University of Indianapolis Police Administration crim 340-50 Segment 1



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University of Indianapolis

  • Police Administration
  • CRIM 340-50
  • Segment 1
  • Thomas N. Davidson, J.D.
  • www.thinblueline.ws

Download and print the syllabus.

Means of Assessment-Midterm

    • One 5 to 8 page research paper on a topic related to police administration of the student’s choice. The paper is due October 8, 2009 at the beginning of class. This paper will comprise your midterm score. 50 points towards semester grade. One inch margins all around. Title page required (not included in page count.). Use at least 3 sources. Use the APA citation and reference style. Double space, indent paragraphs 5 spaces (no double-double spacing), use 12 point font. Reference page is required.

Ideas for the Midterm Paper

  • Define community policing, what are the pros and cons with community policing.
  • Describe the use of DUI checkpoints. Are they legal.? Are they effective?
  • Define crime analysis. Give examples of different types and how they are used.
  • Define the exclusionary rule. Explain the rationale for it. Should it be discarded in favor of something more like the English rule?
  • Explain the concepts of vertical and horizontal differentiation as applied to organizational design with police departments.

Ideas for the Midterm Paper

  • Describe the war on drugs. When did it begin? How is it going? Has it been lost?
  • Is profiling legal, ethical, effective? Describe what profiling is and how the police use it.
  • What are the major components of total quality leadership and how do they relate to police departments?
  • Explain the Johari Window & how different scenarios in each arena affect the management of police departments.

Ideas for the Midterm Paper

  • Discuss barriers to communication and how it effects the decision making process, professional relationships, and crisis intervention.
  • Discuss affirmative action, reverse discrimination and assignments or promotions based on diversity.
  • Discuss measures to identify, prevent, interdict, and remedy police misconduct.
  • Discuss police stress, suicide, and measures to identity, prevent, interdict and remedy this issue.

Ideas for the Midterm Paper

  • What are the factors that led to police unionizing? Is it a good or bad thing? Should police be allowed to strike?
  • How can police reduce their liability with respect to high speed chases?
  • Explain 42 USC § 1983 violation of civil rights. How can police departments reduce their liability.
  • Discuss 1st amendment issues of free speech and freedom of religion as it relates to police work (Can police departments take action against officers who refuse work based on religious beliefs? What about if officers openly criticize their superiors?

Ideas for the Midterm Paper

  • Should police officers be held to higher standard than other citizens when sentenced for crimes or disciplined? Argue both sides, give examples.
  • Discuss the synoptic planning approach and describe methods of selecting a preferred course of action.
  • Discuss forfeiture, donations, fund-raising, user fees, special police taxes, special fines as a way of funding police operations. Ethical issues?
  • Discuss the use of force continuum, Garner v. Tennessee and the use of less than lethal weapons.

Means of Assessment-Final

  • Final exam is December 3, 2009. The exam counts 50 points towards semester grade. The exam is an open note & open book exam. You can expect that the exam will include essay, multiple choice, short answer and true/false questions. Answer questions on the exams with respect to how the subject matter was covered in class or in the text.

Grading Scale

  • 95-100 = A 77-79 = C+
  • 90-94 = A- 73-76 = C
  • 87-89 = B+ 70-72 = C-
  • 83-86 = B 67-69 = D+
  • 80-82 = B- 63-66 = D

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Freedom from crime is not free.

  • The degree to which a society achieves public order depends in part on the price society is willing to pay to obtain it.
  • Resources committed to crime suppressions, detection, and prevention.
  • The extent to which people are willing to accept a reduction in civil liberties.

APA Style

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Concise & Bias-Free

  • Orderly Presentation of Ideas.
  • Punctuation marks.
  • Transitional words. (then, next, after, while)
  • Cause-effect links. (therefore, consequently, as a result)
  • Smoothness of Expression.
  • Use of verb tenses.
  • Noun-stings. (tangled strings of several nouns “Early childhood thought disorder misdiagnosis” “Misdiagnosis of thought disorders in early childhood”)

Concise & Bias-Free

  • Economy of Expression.
  • First person. (“I wrote the report” rather than “This reporter wrote the report”)
  • Active Voice. (“I wrote the report” rather than “The report was written by me”)
  • Use short words, short sentences, avoid jargon, and redundancy.
  • Precision and Clarity.
  • Concrete words.
  • Avoid connotative language.

Plagiarism

  • The process of copying another person's idea or written work and claiming it as original; or
  • A piece of written work or an idea that somebody has copied and claimed as his or her own.
  • Source: Encarta Dictionary North America

When do you need to use reference citations?

  • Whenever you use publications by someone else.
  • Paraphrased use (Davidson, 2007).
  • Quotation (Davidson, 2007, p. 276).
  • Cite personal interviews or communications in text only (T.N. Davidson, personal communication, November 5, 2007).
  • Remember, if the data you are using is not commonly known, it probably requires a reference citation.

