University college of agriculture



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501716 BIOCONTROL AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT 2
History and concept of biological control, different groups of biological control agents and

biopesticides- macrobials (parasitoids and predators), microbials (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and nematodes) and botanical- neem, pyrethrum, nicotine, rotenone and others,

their use in pest management along with advantages and limitations. Methods of mass production for each of these groups. National and international agencies dealing with biological control. IPM-history, definition and concept. Concept of economic threshold. Pest monitoring and surveillance. Different tools of IPM including physical, mechanical, resistance, botanical, chemical, biorationals and biotechnological approaches. Integration of different IPM tactics. Decision making systems. Potential of IPM, its implementation and constraints. Successful example in IPM.
501717 LAB- BIOCONTROL AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT 1
Identification of important groups of parasitoids, predators and microbial control

agents. Laboratory multiplication of parasitoids, predators and microbial control agents. Determination of economic threshold levels. Demonstration of cultural and mechanical control measures of different pests. Use of pheromones, colour, sticky and light traps for monitoring and surveillance of pests. Study of IPM module in cotton, rice, sugarcane, maize, fruits and vegetables.


501718 PESTICIDES AND PLANT PROTECTION EQUIPMENT 2
Pesticides- classification, properties, entry and mode of action. Formulations and toxicity

of pesticides. Factors affecting toxicity of pesticides. Compatibility and synergism.

Antidotes. Problems associated with the use of pesticides. Role of repellents, attractants,

pheromones, hormones, chemosterilants and antifeedants in pest control. Pest control

equipment – history of development, classification, constructional features, principles of

working, operation, maintenance and selection. Planning of pest control operations.


501719 LAB- PESTICIDES AND PLANT PROTECTION EQUIPMENT 1
Familiarization with different formulations of pesticides, their preparation and use. Toxicity to insects and plants. Calculation of dosages of pesticides and fumigants. Practice in the use of various types of pest-control equipments. Study of factors affecting efficacy of pesticide spray. Calibrations of plant protection equipments. Common troubles in the use of pest-control equipment and their remedies. Estimation of pesticide residue in food commodities
501720 LAB- PLANT DISEASE DIAGNOSIS 2
Field diagnosis of important diseases of Rabi and Kharif crops, vegetables, fruits , forest and

ornamental plants. Estimation of losses and methods for assessing the intensity of diseases

like angular leaf spot of cotton, Tikka disease of groundnut, yellow mosaic of beans , downy

mildew of bajra, rusts and loose smut of wheat, Alternaria blight, downy mildew of mustard and

powdery mildew of pea. Methods of soil sterilization for raising healthy nursery plants. Solarheat

treatment. Methods of producing virus-free citrus and potato. Diagnosis and differentiation

of disorders due to viruses, nutritional imbalances, genetic variations and toxaemias. Types of

chemicals used for the control of plant diseases and methods of their application. Cultural and

biological methods of plant disease control.
501721 BIOCONTROL AND INTEGRATED DISEASE MANAGEMENT 2
History and principles underlying host resistance, chemical, physical, cultural, biological and

legislative measures of plant disease management. Scope and factors affecting biological

control. Mechanisms of bio-control. Characterization of bioagents and their commercial

formulations. Limitations of bio-control. Commercial production and distribution system.

Integrated disease management. Historical developments and classification of fungicides and

antibiotics. Mode of action, uptake , translocation, disease control and factors affecting their

efficacy and field performance. Registration, commercial development and compatibility of

fungicides with other chemicals. General account of plant protection appliances. Development

of resistance in pathogens against fungicides .Non-target effects of fungicide use. Methods of

screening for disease resistance. Seed certification standards and phytosanitory measures.


501722 LAB- BIOCONTROL AND INTEGRATED DISEASE MANAGEMENT 1
Isolation and Identification of bio-control agents. Evaluation of bio-control agents against plant pathogens in vitro and in vivo. Production and application procedures. Laboratory evaluation of fungicides and antibiotics by various methods against different groups of pathogens. Methods of application of fungitoxicants. Absorption, translocation and persistence of different fungitoxicants. Integration of bio-control agents with other methods of plant disease control.
501723 POST HARVEST DISEASES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT 2
Importance of post-harvest diseases. Important post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables.

