University college of agriculture



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A501514 STATISTICS 2
Introduction: Definition of Statistics and its use and limitations; Frequency Distribution and Frequency Curves; Measures of Central Tendency: Characteristics of Ideal Average, Arithmetic Mean; Median, Mode, Merits and Demerits of Arithmetic Mean; Measures of Dispersion: Standard Deviation, Variance and Coefficient of Variation; Probability: Definition and concept of probability; Normal Distribution and its properties; Introduction to Sampling: Random Sampling; the concept of Standard Error; Tests of Significance-Types of Errors, Null Hypothesis, Level of Significance and Degrees of Freedom, Steps involved in testing of hypothesis; Large Sample Test-SND test for Means, Single Sample and Two Samples (all types); Small Sample Test for Means, Student’ s t-test for Single Sample, Two Samples and Paired t test. F test; Chi-Square Test in 2x2 Contingency Table, Yates’ Correction for continuity; Correlation: Types of Correlation and identification through Scatter Diagram, Computation of Correlation Coefficient ‘r’ and its testing. Linear Regression: of Y on X and X on Y. Inter-relation between ‘r’ and the regression coefficients, fitting of regression equations. Experimental Designs: Basic Designs, Completely Randomized Design (CRD), Layout and analysis with equal and unequal number of observations, Randomized Block Design (RBD), Layout and analysis, Latin Square Design (LSD), Layout and analysis.
A501515 LAB- CROP PRODUCTION I (Kharif) 2
Crop planning, raising field crops in multiple cropping systems: Field preparation, seed treatment, nursery raising, sowing, nutrient management, water management, weed management and management of insect pests and diseases of crops harvesting, threshing, drying, winnowing, storage and marketing of produce. Preparation of balance sheet including cost of cultivation, net returns per student as well as per team of a group of students.
A501601 WEED MANAGEMENT 2
Weeds: Introduction, harmful and beneficial effects, classification, propagation and dissemination; Weed biology and ecology, crop weed association, crop weed competition and allelopathy Concepts of weed prevention, control and eradication; Methods of weed control: physical, cultural, chemical and biological methods. Integrated weed management; Herbicides: advantages and limitation of herbicide usage in India, Herbicide classification, formulations, methods of application; Introduction to Adjuvant and their use in herbicides; Introduction to selectivity of herbicides; Compatibility of herbicides with other agro chemicals; Weed management in major field and horticultural crops, shift of weed flora in cropping systems, aquatic and problematic weeds and their control.
A501602 LAB - WEED MANAGEMENT 1
Identification of weeds; Survey of weeds in crop fields and other habitats; Preparation of herbarium of weeds; Calculations on weed control efficiency and weed index; Herbicide label information; Computation of herbicide doses; Study of herbicide application equipment and calibration; Demonstration of methods of herbicide application; Preparation of list of commonly available herbicides; Study of phytotoxicity symptoms of herbicides in different crops; Biology of nut sedge, bermuda grass, parthenium and celosia; Economics of weed control practices; Tours and visits of problem areas.

A501603 PRODUCTION ECONOMICS AND FARM MANAGEMENT 2
Production Economics: Meaning, Definition, Nature and Scope of Agricultural Production Economics. Basic concepts and terms. Concepts of Production. Production Functions: Meaning, Definition, Types. Laws of returns: Increasing, Constant and decreasing. Factor Product Relationship. Determination of optimum input and output. Factor relationship. Product relationship. Types of enterprise relationships. Returns to scale: Meaning, Definition, Importance. Farm Management. Economic principles applied to the Organizations of farm business. Types and systems of farming. Farm planning and budgeting. Risk and uncertainty. Farm budgeting. Linear programming: Assumptions, Advantages and Limitations of Linear programming.
A501604 LAB - PRODUCTION ECONOMICS AND FARM MANAGEMENT 1
Computation of cost concepts; Methods of computation of depreciation; Analysis of Net worth statement; Farm inventory analysis; Preparation of farm plans and budgets; Types of farm records and accounts; Preparation of profit and loss account; Break, Even analysis; Economics analysis of different crop and livestock enterprises; Application of Farm Management Principles.