Format

  • 8 ½ x 11 in.
  • White paper.
  • Every component double-spaced.
  • One inch margins all around.
  • Title page. (Your name, instructor, course name, & date.)
  • Each paragraph longer than a single sentence, but not too long.
  • Explain necessary abbreviations.
  • Citations included where necessary.

Format

  • Reference page.
  • Any source listed on reference page must be cited in the body of the paper.
  • Spell journal titles out in full.
  • List in alphabetical order.
  • Double-space all entries.
  • Hanging indent format.

Reference Page: Example Reference Format (Every line is double spaced.)

  • American Psychological Association. (2003).
  • Electronic references. Retrieved January
  • 30, 2007 from
  • http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html
  • Harris, Muriel. (2003). Prentice Hall
  • reference guide to grammar and usage
  • (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
  • Prentice Hall.

Sample Title Page (Center text on paper.)

  • Title of paper
  • Student’s name
  • Course #
  • Submission date

Sample Page Layout

  • Header
  • Page #
  • Indent 5 spaces
  • Do NOT right justify
  • Double-space throughout paper
  • 12 Point Font
  • One inch margins

Citations

  • First cite in P: Author’s name & Date of publication
  • Place period after cite
  • Subsequent cite in same P do not include year.

Sample Reference Page

  • Hanging indents
  • Double-spaced

Government v. Liberty Tension

  • In a free society there is a constant tension between its government’s legitimate police function and its citizens’ liberty interests. It has and will be with us and it will never go away. It is a source of conflict that must be understood by both the police and the population in order for it to be controlled.

Theories of Police Development

  • Disorder-control: Need to suppress mob rule and violence.
  • Crime-control: Threats to public order create a climate of fear.
  • Class-control: Police reinforce class-based economic exploitation. Labor provided the fuel for capitalism, yet were perceived as dangerous.

A brief guide to police history

  • Ancient Era 3000BC to 400AD
  • Kin policing derived from the power and authority of kinship systems & rule by elders. The family of the offended individual was expected to assume responsibility for justice by punishing the offender.
  • Egyptian rulers used elite units of the military as bodyguards.
  • In Mesopotamia, captured Nubian slaves were used as guards.

A brief guide to police history

  • The Greeks had a sort of highway patrol and trials.
  • The Hebrews developed the Mosaic Law.
  • The first organized police department is believed to be the Roman vigiles around 27 BC.

A brief guide to police history

  • Middle Ages 400 A.D. – 1600 A.D.
  • Either no system or:
  • Gendarme System in France were agents of the crown.
  • Pledge System in England by Alfred the Great; each person is pledged to perform some kind of police work unless excused by the shire-reeve.

A brief guide to police history

  • Tithing system 1066 A.D. (frankpledge)
  • All the men over 12 in a village formed a tithing.
  • 10 tithings organized into a hundred supervised by a constable.
  • 10 hundreds were organized into a shire supervised by the shire-reeve.

A brief guide to police history

  • Statute of Winchester of 1285
  • Required every able-bodied man to possess a weapon (assize of arms).
  • Everyone in the countryside accountable in assisting with apprehension of criminals (hue and cry system).
  • Established a watch and ward night patrol to augment daytime constables (watch system).
  • Formalized the parish constable system (frankpledge system).

A brief guide to police history

  • Colonial Era 1600 A.D. – 1800 A.D.
  • Adopted the watch system.
  • Shire-reeves became sheriffs.
  • Towns had constables who organized watchmen.
  • Like the English system, the American system was characterized by:
  • Limited authority causing legitimacy problems.
  • Decentralization. Local control & varation.
  • Fragmentation. One hand doesn’t know . . .

A brief guide to police history

  • English Police Reform
  • Bow Street Runners (1st detectives 1750).
  • Creation of the 1st professional police department in 1829. Created by Sir Robert Peel, the officers were called Bobbies or Peelers.

A brief guide to police history

  • Sir Robert Peel
  • Known as the father of modern policing

A brief guide to police history

  • Peel established the Metropolitan Police Force for London based at Scotland Yard 1829. The 1,000 constables employed were affectionately nicknamed 'Bobbies' or, somewhat less affectionately, 'Peelers.' Although at first unpopular, they proved very successful in cutting crime in London, and by 1835 all cities in the UK were being directed to form their own police forces. Known as the father of modern policing, Robert Peel developed the Peelain Principles which defined the ethical requirements police officers must follow in order to be effective. His most memorable principle was, "the police are the public, and the public are the police."

The 9 Peelian Principles 1-5

  • The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder.
  • The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions.
  • Police must secure the willing co-operation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public.
  • The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force.
  • Police seek and preserve public favour not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law.

The 9 Peelian Principles 6-9

  • Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient.
  • Police, at all times, should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police; the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.
  • Police should always direct their action strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary.
  • The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it.