Factors affecting ripening of fruits and vegetables. Factors favoring development of post-harvest

diseases. Effect of handling and storage practices on the development of post-harvest diseases.

Storage methods and conditions. Disease management strategies for post-harvest diseases.


501724 LAB- POST HARVEST DISEASES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT 1
Important post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables like mango, citrus, guava,

grapes, pear, cucurbits, chilli, tomato and potato. Study of factors favouring development of

post-harvest diseases. Disease development under different storage conditions. Demonstration

of various methods of disease management. Visit to a packing house.


501725 LAB- MUSHROOM PRODUCTION 3

Introduction to mushrooms and mushroom growing. Characteristics of mushrooms and their identification. Cultivation techniques of Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus spp. Volvariella spp. and Calocybe spp. Processing of raw materials and compost methodology, spawn production and spawning, casing materials, their treatment and use. Crop management practices including control of pathogons. Designing a mushroom house. Project report formulation at farm level


GROUP - III HORTICULTURE
501726 NURSERY MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS 2
Principles of plant propagation. Seed dormancy and germination. Selection of rootstock and

scion. Stock scion relationship. Factors affecting successful propagation. Physiology of dwarfing

rootstock. Different methods of propagation like division, cutting, layering, budding and rafting, and tissue culture. Containers, media and mixtures. Propagation structures. Nursery act, quarantine and certification. Nutrient management and plant protection measures in nursery.

Economics of raising fruit plant nursery.


501727 LAB- NURSERY MANAGEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS 1
Raising of rootstock. Methods to break seed dormancy. Propagation techniques. Training, lifting and packing of nursery plants. Preparation of media and mixtures, and raising nursery in poly bags. Project formulation and valuation of nursery raising.
501728 COMMERCIAL FRUIT PRODUCTION 2
Importance and uses, botany, flowering and fruiting, climate and soil, promising varieties, hortiagri techniques, production, plant protection measures and special problems in fruits such as

citrus, mango, guava, apple, pear, peach, plum, ber, litchi, grapes, pomegranate, papaya, pineapple, phalsa, banana and sapota.


501729 LAB- COMMERCIAL FRUIT PRODUCTION 1
Identification of species and fruit varieties, training and pruning, maturity standards,

harvesting, handling, grading and packing of fruits. Project formulation and valuation of orchard

management.
501730 PROCESSING AND VALUE ADDITION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 3

Scope of fruit and vegetable preservation industry in India, present status, constraints and prospects. Importance, principles and practices of fruit and vegetable processing. Maturity indices, harvesting, transportation and quality parameters of fruits and vegetables. Pre and post harvest factors affecting processing quality of fruits and vegetables. Commercial processing technologies for important fruits like mango, citrus, grapes, apple, pear, plum, and litchi, etc. and vegetables Packing technology for export and value addition.


501731 LAB- PROCESSING AND VALUE ADDITION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 1

Judging of maturity of different fruits and vegetables. Methods of preparation of jam, jelly, ready to serve, squash, nectar, canning, chutteny, pickle and marmalade etc of important fruits and vegetables. Packing technologies. Drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables. Visit to local processing unit.




501732 COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION 2

Role of soil, climatic and agronomic factors in vegetable production. Principles of cultivation

including direct sowing, nursery management, transplanting, hardening of seedlings and

vegetable forcing. Weeds and their control. Rotation and Intercropping in vegetable crops.

Export potentiality, post harvest handling, processing, storage and marketing of vegetables.
501733 LAB- COMMERCIALVEGETABLE PRODUCTION 1
Sowing and transplanting of vegetable crops. Effect of soil conditions on seedling

emergence and plant growth. Nutrient deficiency symptoms. Common weeds, their identification

and control. Project formulation and evaluation for vegetable nursery production and vegetable

forcing techniques.