A501605 RENEWABLE ENERGY 1
Energy sources, Introduction, Classification, Energy from Biomass, Types of biogas plants, constructional details, Biogas production and its utilization, Agricultural wastes, Principles of combustion, pyrolysis and gasification, Types of gasifiers, Producer gas and its utilization. Briquettes, Types of Briquetting machines, uses of Briquettes, Shredders. Solar energy, Solar flat plate and focusing plate collectors, Solar air heaters, Solar space heating and cooling, Solar energy applications / Solar energy gadgets, Solar cookers, Solar water heating systems, solar grain dryers, Solar Refrigeration system, Solar ponds, Solar photo voltaic systems, solar lantern, Solar street lights, solar fencing, Solar pumping systems. Wind energy, Types of wind mills, Constructional details & application of windmills. Liquid Bio fuels, Bio diesel and Ethanol from agricultural produce, its production & uses.
A501606 LAB - RENEWABLE ENERGY 1
Constructional details of KVIC & Janatha type biogas plants; Constructional details of Deen Bandu type biogas plants; Field visit to biogas plants; Constructional details of different types of gasifiers; Testing of gasifiers; Briquette preparation from biomass; To study and find the efficiency of solar cooker; To study and find the performance of a solar still; To study and find the performance of a solar dryers; Study and working of solar photovoltaic pumping system; Study and performance evaluation of domestic solar water heater; Study and performance evaluation of solar lantern; Study and performance evaluation of solar street light; To study the performance of different types of wind mills; Field visit to wind mills; To study the processing of Bio-diesel production from Jatropha.

A501607 EXTENSION METHODOLOGIES FOR TRANSFER OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY 2
Communication – Meaning, Definition, Models, Elements and their Characteristics, Types and Barriers in communication. Extension Programme Planning – Meaning, Definitions of Planning, Programme, Project, Importance, Principles and Steps in Programme Development Process, Monitoring and Evaluation of Extension Programmes. Extension Teaching methods – Meaning, Definition, Functions and Classification. Individual contact methods – Farm and Home visit, Result Demonstration, Field trials – Meaning, Objectives, Steps, Merits and Demerits. Group contact methods – Group discussion, Method demonstration, Field Trips – Meaning, Objectives, Steps, Merits and Demerits. Small group discussion techniques – Lecture, Symposium, Panel, Debate, Forum, Buzz group, Workshop, Brain Storming, Seminar and Conference. Mass contact Methods – Campaign, Exhibition, Kisan Mela, Radio & Television – Meaning, Importance, Steps, Merits & Demerits. Factors influencing in selection of Extension Teaching Methods and Combination (Media Mix) of Teaching methods. Innovative Information sources – Internet, Cyber Cafes, Video and Tele conferences, Kisan call centers, Consultancy clinics. Agricultural Journalism – Meaning, Scope and Importance, Sources of news, Types, Merits and Limitations. Diffusion and Adoption of Innovations – Meaning, Definition, Models of adoption Process, Innovation – Decision Process – Elements, Adopter categories and their characteristics, Factors influencing adoption process. Capacity building of Extension Personnel and Farmers – Meaning, Definition, Types of training, Training to farmers, farm women and Rural youth – FTC and KVK.


A501608 LAB - EXTENSION METHODOLOGIES FOR TRANSFER OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY 1
Simulated exercises on communication. Identifying the Problems, Fixing the Priorities and selecting a most important problem for preparation of a project. Developing a project based on identified problems in a selected village. Organization of Group discussion and Method demonstration. Visit to KVK / FTC. Planning and Writing of scripts for Radio and Television. Audio Visual aids – Meaning, Importance and Classification. Selection, Planning, Preparation, Evaluation and Presentation of visual aids. Planning & Preparation of visual aids – Charts, Posters, Over Head Projector, (OHP) Transparencies, Power Point Slides. Planning and Preparation of Agricultural Information materials – Leaflet, Folder, Pamphlet, News Stories, Success Stories. Handling of Public Address Equipment (PAE) System, Still camera, Video Camera and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Projector.
A501609 ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1