A brief guide to police history

  • Spoils Era 1800 A.D. – 1900 A.D.
  • Large scale social changes in America.
  • Politicians control the police.
  • Riot control function because of race and ethnic riots between 1835-1890s.
  • 1845 New York City paid professional policing.
  • Pre civil war Paddy-Roller slave catchers.
  • 1911 motorized.
  • 1845 saw beginning of state and federal agencies: Texas rangers, Border Patrol, IRS.
  • Pendleton Act of 1883 sought to end the spoils system in the federal government.

A brief guide to police history

  • Progressive Era 1900 A.D. – 1920 A.D.
  • Spoils system replaced by civil service.
  • 1902 formation of IACP.
  • Attempts to foster professionalism.
  • Chief Vollmer of Berkeley champions professionalism 1918.
  • FOP created in 1915.

A brief guide to police history

  • Gangster Era 1920 A.D. – 1950 A.D.
  • 18th Amendment (Prohibition) 1919.
  • Great depression 1930s.
  • Vice control.
  • Wave of bank robberies, kidnappings, bootlegging.
  • Rise of the “G-men.”
  • Elliot Ness-Prohibition Bureau.
  • J. Edgar Hoover-FBI.
  • Elliot Ness J. Edgar Hoover

A brief guide to police history

  • August Vollmer

August Vollmer

  • Vollmer earned the reputation as the "father of modern law enforcement.” He was the first chief to require that police officers attain college degrees, and persuaded the University of California to teach criminal justice. In 1916, UC-Berkeley established a criminal justice program, headed by Vollmer. Vollmer was also the first police chief to create a motorized force, placing officers on motorcycles, and in cars so that they could patrol a broader area with greater efficiency. Radios were included in patrol cars. He was also the first to use the lie detector, developed at the University of California, in police work. Vollmer supported programs to assist disadvantaged children, and was often criticized for his leniency towards petty offenders such as drunks and loiterers. He also encouraged the training and employment of female and African American police officers.

Wickersham Report

  • The Wickersham Commission was established in May of 1929 when President Herbert Hoover appointed George W. Wickersham (1858-1936) to head the National Committee on Law Observation and Enforcement, popularly called the Wickersham Commission.
  • The Commission was an 11-member group charged with identifying the causes of criminal activity and to make recommendations for appropriate public policy. The emphasis was almost entirely on the widespread violations of national alcohol prohibition.
  • The report was almost entirely written by Vollmer. Among other things the report included various ideas for police reform including:
  • Personnel standards (for cause removal only).
  • Communications and records.
  • Separate units for crimes of vice and juveniles.
  • State information bureaus.
  • Training academies.

A brief guide to police history

  • Revolutionary ERA 1960 A.D. – 1970 A.D.
  • Civil rights struggle.
  • Assassinations, mass & serial murders.
  • 100 officers killed a year ILOD. 300 citizens a year killed by police.
  • The process of Incorporation.
  • Miranda.
  • The exclusionary rule.
  • Law enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) & Law enforcement education prograam (LEEP)

A brief guide to police history

  • Current Era 1970 A.D – Present
  • Police community relations.
  • Diversity in police departments.
  • MBO.
  • Knapp Commission
  • War on drugs.
  • War on terror.
  • Technology.

Some Important Dates in American Police History

  • 1631 Boston night watch.
  • Full-time paid police in Boston.
  • 9/24/1789 1st US Marshall.
  • 5/17/1792 1st US officer KILOD Isaac Smith of NYC SO.
  • 1835 Texas Rangers.
  • 1865 US Secret Service.
  • 11/11/1871 1st African-American KILOD.
  • 1878-1881 Billy the Kid killed 6 lawmen.
  • 10/26/1881 shoot out at OK coral involving lawman Wyatt Earp.
  • 1902 fingerprinting used in US.
  • 07/24/1916 1st female officer KILOD.
  • 11/24/1917: 9 officers killed in Milwaukee after bomb explodes.
  • 1924 Hoover takes over at FBI.
  • 1929 Ness put in charge of the Untouchables.
  • 1932-1934 Bonnie & Clyde kill 10 LEOs.
  • 1974: 275 LEOs KILOD.
  • 1974 Soft body armor.
  • 1988 DNA used in America.
  • 9/11 72 LEOs KILOD.

Contemporary Law Enforcement

  • 18,000 different agencies ( UK with ¼ of US population has 43 agencies).
  • Fragmented (UK all agencies administered by the Home Office).
  • Federal agencies.
  • State agencies.
  • County sheriffs.
  • Local police agencies.
  • Special police.

Contemporary Law Enforcement

  • Nationally, sworn officers account for 69.5 percent of PD personnel.
  • Nationally, police to population ratio rural and city is: 2.4 per 1000.
  • Indiana has 146 local PDs.

Contemporary Law Enforcement

  • In the U.S. in 2005, the average number of full-time law enforcement employees in cities (both sworn officers and civilian) was 3.0 per 1,000 inhabitants.
  • Within cities in the Northeast, the rate of full-time law enforcement employees per 1,000 inhabitants was 3.5.
  • Within cities in the South, the rate of full-time law enforcement employees per 1,000 inhabitants was 3.4.
  • Within cities in the Midwest, the rate of full-time law enforcement employees per 1,000 inhabitants was 2.7.
  • Within cities in the West, the rate of full-time law enforcement employees per 1,000 inhabitants was 2.4.

