plot and Eadie Hofstee plot. (18hrs)


UNIT III

Factors affecting enzyme action – pH, temperature, activators and cofactors.

Enzyme inhibition – competitive, non – competitive, uncompetitive and irreversible inhibition (derivation not needed). Regulation of enzymes – allosteric interactions and product inhibition. (18hrs)
UNIT IV

Enzyme extraction, isolation – by various methods. Purification: based on molecular size, solubility, electric charge, and adsorption and ligand specificity. Criteria of purity: Ultracentrifugation, gel filtration, moving boundary electrophoresis, crystallization and specific activity measurement. (18hrs)



UNIT V
Immobilized enzymes- introduction, method of immobilization, applications. Industrial application of enzymes- applications in food, pharmaceutical, textile and leather industries (18hrs)
Books recommended

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry by David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox (Hardcover - Feb 1, 2008)

Biochemistry by Donald Voet (Hardcover - Mar 9, 2004)

Biochemistry by Mary K. Campbell and Shawn O. Farrell (Hardcover - Nov 20, 2007)
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level by Donald J. Voet, Judith G. Voet, and Charlotte W. Pratt (Hardcover - Jan 14, 2008)
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry Absolute Ultimate Guide (Study Guide & Solutions Manual) by David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox (Paperback - April 4, 2008)
Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry (Harper's Biochemistry) by Robert K. Murray, Darryl K. Granner, Peter A. Mayes, and Victor W. Rodwell (Paperback - Jun 13, 2006)

Enzyme Kinetics: A Modern Approach by Alejandro G. Marangoni (Hardcover - Nov 15, 2002

.

Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism by Paul F. Cook and W.W. Cleland (Hardcover - Mar 6, 2007)



Enzyme Kinetics: Principles and Methods by Hans Bisswanger (Hardcover - May 27, 2008)

Understanding Enzymes by Trevor Palmer (Paperback - Jul 1995)

Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism by Paul F. Cook and W.W. Cleland (Hardcover - Mar 6, 2007)

Enzyme Kinetics: Principles and Methods by Hans Bisswanger (Hardcover - May 27, 2008)

Enzymes 2nd edition.1964 Edition HARDCOVER by Dixon & Webb (Hardcover - 1964)

Title of the paper

INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM – PAPER VIII

Category:C

Year & Semester

Third year & Fifth semester

Credits

5


Subject code

Objectives

To gain knowledge about anabolism and catabolism


Course Content : Intermediary metabolism (90 hrs)
UNIT I

Introduction to intermediary metabolism. The basic metabolism pathways, anabolic, catabolic and amphibolic pathways. Role of high energy compounds – Electron transport chain - components and reactions of ETC. Role of ETC – Oxidative phosphorylation – Chemi osmotic hypothesis. P/O ratio, uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. (18hrs)


UNIT II

Carbohydrates metabolism – fate of absorbed carbohydrates. The glycolytic pathways – aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis, energetics, gluconeogenesis, regulation of glycogen metabolism, citric acid cycle and its regulation. Pentose phosphate pathway. Uronic acid pathway. Gloxylate cycle – Entner – Duodroff pathway. Fate of fructose, galactose and mannose. Photosynthesis – light and dark reactions. (18hrs)



UNIT III

Lipid metabolism – Introduction. Fate of absorbed dietary lipids, Oxidation of fatty acids – Beta oxidation, alpha oxidation and omega oxidation. Oxidation of fatty acids with odd number of carbon atoms. Ketogenesis. Biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Biosynthesis and degradation of triacyl glycerol and phospholipids. Biosynthesis and degradation of cholesterol. (18hrs)


UNIT IV

Protein metabolism – Introduction. Fate of dietary proteins, catabolism of amino acids – transamination, oxidative and non-oxidative deamination, decarboxylation – urea cycle and its regulation. Catabolism of phenyl alanine and tyrosine. Biosynthesis of creatinine.Interrelationship of carbohydrates, protein and fat metabolism – role of acetyl CoA and TCA cycle in interrelationship. Inter conversion of major food stuffs. Regulation of intermediary metabolism. (18hrs)



UNIT V

Introduction, fate of dietary nucleic acids, catabolism of purine and biosynthesis of purine nucleotides – Denovo synthesis and salvage pathways, regulation of purine biosynthesis. Catabolism of pyrimidines and biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides - Denovo synthesis and salvage pathways, regulation of pyrimidine synthesis. (18hrs)



Books recommended

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry by David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox (Hardcover - Feb 1, 2008)

Biochemistry by Donald Voet (Hardcover - Mar 9, 2004)

Biochemistry by Mary K. Campbell and Shawn O. Farrell (Hardcover - Nov 20, 2007)
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level by Donald J. Voet, Judith G. Voet, and Charlotte W. Pratt (Hardcover - Jan 14, 2008)
Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry Softbound by LWW Fourth Edition 2007

Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry (Harper's Biochemistry) by Robert K. Murray, Darryl K. Granner, Peter A. Mayes, and Victor W. Rodwell (Paperback - Jun 13, 2006)

Biochemistry (Biochemistry (Berg)) by Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko, and Lubert Stryer (Hardcover - May 19, 2006)


Title of the paper

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY – PAPER IX

Category:C

Year & Semester

Third year & Fifth semester

Credits

5


Subject code

Objectives

To gain knowledge about molecular processes in the cell

Course Content : Molecular biology (90 hrs)


UNIT I

DNA as the vehicle of inheritance – experimental evidence – Griffith, McLeod, McCarty and Avery, Hershey – Chase experiments. Definition of gene, organization of genes and non coding DNA in prokaryotes. Eukaryotes – unique, moderately repetitive and highly repetitive DNA sequence, satellite DNA. Cot value (18hrs)


UNIT II

DNA replication in prokaryotes, mode of replication, semi conservative modes of replication. An overview of replication-replication eye, replication forks, semi discontinuous replication, Okazaki fragments, RNA primers – enzymes of replication – DNA polymerases I, II, III, topoisomerases, helicases, binding proteins and ligases.

ө replication in E.coli – replisomes, events at OriC (initiation), events on the replication fork (elongation) and termination. Fidelity of replication, Sigma or rolling circle mode of replication in Ф x 174. Inhibitors of replication. (18hrs)

UNIT III

Repair of DNA – types of damages, repair by direct reversal of damage, excision repair, recombination repair, SOS repair. Mutation – definition , type of mutations such as (spontaneous and induced) point mutation. Gene mutation and chromosomal aberrations. Cause of mutations- chemical and physical agent.

(18hrs)
UNIT IV

Transcription – prokaryotic RNA polymerases – enzyme structure, role of sigma factor, promoter, closed and open promoter complexes. Initiation, elongation and termination of RNA synthesis. Post transcriptional modification in prokaryotes. Post transcriptional modifications of mRNA, rRNA and tRNA. Inhibitors of transcription. (18hrs)



UNIT V

Genetic code – Basic features of genetic code. Deciphering of genetic code. Wobble hypothesis. Protein biosynthesis- activation of amino acids, initiation, elongation and termination of translation in prokaryotes. Post translational modifications. Inhibitors of translation. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes, Operon concept – Positive and negative regulation of lac operon. (18hrs)

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