Entrepreneurship Development: Assessing overall business environment in the Indian economy. Overview of Indian social, political and economic systems and their implications for decision making by individual entrepreneurs. Globalisation and the emerging business / entrepreneurial environment. Concept of entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial and managerial characteristics; managing an enterprise; motivation and entrepreneurship development; importance of planning, monitoring, evaluation and follow up; managing competition; entrepreneurship development programs; SWOT analysis, Generation, incubation and commercialization of ideas and innovations. Government schemes and incentives for promotion of entrepreneurship. Government policy on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) / SSIs. Export and Import Policies relevant to agriculture sector. Venture capital. Contract farming and joint ventures, public-private partnerships. Overview of agri inputs industry. Characteristics of Indian agricultural processing and export industry. Social Responsibility of Business. Communication Skills: Structural and functional grammar; meaning and process of communication, verbal and non-verbal communication; listening and note taking, writing skills, oral presentation skills; field diary and lab record; indexing, footnote and bibliographic procedures. Reading and comprehension of general and technical articles, précis writing, summarizing, abstracting; individual and group presentations, impromptu presentation, public speaking; Group discussion. Organizing seminars and conferences.


A501610 LAB -ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1
Listening and note taking, writing skills, oral presentation skills; field diary and lab record; indexing, footnote and bibliographic procedures. Reading and comprehension of general and technical articles, précis writing, summarizing, abstracting; individual and group presentations.
A501611 BIOCHEMISTRY 2
Biochemistry – Introduction and importance. Plant cell, cell wall and its role in live stock, food and paper industries. Bio-molecules – Structure, properties &applications: Amino acids, peptides and proteins –Plant proteins and their quality. Enzymes –Factors affecting the activity, classification, Immobilistion and other industrial applications. Lipids –Acyl lipids, Their industrial application in soaps, detergents, paints, Varnishes, lubricants, adhesives, plastics, nylon, Bio-diesel, Biodegradable plastics etc. Carbohydrates; Nucleotides and Nucleic acids. Metabolic energy and its generation – Metabolism – Basic concepts, Glycolysis, Citric acid Cycle, Pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, Fatty acid oxidation. General reactions of amino acid degradation. Biosynthesis – carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids. Metabolic regulation. Secondary metabolites, Terpenoids, Alkaloids, Phenolics and their applications in food and pharmaceutical industries.
A501612 LAB – BIOCHEMISTRY 1
Amino acid models (atomic); Paper electrophoresis for the separation of plant pigments; Protein denaturation – heat, pH, precipitation of proteins with heavy metals, Protein estimation by Lowry method; Enzyme kinetics, competitive inhibition, enzyme immobilization; Extraction of nucleic acids, column chromatography of RNA hydrolysate; Characterization of lipids by T.L.C.; Extraction of oil from oil seeds; Estimation of fatty acids by G.L.C.; Models of sugars, sucrose & starch; Quantitative determination of sugars; Paper chromatography for the separation of sugars; Determination of phenols.
A501613 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2
Scope and importance of environmental studies. Natural resources: Renewable and renewable resources. Forest, Water, Food, energy and land resources. Ecosystems: Definition, concept, structure and functions. Producers, consumers and decomposers of an ecosystem. Energy flow in the ecosystem. Types of ecosystems. Bio-diversity: Definition, classification, threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Environmental pollution: Causes, effects and control of air, water, soil, thermal, noise and marine pollution. Causes, effects and management of soil nuclear hazards and industrial wastes. Disaster management, Floods, earthquakes, cyclones and land slides. Social issues and the environment, unsustainable to sustainable development. The Environment Protection Act, The Air Act, The water Act, The Wildlife Protection. Act and Forest Conservation Act. Woman and child welfare, HIV/AIDS and Role of information technology on environment and human health.
A501614 ORGANIC FARMING 1
Introduction, concept, relevance in present context; Organic production requirements; Biological intensive nutrient management-organic manures, vermicomposting, green manuring, recycling of organic residues, biofertilizers; Soil improvement and amendments; Integrated diseases and pest management – use of biocontrol agents, biopesticides pheromones, trap crops, bird perches; Weed management; Quality considerations, certification, labeling and accreditation processors, marketing, exports.