The Thin Blue Line

  • The "thin blue line" is the collective group of law enforcement officers (LEO), correctional officers, prosecutors and others in the criminal justice system that separate and protect society from anarchy. 

Community Policing

  • 1970 through the 80’s police generally used the professional model.
  • Patrol from cars, aloof, impartial, everybody gets the same treatmetn.
  • Rising crime rates
  • Broken windows policing emerged

Broken Windows Policing

  • Clean up the community, people will take pride, criminals will be displaced.

Community Policing

  • Commitment to crime prevention
  • Public scrutiny of police
  • Accountability of police action to public
  • Customized police service
  • Community organization

Community Policing

  • Number of police does not lower crime rate or solve more crimes.
  • Random patrol neither lowers crime or increases chances of catching criminals.
  • 2 person patrol cars are not safer and do not lower crime rates.
  • Saturation patrols do not lower crime it displaces it.
  • Improving response time has little effect in solving crime.

Response Times

  • Police cannot control:
  • The time it takes from when the crime occurs to when it is discovered;
  • The time it takes from when it is discovered to when it is reported to police

Crime Prevention& Deterrence

  • Desire
  • Ability
  • Opportunity
  • Desire
  • Likelihood
  • of being
  • caught
  • Gravity of harm if caught
  • Crime Prevention Crime Deterrence

Community Policing

  • Scanning
  • Analysis
  • Response
  • Assessment
  • Each problem will likely not only involves crime, but a wider community social issue.

Outcomes v. Outputs

  • Outputs are work product like the number of traffic tickets issued, crashes investigated, or the number of criminals arrested.
  • Outcomes are the results of outputs. Crime and accident rates for example.

Crime Analysis

  • Crime Specific Analysis-pattern of reported crime.
  • Link analysis-Associations among people.
  • Telephone Toll Analysis.
  • Visual Investigative Analysis (VIA) charting key criminal events in chronological order.
  • Case Analysis and Management System-computerized to clarify relationships & calculate probability of associations.

Technology

  • Geographical Information Systems-mapping.
  • Global Positioning Systems-locating.
  • Artificial Intelligence Systems.
  • Natural language applications.
  • Robotic applications.
  • Computer science applications (brains).
  • Cognitive science applications (decision-making).

Problems with community policing

  • Lack of definition.
  • Lack of community.
  • Role confusion and low morale.
  • Expensive.
  • Lack of credible evaluation.
  • Conflict with accreditation standards.

External Influences

  • Politics
  • Economy
  • Competing agencies
  • Community groups
  • Governments: federal, state, & local
  • Unions and associations
  • Review boards
  • Judicial review

Incorporation

  • Prior to the 60’s the Bill of Rights restricted and regulated only the federal government.
  • Through a series of cases in the 60’s, the Warren Court began incorporating USC protections to the states through the due process clause of the 14th Amendment.

14th Amendment

  • Section. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Due Process

  • Procedural Due Process can be boiled down to notice of the charges and an opportunity to be heard.
  • Substantive Due Process means the procedures must be in content and conducted “fairly.”

Criminal Procedure-Sources of Law

  • Constitutions
  • Federal
  • States
  • Legislated
  • Federal
  • State
  • Local
  • Common law (Case law)
  • Federal
  • State
  • Administrative law

Criminal Procedure-Separation of Powers

  • Judicial – interprete laws
  • Executive – execute and enforce laws
  • Legislative – create and pass laws

Criminal Procedure- Administrative Law

  • Congress or legislature delegates authority to the administrative agency through an enabling statute.
  • Laws must be tailored to the mission of the agency.
  • Must be properly promulgated.

Criminal Procedure - Warrant Requirement

  • The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized .
  • Any search conducted without a warrant is per se illegal unless an exception exists.

Criminal Procedure – Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement

  • Search incident to a lawful, custodial arrest
  • Voluntary consent and waiver
  • Search of a vehicle with probable cause
  • Inventory after lawful impoundment of a vehicle
  • Stop and frisk searches (Investigatory Detention)
  • Plain view, smell & touch
  • Open fields
  • Exigent circumstances - hot pursuit
  • Abandoned property
  • Protective sweep

Criminal Procedure – 5th Amendment

  • No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Criminal Procedure – Miranda Rule

  • Custodial Interrogation.
  • The person in custody must, prior to interrogation, be clearly informed that he or she has the right to remain silent, and that anything the person says may be used against that person in court; the person must be clearly informed that he or she has the right to consult with an attorney and to have that attorney present during questioning, and that, if he or she is indigent, an attorney will be provided at no cost to represent him or her. Additionally, the officer must ask whether the person understands their right and will consent to questioning.