501734 VEGETABLE BREEDING AND SEED PRO DUCTION 2
Scope of vegetable breeding and seed production. Origin, floral biology and breeding systems

in vegetable crops. Germplasm resources. Principles and methods of breeding self-pollinated,

often cross-pollinated and cross- pollinated vegetable crops. Plant introduction, selection,

hybridization, population improvement, mutation and polyploidy. Seed production of

conventional varieties. Production of F1 hybrids using male sterility, self-incompatibility, various sex-forms etc. Methods of production of nucleus, breeder, foundation and certified seeds

isolation, pollination, seed harvesting, processing and storage. Seed testing and certification.

Seed Act. Vegetable seed industry and its problems.
501735 LAB- VEGETABLE BREEDING AND SEED PRODUCTION 1
Study of inflorescence and flower structures. Practice in emasculation and artificial

pollination. Inspection and rouging. Testing of seeds for purity and germination. Project formulation and evaluation for seed production of vegetable crops.


501736 FORCING TECHNIQUES IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION 1
Objectives, importance and scope of protected cultivation. Nursery raising techniques.

Environmental factors. Vegetable growing media. Irrigation and fertigation. Sustainable land use

systems. Maximising land use efficiency in protected structures. Problems of growing vegetables in protected structures,. Soil sterilization techniques. Hydroponics cultivation. . Pest management in green house / glass house. Crops and varieties suitable for protected cultivation. Specific technology for raising tomato, sweet pepper, cucumber and high value crops in off season. Cladding material for protected structures – use of mulches. Seed production of vegetables.
501737 LAB- FORCING TECHNIQUES IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION 1
Study of various types of structures. Methods to control temperature, CO2, light.

Demonstration for sanitation measures. Hydroponics. Maintenance of parental lines and hybrid

seed production in glasshouse. Fertigation and nutrient management. Control of diseases and

insect pests in glasshouse. Visit to established greenhouses in the region.


501738 COMMERCIAL FLORICULTURE AND LANDSCAPING 1
Scope, importance and export potential of floriculture, environment factors influencing plant

growth and flower production in cut flowers. Production technology including varieties,

propagation, soil, nutrition, disease and pests of important cut flowers. Post harvest handling,

grading and packing cut flowers, pot and bedding plants. Flower seed production. History of

gardening, characteristics of Hindu, Mughal, Japanese and English gardens. Principle groups of

plants like trees, shrubs, climbers, shade loving plants, ground covers, their analysis and use in

landscape composition. Principles of art and landscaping. Preparation of landscape plans for

homes, farm complexes, small parks and institutions. Development and maintenance of rock,

water and terrace gardens. Bonsai and dish gardens, project formulation and evaluation.
501739 LAB- COMMERCIAL FLORICULTURE AND LANDSCAPING 1
Preparation of plans and laying out of gardens. Identification of planting material and

commercial varieties of flowers. Seed collection, germination tests and storage. Harvesting and

handling of cut flowers. Judging of flowers and pot plants. Visit to local nurseries and florist

centers.
GROUP- IV PLANT BREEDING AND GENETICS


501740 GENETICS OF CROP PLANTS 2
Genetic analysis in different systems. Genetic recombination in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Detection and estimation of linkage from test cross and F2 data. Genetic material - organization,

structure and replication. Extra nuclear inheritance. Genetic of quantitative traits. Genetic

equilibrium and forces changing gene frequency. Induction, detection and uses of mutations.

Gene function. Gene expression. Gene regulation. Environmental influence on gene expression.

Gene cloning. Genetic transformation.


501741 LAB- GENETICS OF CROP PLANTS 1

Study of autosomal monogenic and digenic inheritance. Three point test cross and

gene mapping. Detection and estimation of linkage using test cross and F2 data. Segregation in

corn. Gene frequency analysis - autosomal, sex-linked and multiple allelic traits. Genetic

equilibrium. Demonstration of quantitative inheritance.

501742 CYTOGENETICS OF CROP PLANTS 2

Structure and function of cell organelles. Chromosomal theory of inheritance. Morphology, ultra

structure and differential staining of chromosomes. Unusual chromosomes. Cell cycle.