A501615 LAB-CROP PRODUCTION II (Rabi) 2
Crop planning, raising field crops in multiple cropping systems: Field preparation, seed treatment, nursery raising, sowing, nutrient management, water management, weed management and management of insect-pests and diseases of crops harvesting, threshing, drying, winnowing, storage and marketing of produce. Preparation of balance sheet including cost of cultivation, net returns per student as well as per team of a group of students.

GROUP- I CROP PRODUCTION

501701 SEEDPRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 2
Introduction, importance, impact of seed production technology on production and productivity of crops. Definition of seed, seed technology and quality parameters of seed. Different classes of seed and its production. Seed certification, state seed certification agency, inspection. Seed viability, seed vigour seed dormancy, and breaking of dormancy. Varietal identification through grow-out tests and electrophoresis. Seed production of commercial and different classes of seed varietal and hybrid seed production of major self and cross pollinated crops. Seed processing including drying, cleaning, grading, testing, packing and labeling.
501702 LAB- SEEDPRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 1
Seed treatment and equipment used for seed treatment (Slurry and Mist-o-Matic-Treater). Seed packing and storage methods. Factors affecting seed longevity during storage and conditions required for storage. Tests of seed vigour and viability. Pest and disease control, temperature control. Seed marketing. Grow out tests. Seed germination tests.
501703 INTEGRATED FARMING SSSTEM AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE 2
Farming systems, definition, principles and components. Farming System models for irrigated,

dryland situations and modules for marginal, small and large farmers. Farming systems of the

world-arable, pastoral, lay farming, shifting cultivation, ranching and agro-forestry systems.

Energy and fuel wood plantations. Specialized and diversified farming, family co-operative and

collective farming: their occurrence, adaptations and weaknesses. Factors affecting choice of

farming systems. Cropping systems, their characteristics and management. Cropping patterns.

Agro-ecosystem and agro-ecological zones of India. Efficient food producing systems.

Sustainable agriculture- Introduction, definition, goal and current concepts, factors affecting

ecological balance and ameliorative measures, land degradation and conservation of natural

resources.


501704 LAB- INTEGRATED FARMING SSSTEM AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Preparation of cropping scheme and integrated farming system models for irrigated

and dryland situations. Preparation of enriched farm yard manure and vermicompost. Visit to

urban waste recycling unit, organic farm and model farmers’ field. Preparation of farm lay out

plans, different intensity crop rotations and cropping schemes. Estimating crop yields. Energy

budgeting in different crops and cropping systems. Working out ecological optimum crop zones.



Project making exercises for establishment of crop production farms under different situation.
501705 PRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL CROPS 2
Origin, geographic distribution, economic importance, soil and climatic requirement, varieties, cultural practices and yield and processing of commercial crops, cotton, maize,, jute , sunhemp, soybean, sugarcane, sugarbeet, potato ginger, turmeric, mentha etc.

501706 LAB- PRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL CROPS 1
Cultural practices for commercial crops. Effect of seed size and sowing depth on germination. Morphological characteristics of commercial crops. Identification of weeds of commercial crops. Identification propagation, seed selection, seed treatment, processing and distillation techniques for different medicinal, aromatic and spice crops.
501707 SOIL FERTILITY AND NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT 2
Crop response to fertilizer-effect on germination, growth and nutrient removal. Problems of supply and availability of nutrients, relation between nutrient supply and crop growth. Integrated nutrient management. Preparation and use of farmyard manure, compost, green manures, vermi-compost, bio-fertilizers and other organic concentrates their composition, availability and crop responses, recycling of organic wastes and residue management. Commercial fertilizers, composition, relative fertilizer value and cost. Crop response to different nutrients, residual effects and fertilizer use efficiency, fertilizer mixtures and grades. Nutrient interactions. Time and methods of manures and fertilizers application. Foliar fertilizer application and its concept. Relative performance of organic and inorganic manures. Economics of fertilizer use. Site specific nutrient management. Effect of fertilizers on environment, Nutrient cycling integrated farming systems, Long effects of fertilizers use on crop yield and soil productivity.
501708 LAB-SOIL FERTILITY AND NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT 1
Principles of analytical instruments and their calibration and applications, Colorimetry and flame photometry Soil, plant , manure and fertilizer analysis for macro and micro nutrients
501709 MANAGEMENT OF PROBLEM SOILS AND WATER 2
Area, distribution, origin and basic concepts of problematic soils. Morphological features and characterization of salt-affected soils. Management of salt- affected soils. Salt tolerance of crops -mechanism and ratings. Monitoring of soil salinity in the field. Management principles for sandy,clayey, red lateritic and dry land soils. Acid soils – nature, sources and management. Effect on plant growth. Lime equirement of acid soils. Biological sickness of soils and its management. Quality of irrigation water, management of brackish water. Salt balance under irrigation.characterization of brackish waters, area and extent. Agronomic practices in relation to problematic soils. Cropping pattern for utilizing poor quality ground waters.
501710 LAB- MANAGEMENT OF PROBLEM SOILS AND WATER 1
Characterization of acid, acid sulfate, salt- affected and calcareous soils. Determination of cations (Na+, K+, Ca+, and Mg++) in ground water and soil samples. Determination of anions (CI-,SO4 2-, CO3 2- and HCO3 -) in ground waters and soil samples. Lime and gypsum requirement of acid and sodic soil.
501711 LAB- ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN SOIL, PLANT, FERTILIZER AND WATER ANALYSIS 2
Colorimetric and flame photometric methods. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cation and