Criminal Procedure – Exclusionary Rule

  • Weeks v. United States, 232 U.S. 383 (1914). First used in federal case.
  • Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961) Made applicable to the states.
  • Rationale
  • Dirty Hands
  • Deterrence
  • Way to enforce constitution

Criminal Procedure – Double Jeopardy Clause of the 5th Amendment

  • No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Double Jeopardy

  • Prohibition from being tried twice for crimes arising out of the same set of facts.
  • Prohibition from increasing a penalty ex-post facto.
  • Dual sovereignty.

Criminal Procedure – Presumption of Innocence & Bail

  • 8th Amendment: Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
  • Guarantee defendant’s appearance.
  • Public safety.
  • Presumed innocent means that the defendant is not judged guilty of a crime and punished unless convicted BRD or he pleads guilty to it in the criminal courts.

Criminal Procedure – Burden of Proof

  • Beyond a reasonable doubt.
  • Clear and convincing evidence.
  • Preponderance of the evidence.
  • Probable cause.
  • Articulable suspicion.
  • Good faith belief.

Criminal Procedure - Evidence

  • There are four traditional types of evidence: real evidence (tangible things like a weapon), demonstrative (a model or photograph), documentary (a writing or other document), and testimonial (testimony by witnesses).
  • Circumstantial Evidence - Testimony not based on actual personal knowledge or observation of the facts in controversy, but of other facts from which deductions are drawn, showing indirectly the facts to be proved.

Police Ethics and Misconduct

  • Police Ethical Models
  • Law.
  • Code of conduct.
  • Rules, regulations, & standard operating procedures.

Police Ethics and Misconduct

  • Police have a property interest in their jobs.
  • Cannot be terminated or disciplined without due process.

Police Ethics and Misconduct

  • Internal Investigation
  • Founded
  • Unfounded
  • Exonerated
  • Not determined.
  • We will discuss police misconduct and liability in more detail later in the course.

News Media

  • The First Amendment of the federal constitution provides the news media and all citizens certain rights of free speech and press. The media, however, does not have an unlimited right to engage in the collection of news material. “Newsmen have no constitutional right of special access to the scenes of crime or disaster when the general public is excluded . . .” Brandzburg v. Hayes, 408 U.S. 665, 684-685 (1972). However, once the news media has acquired information from a critical incident or other source, it will be difficult to prevent its publication. Bantam Books, Inc. v. Sullivan, 372 U.S. 58 (1963).

Prosecutors

  • Federal: US Attorney may bring a charge only through a GJ Indictment.
  • State: Prosecutor may bring a charge either by filing an Information or by GJ Indictment.
  • Prosecutor has absolute discretion on whether to bring a charge, but must have PC if he decides to bring a charge.

Terrorism

  • The FBI defines terrorism as the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, civilian population, or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social goals. It is widely acknowledged that a variety of definitions exist for terrorism. Most definitions contain the following elements: 1) use of violence or threat of violence, 2) coercion of a target group; 3) achievement of goals of a political, a religious, or an ideological nature.

Domestic Right Wing Terrorism

  • Generally, there are four elements necessary to precipitate violence by domestic “hate” groups: 1) the group is based on a false premise, such as there is no hope for the future; 2) the group must have a charismatic leader; 3) the leader will pin-point all “trouble” as being caused by a particular group, such as the Jewish society; and, 4) some event to rally and excite the group, such as a confrontation between police and some other right-wing extremist.

Psychological Hostage Takers

  • Suicidal personality. Does not care if he/she is killed, and may cause someone else to fulfill his death wish.
  • Vengeance Seeker. Driven by an irrational purpose. His hostage taking scheme is normally well-planned. Incidents involving this type of hostage taker pose a high probability that it will require a police assault to resolve. The vengeance seeker often falls in the category of “homicide to be”.
  • Disturbed individual. This person’s hostage taking motives and methods may be illogical and improvised. There are two common psychotic disorders associated with many hostage takers: 1) paranoid schizophrenia, and 2) manic-depressive Illness.

Criminal Hostage Takers

  • Cornered perpetrator. A bank robbery suspect, for example, unexpectedly is confronted by the police, retreats back into the bank, and has no escape.
  • Aggrieved Inmate(s). These incidents may be well planned or spontaneous.
  • Extortionist. The kidnapper is usually motivated by greed. The kidnapper’s location is usually not known to police, he usually is not contained, and usually only communicates with the victim’s family, even if the police are present. Police negotiators seldom talk to the kidnappers directly because they usually require the family to not call the police as a prerequisite for not killing the kidnap victim.

Political Hostage Takers

  • Social protester. This person is likely to be a young educated person. This hostage taker wants to eliminate social injustice. Normally, this hostage taker will take the hostage in a group at the location of the unwanted entity or event or where the protest is most visible.
  • Fanatic. This person believes in a cause and is usually willing to kill and die for the cause. This hostage taker can be characterized as an Ideological Zealot.