Cytological, genetic and morphological effects of chromosomal aberrations. Classification,

induction, characterization and utilization of haploids, euploids and aneuploids. In situ

hybridization. Evolution of karyotype. Genome analysis in wheat, cotton, Brassica species.


501743 LAB- CYTOGENETICS OF CROP PLANTS 1
Microscopy. Techniques of cytological preparations. Fixation of material for mitosis

and meiosis. Preparation of permanent slides of cell division. Karyotype analysis. Production

and study of polyploids and haploids. Identification of aneuploids.
501744 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PLANT BREEDING 2
Role of plant breeding. Centres of origin of crop plants. Plant genetic resources and their

utilization. Breeding systems. Breeding methods in self-pollinated, cross-pollinated and

vegetatively propagated crops and their genetic basis. Heterosis and its exploitation. Male

sterility and self-incompatibility. Mutation and polyploidy. Breeding for quality traits. Breeding for abiotic and biotic stresses. Wide hybridization. Procedures for the release of new varieties.

Plant breeding for sustainable agriculture. Plant Variety Protection and Breeders’ Rights.
501745 LAB- THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PLANT BREEDING 1
Emasculation, crossing and selfing in various crops. Collection, viability and germination of pollen. Handling of breeding materials. Study of variability, male sterility and self incompatibility. Quality testing in crop plants. Screening for disease resistance.
501746 INTRODUCTION TO BREEDING OF FIELD CROPS 3
Application of genetic, cytogenetic and biotechnological techniques in breeding of wheat,

triticale, rice, maize, bajra, barley, sorghum, cotton, sugarcane, important pulses, oilseeds and

forage crops including their origin and germplasm sources. Problems and present status of crop

improvement in India with emphasis on the work done in Punjab. National and International

centres of crop improvement.
501747 CROP EXPERIMENTATION 1
Experiments in Plant Breeding – objectives, analysis and interpretation of results. Statistics in

relation to crop experimentation. Principles of experimental designs. Uniformity trials, progeny

rows trials, compact family block design, completely randomized block design, randomized

block design, incomplete block designs. Simple lattice. Augmented designs. Varietal trials over

years and locations. G x E and estimation of genetic components. Analysis of co-variance.

Determination of yield through its components.



501748 LAB- CROP EXPERIMENTATION 1

Statistical parameters and tests of significance. Use of computer packages for

analysis. Layout of field experiments. Analysis of experimental designs. Character association.

Analysis of varietal trials and G x E interaction


501749 PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES OF PLANT TISSUE CULTURE AND TRANSFORMATION 2
Concepts of plant tissue culture and transformation. Various aspects of plant tissue culture.

GMO’s / LMO’s/ transgenics. Gene transfer methods. Agrobacterium mediated plant

transformation. Particle gun mediated plant transformation. Molecular characterization of

transgenic plants using PCR, Southern and Western analysis. Bioassays with transgenic plants.

Genetic engineering of crop plants for useful traits. Foods for the future. Biosafety concerns and

regulatory mechanisms. Commercialization of transgenic products.


501750 LAB- PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES OF PLANT TISSUE CULTURE AND TRANSFORMATION 1
Establishment of direct and indirect in vitro plant regeneration methods for genetic

transformation. Gene constructs and their maintenance. Agrobacterium mediated genetic

transformation. Particle mediated genetic transformation. Histochemical GUS assays. PCR

screening of putative transgenic plants. Raising transgenic plants under contained conditions.