anion exchange phenomenon and their importance. Ion adsorption, desorption and fixation in

soils. Fertilizer control order. Planning and formulation of project on establishment of soil water

and plant testing laboratory.Preparation of standard solutions. Collection and analysis of soil, water, plant and fertilizer samples. Soil, water and fertilizer analysis reports for recommendation purposes. Analysis of forms of nitrogen , phosphorous, potassium and sulphur in soils. Determination of DTPA extractable micronutrients. Plant analysis for total N, P, K and micro-nutrients.


501712 PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF ECONOMIC FOREST TREES 2
Plantation silviculture: native versus exotics; even-aged versus uneven-aged; monoculture versus mixed culture. Plantation technology and tending operations of economically important tree species. Agroforestry concept and suitable agroforestry systems/models for different regions. Economic and ecological aspects of agroforestry systems. Importance of superior phenotypes, their evaluation and use in plantations. Climate change and forests. Forest regeneration, productivity and rotation. Desertification and rehabilitation of waste lands. Short rotation intensive management of forest plantations. Trees outside forests, energy/industrial plantation and dendroremediation. Production and marketing of forestry produce. Forest fire and its

management. Wood based industries and importance of non-timber forest produce. Framework for forestry extension: participatory rural appraisal and joint forest management.


501713 LAB- PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF ECONOMIC FOREST TREES 1

Nursery management: propagation methods, quality planting stock, preparation of nursery and plantation schedule. Layout and establishment of agroforestry models. Estimation of tree volume and biomass; enumeration and vegetation survey. Methods of vegetation analysis: measurement of biomass and productivity. Visit to commercial plantations, wood based industries and forestry institutes.


GROUP - II CROP PROTECTION
501714 APICULTURE 1

Indian history of beekeeping. Species and races of honey bees. Morphology and anatomy

of honey bee. Colony organization, life cycle and division of labour in Apis mellifera.

Seasonal management of honey bee colonies; swarming, drifting and curbing drone population. Management of queenless and laying worker colonies. Colony multiplication. Bee enemies and diseases. Protection from pesticidal hazards. Maximizing honey production. Bee flora. Managed bee pollination of crops. Colony migration. Apicultural diversification. Honey and its quality. Economics of beekeeping.


501715 LAB- APICULTURE 2
Important species of honey bees, castes differentiation and body structure. Handling of colonies. Colony organization and food storage pattern. Langstroth hive, apicultural equipment and machinery. Bee flora. Seasonal management practices. Colony division. Mass queen bee rearing techniques. Queen introduction, clipping and marking. Bee pollination of crops. Management of bacterial, viral and fungal diseases of honey bees. Identification and management of parasitic mites, wax moths, ants, wasps and predatory birds. Honey extraction. Pollen, propolis and bee venom collection. Processing of bees wax. Royal jelly production and collection. Honey processing and packaging. Honey testing. Visit to beekeeping industry (Hive manufacturing, equipment manufacturing, honey processing and exporting commercial units).
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