Political Hostage Takers

  • Terrorist Extremist. Hostage taking by terrorist groups are well planned, probably brutal, and the hostage takers are willing to kill and die. The intent of political hostage takers is to get as much publicity as possible for their cause. The incidents are well planned and organized. In political terrorism, the hostage takers attempt to demonstrate to the public that the government is unable to protect its own citizens. Often the demands of the hostage takers go beyond the authority of local police. It is the hope of the terrorists, who are virtually guaranteed of media coverage, that after several hostage incidents, that the government will overreact and become excessively restrictive with its own citizens, thus causing civil discontent.

School Violence

  • Major Incidents of School Violence
  • Olivehurst, California 5/1/92
  • Grayson, Kentucky 1/18/93
  • Moses Lake, Washington 2/2/96
  • Bethel, Alaska 2/19/97
  • Pearl, Mississippi 10/1/97
  • Paducah, Kentucky 12/1/97
  • Jonesboro, Arkansas 3/24/98
  • Edinboro, Pennsylvania 4/24/98
  • Fayetteville, Tennessee 5/19/98
  • Springfield, Oklahoma 5/21/98
  • Littleton, Colorado 4/20/99
  • Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania 10/2/06
  • Tacoma, Washington 1/3/07

School Violence

  • “It’s not your father’s high school” was the reply when a young man was asked why there seems to be more violence in schools today. He explained that his high school was large, there was very little individual attention (unless you were popular, a scholar or an athlete) from staff, there was a double standard and open, tolerated prejudice against those who were somehow “different”. “One group picks on another, no one will help you, sometimes your thoughts turn to revenge and how easy it would be to get even.” “Don’t get me wrong, I don’t think what they did was right, but I understand why they did it.”
  • Reference to Dylan Kiebold and Eric Harris regarding the Littleton, Colorado school shootings, April 20, 1999.

School Violence Prevention

  • Gun-free zone legislation.
  • Develop safe routes to and from school (police, business & parent volunteers).
  • Campaign to break the student code-of-silence with respect to weapons, et cetera.
  • Metal detectors.
  • Plastic see-through book bags.
  • Standardized school incident report forms.

School Violence Prevention

  • Pre-arranged safe area for evacuated students.
  • School floor plan readily available.
  • Establish a parent staging area.
  • Prohibit book-bags in classrooms. (Leave them in lockers.) Weapons are easily concealed in book-bags.
  • Cellular or digital telephone in the classroom for emergency calls.
  • If practical, leave doors to hallways open during class so that a passerby could notice and alert someone of trouble in the classroom.
  • If trouble or gunfire erupts somewhere else in the school, shut the classroom door if evacuation is not a safe option. Do not send a student to investigate.
  • Effective discipline policy and Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR).

School Violence Prevention

  • Personal-level intervention. Discussions with bullies and victims.
  • Establish a method for persons to report (anonymously) suspicious activity.
  • Whenever possible, eliminate dark, secluded and unsupervised areas.
  • Be aware of who is in the school and why.
  • No one should be able to walk right into the office or roam the halls.
  • Set up reception areas for visitors.
  • Install door sensors and cameras (target hardening).
  • Establish a “safe room”. A safe room is a room where faculty, staff, students, et cetera can go for assistance. This room should have doors that will lock, more than one way out and a telephone.

School Violence Prevention

  • Social skills, anger management techniques training for students.
  • Establish a zero tolerance policy for violence, threatening behavior, guns, drugs and alcohol.
  • Institute an Anti-Bullying Program. Bullying is the repeated, negative acts committed by one or more children against another. The acts may be physical or verbal. Studies suggest that there are both short and enduring consequences of bullying for both the victims and bullies. Chronically victimized students may, as adults, be at increased risk for depression, poor self-esteem and other mental difficulties. Bullies have been found to have a greater drop out rate and increased risk for violence and delinquency.
  • School level intervention. Increase supervision and school-wide anti-bullying awareness and training.

School Violence Prevention

  • Awareness. School officials must be sensitive to mutterings of a potential confrontation. (Don’t explain things away or rationalize!)
  • Gangs.
  • Drug-related.
  • Personal animosity.
  • Scheduled fights.
  • Disgruntled parents or students.
  • Disturbed students.
  • Parent, Teacher, Public Safety and Student Quorums. Establish periodic meetings to discuss issues and concerns.
  • Classroom level intervention. Class meetings and discussions.

September 11, 2001

  • Homeland Security Act of 2002-Encourages cooperation between local, state and federal agencies including technology.
  • Patriot Act of 2001-Allows for intelligence sharing and grants to local and state agencies.

Organizational Theory

  • Mutual benefit associations (labor unions).
  • Business concerns (corporations).
  • Service organizations (community centers).
  • Commonweal organizations (police, fire, defense departments.

Mutual Benefit Associations

  • Faced with maintaining internal democratic processes, providing for participation and control by their membership.

Business

  • Main issue is to maximize profits and creating and maintaing a competitive advantage.

Service

  • Faced with the conflict between administrative regulations and providing the services judged by the professional to be the most effective.