501751 PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURE OF MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENOMICS 2
Classification, properties and uses of restriction endonucleases. Characteristics and uses of

plasmids in molecular biology. Recombinant DNA technology. Construction and uses of

genomic and cDNA libraries. Genome organization of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Southern,

Northern and Western hybridization. RFLPs. Polymerase chain reaction. PCR-based markers

like RAPDs, SSRs, ISSRs, STS, Scars. Generation of molecular maps. Applications of

biotechnology in crop improvement. DNA sequencing. Gene cloning approaches. Functional

genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics.
501752 LAB- PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURE OF MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENOMICS 1
Isolation, purification and fractionation of DNA and proteins. Isolation and purification of plasmids. Measurement of protein and nucleic acid concentration using photospectrometer. DNA amplification using RAPD/SSR primers and its fractionation in agarose gel. Generation of linkage maps and mapping of qualitative genes using important web sites on computer.
GROUP - V POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY AND VALUE ADDITION
501753 FRUIT AND VEGETABLE TECHNOLOGY 2
Present status and scope of Fruit & Vegetable Industry in India. Principles and preservation of fruits and vegetables by thermal processing, low temperature, chemicals, irradiation, salt, sugar and high pressure. Preparation of jams, jellies, marmalades, juices, squashes, ketchup, pickles, chutneys, wine and vinegar. Role of pectin in gel formation. Quality characteristics of fruit and vegetable products. Selection of site, design, layout, equipment, machinery and buildings. Plant sanitation. Disposal of wastes from fruit and vegetable processing plants. Project formulation and evaluation.
501754 LAB- FRUIT AND VEGETABLE TECHNOLOGY 1
Canning of fruits and vegetables. Dehydration of fruits and vegetables. Preparation of fruit juices, squashes, jams, jellies, marmalades, ketchup, pickles, chutneys, preserve, candy, wine and vinegar. Organoleptic evaluation of fruit and vegetable products. Visit to food industry.
501755 DAIRY TECHNOLOGY 2
Physico - chemical properties of milk. Liquid milk processing – clarification, pasteurization,

homogenization, chilling and packaging. Fluid milk – toned, double toned, standardized, recombined and reconstituted. Fermented milks – natural, cultured buttermilk, acidophilus, bulgaricus, kafir and koumiss. Preparation of milk products-cheese, condensed and evaporated milks. Whole and skim milk powder and ice cream. Legal and BIS standards of milk and milk products. Plant sanitation and affluent disposal. Utilization of by-products. Dairy plant layout and project formulation.


501756 LAB- DAIRY TECHNOLOGY 1
Quality evaluation of fluid milk. Detection of adulteration in milk and milk products. Preparation of milk products – cheese, flavoured pasteurized, sterilized and fermented milk, ice cream, yoghurt, khoa and paneer. Visit to milk plant.
501757 CEREAL TECHNOLOGY 2
Structure of different grains-wheat, rice, barley, oat, corn and millets. Milling of grains. Flour and its use in bakery products- bread, biscuits, cakes, dough nuts and buns. Milling and parboiling of paddy. Rice bran oil. Pearling and malting of barley. Preparation of oat flakes and dalia. Wet and dry milling of corn. Preparation of extruded products. Sanitation of cereal processing plant. Project formulation and evaluation.
501758 LAB- CEREAL TECHNOLOGY 1
Determination of quality characteristics of wheat, wheat flour and atta. Rice milling and parboiling. Pearling and malting of barley. Preparation of chapaties, bread, biscuits, cakes, buns, rusks, flat bread, broken wheat i.e. porridge, puffed and extruded products.
501759 EGG AND MEAT TECHNOLOGY 2
Structure, composition, nutritive value and functional properties of eggs. Interior quality of eggs and its preservation. Preparation of egg products. Scope of meat and poultry processing industry in India. Slaughtering and dressing of poultry and other meat animals. Structure, composition, nutritive value and post-mortem bio-chemical changes in relation to quality of meat tissues. Meat tenderization. Principles of meat preservation. Standards and quality control measures for meat and poultry processing plant. By-products. Plant layout and project formulation.
501760 LAB- EGG AND MEAT TECHNOLOGY 1
Evaluation of quality and grading of eggs. Preservation of shell eggs. Preparation of various egg products. Slaughtering and dressing of poultry and meat animals. Preparation of meat cuts. Chilling and ageing of meat. Estimation of meat: bone ratio. Preparation of meat-products canned, dehydrated, barbecued and comminuted. Preparation of sausages, loaves, burger, patties, fish fingers, kabab and restructured meat and poultry products.
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