Commonweal

  • Key issue is to find a way to accommodate pressures from two different sources, external and internal.

Organizational Theories

  • Traditional (most police departments).
  • Open systems (counterpoint to traditional theory).
  • Bridging theory (blend both).

Four Functions of Management

  • Controlling
  • Monitor & measure
  • Leading
  • Coordinate
  • Organizing
  • Working together
  • Planning
  • Choose Goals

Planning

  • Planning is the process used by managers to identify and select appropriate goals and courses of action for an organization.
  • 3 steps to good planning :
    • 1. Which goals should be pursued?
    • 2. How should the goal be attained?
    • 3. How should resources be allocated?
    • The planning function determines how effective and efficient the organization is and determines the strategy of the organization.

Organizing

  • In organizing, managers create the structure of working relationships between organizational members that best allows them to work together and achieve goals.
  • Managers will group people into departments according to the tasks performed.
    • Managers will also lay out lines of authority and responsibility for members.
  • An organizational structure is the outcome of organizing. This structure coordinates and motivates employees so that they work together to achieve goals.

Leading

  • In leading, managers determine direction, state a clear vision for employees to follow, and help employees understand the role they play in attaining goals.
  • Leadership involves a manager using power, influence, vision, persuasion, and communication skills.
  • The outcome of the leading function is a high level of motivation and commitment from employees to the organization.

Controlling

  • In controlling, managers evaluate how well the organization is achieving its goals and takes corrective action to improve performance.
  • Managers will monitor individuals, departments, and the organization to determine if desired performance has been reached.
    • Managers will also take action to increase performance as required.
  • The outcome of the controlling function is the accurate measurement of performance and regulation of efficiency and effectiveness.
  • Top Managers
  • Middle Managers
  • First-line Managers
  • Non-management
  • Three Levels of Management

Managerial Skills

  • There are three skill sets that managers need to perform effectively.
    • 1. Conceptual skills: the ability to analyze and diagnose a situation and find the cause and effect.
    • 2. Human skills: the ability to understand, alter, lead, and control people’s behavior.
    • 3. Technical skills: the job-specific knowledge required to perform a task. Common examples include marketing, accounting, and manufacturing.
  • All three skills are enhanced through formal training, reading, and practice.

Scientific Management

  • Defined by Frederick Taylor, late 1800’s.
  • The systematic study of the relationships between people and tasks to redesign the work for higher efficiency.
    • Taylor sought to reduce the time a worker spent on each task by optimizing the way the task was done.

Management Science

  • Uses rigorous quantitative techniques to maximize resources.
    • Quantitative management: utilizes linear programming, modeling, simulation systems.
    • Operations management: techniques to analyze all aspects of the production system.
    • Total Quality Management (TQM): focuses on improved quality.
    • Management Information Systems (MIS): provides information about the organization.

4 principles of scientific management

  • Four Principles to increase efficiency:
    • 1. Study the way the job is performed now & determine new ways to do it.
      • Gather detailed, time and motion information.
      • Try different methods to see which is best.
    • 2. Codify the new method into rules.
      • Teach to all workers.
    • 3. Select workers whose skills match the rules set in Step 2.
    • 4. Establish a fair level of performance and pay for higher performance.
      • Workers should benefit from higher output.

Problems with scientific management

  • Managers often implemented only the increased output side of Taylor’s plan.
    • They did not allow workers to share in increased output.
    • Specialized jobs became very boring, dull.
    • Workers ended up distrusting Scientific Management.
  • Workers could purposely “under-perform”
  • Management responded with increased use of machines.

Gilbreth’s refinement of SM

  • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth refined Taylor’s methods.
    • Made many improvements to time and motion studies.
  • Time and motion studies:
    • 1. Break down each action into components.
    • 2. Find better ways to perform it.
    • 3. Reorganize each action to be more efficient.
  • Gilbreths also studied fatigue problems, lighting, heating and other worker issues.

Bureaucratic Model

  • Seeks to create an organization that leads to both efficiency and effectiveness.
  • Max Weber developed the concept of bureaucracy.
    • A formal system of organization and administration to ensure effectiveness and efficiency.

5 Principles of Bureaucracy

  • A Bureaucracy
  • should have
  • Written rules
  • System of task
  • relationships
  • Hierarchy of
  • authority
  • Fair evaluation
  • and reward

Key points to bureaucracy

    • Authority is the power to hold people accountable for their actions.
    • Positions in the firm should be held based on performance not social contacts.
    • Position duties are clearly identified. People should know what is expected of them.
    • Lines of authority should be clearly identified. Workers know who reports to who.
    • Rules, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), & Norms used to determine how the firm operates.
      • Sometimes, these lead to “red-tape” and other problems.

Administrative Management

  • Seeks to create an organization that leads to both efficiency and effectiveness.

Henri Fayol, developed a set of 14 principles:

    • 1. Division of Labor: allows for job specialization.
      • Fayol noted firms can have too much specialization leading to poor quality and worker involvement.
    • 2. Authority and Responsibility: Fayol included both formal and informal authority resulting from special expertise.
    • 3. Unity of Command: Employees should have only one boss.
    • 4. Line of Authority: a clear chain from top to bottom of the firm.
    • 5. Centralization: the degree to which authority rests at the very top

Fayol’s Principles

    • 6. Unity of Direction: One plan of action to guide the organization.
    • 7. Equity: Treat all employees fairly in justice and respect.
    • 8. Order: Each employee is put where they have the most value.
    • 9. Initiative: Encourage innovation.
    • 10. Discipline: obedient, applied, respectful employees needed.

Fayol’s Principles

    • 11. Remuneration of Personnel: The payment system contributes to success.
    • 12. Stability of Tenure: Long-term employment is important.
    • 13. General interest over individual interest: The organization takes precedence over the individual.
    • 14. Esprit de corps: Share enthusiasm or devotion to the organization.

Open Systems Theory

  • Focuses on the way a manager should personally manage to motivate employees.
  • Mary Parker Follett: an influential leader in early managerial theory suggested:
    • That workers help in analyzing their jobs for improvements.
    • The worker knows the best way to improve the job.
    • If workers have the knowledge of the task, then they should control the task.

Open System

  • An open system interacts with the environment. A closed system is self-contained.
    • Closed systems often undergo entropy and lose the ability to control itself, and fails.
  • Synergy: performance gains of the whole surpass the components.
    • Synergy is only possible in a coordinated system.

Mayo: The Hawthorne Studies

  • Study of worker efficiency at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Co. during 1924-1932.
    • Worker productivity was measured at various levels of light illumination.
    • Researchers found that regardless of whether the light levels were raised or lowered, productivity rose.
  • Actually, it appears that the workers enjoyed the attention they received as part of the study and were more productive.

Theory X & Y

  • Douglas McGregor proposed the two different sets of worker assumptions.
    • Theory X: Assumes the average worker is lazy, dislikes work and will do as little as possible.
      • Managers must closely supervise and control through reward and punishment.
    • Theory Y: Assumes workers are not lazy, want to do a good job and the job itself will determine if the worker likes the work.
      • Managers should allow the worker great latitude, and create an organization to stimulate the worker.

Maslow: The Need Theory

  • Self-
  • Actualization
  • Realize one’s
  • full potential
  • Use abilities
  • to the fullest
  • Esteem
  • Feel good
  • about oneself
  • Promotions
  • & recognition
  • Belongingness
  • Social
  • interaction, love
  • Interpersonal
  • relations, parties
  • Safety
  • Security, stability
  • Physiological
  • Food, water,
  • shelter
  • Basic pay level
  • to buy items
  • Need What it means Example

Herzberg: Motivation-Hygiene Theory

    • Focuses on outcomes that can lead to high motivation, job satisfaction, & those that can prevent dissatisfaction.
      • Motivator needs: related to nature of the work and how challenging it is.
        • Outcomes are autonomy, responsibility, interesting work.
      • Hygiene needs: relate to the physical & psychological context of the work.
        • Refers to a good work environment, pay, job security.
        • When hygiene needs not met, workers are dissatisfied. Note: when met, they will NOT lead to higher motivation, just will prevent low motivation.

Equity Theory

  • Condition
  • Person Referent
  • Example
  • Equity
  • Outcomes = Outcomes
  • Inputs Inputs
  • Worker contributes
  • more inputs but also
  • gets more outputs
  • than referent
  • Underpayment
  • Equity
  • Outcomes < Outcomes
  • Inputs Inputs
  • Worker contributes
  • more inputs but also
  • gets the same outputs
  • as referent
  • Overpayment
  • Equity
  • Outcomes > Outcomes
  • Inputs Inputs
  • Worker contributes
  • same inputs but also
  • gets more outputs
  • than referent

The organization as an open system

  • Input Stage
  • Raw
  • Materials
  • Conversion
  • Stage
  • Machines
  • Human skills
  • Output
  • Stage
  • Goods
  • Services
  • Sales of outputs
  • Firm can then buy inputs

Bridging Theories – Contingency Theory

  • Assumes there is no one best way to manage.
    • The environment impacts the organization and managers must be flexible to react to environmental changes.
    • The way the organization is designed, control systems selected, depend on the environment.
  • Technological environments change rapidly, so must managers.

Bridging Theories – Theory Z

  • William Ouchi researched the cultural differences between Japan and USA. USA culture emphasizes the individual, and managers tend to feel workers follow the Theory X model.
    • Japan culture expects worker committed to the organization first and thus behave differently than USA workers.
  • Theory Z combines parts of both the USA and Japan structure.
    • Managers stress long-term employment, work-group, and organizational focus.

Varying Traditional and Open Systems

  • Wheel Network
  • Circle Network
  • Chain Network
  • All Channel Network

Management Development

  • 1940
  • 2000
  • Administrative Management
  • Behavioral Management
  • Scientific Management
  • Management Science
  • Org. Environment


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