University college of agriculture



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A501404 LAB - BREEDING OF FIELD / HORTICULTURE CROPS 1
Emasculation and Hybridization techniques; Handling of segregating generations, pedigree methods; Handling of segregating generations, bulk methods; Handling of segregating generations, back cross methods; Field layout of experiments; Field trials, maintenance of records and registers; Estimation of Heterosis and inbreeding depression; Estimation of Heritability, GCA and SCA; Estimation of variability parameters; Parentage of released varieties/hybrids; Problems on Hardy, Weinberg Law; Study of quality characters; Sources of donors for different characters; Visit to seed production and certification plots; Visit to AICRP trials and programmes; Visit to grow out test plots; Visit to various research stations; Visit to other institutions

A501405 MANURES, FERTILIZERS AND AGRO-CHEMICALS 2
Introduction – Raw materials – Manures – Bulky and concentrated – FYM, Composts – Different methods, Mechanical compost plants, Vermi-composting, Green manures, Oil cakes, Sewage and sludge – Biogas plant slurry, Plant and animal refuges. Fertilizers – classifications, Manufacturing processes and properties of major nitrogenous (ammonium sulphate, urea, calcium ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate nitrate) phosphatic (single super phosphate, enriched super phosphate, di-ammonium phosphate, ammonium poly phosphate), potassic and complex fertilizers their fate and reactions in the soil, Secondary and micronutrients fertilizers, Amendments. Fertilizer Control Order, Fertilizer storage; Biofertilizers and their advantage, Organic chemistry as prelude to agro chemicals, Diverse types of agrochemicals, Botanical insecticides (Neem), Pyrethrum, Synthetic pyrethroids. Synthetic organic insecticides, Major classes, Properties and uses of some important insecticides under each class. Herbicides – Major classes – Properties and uses of 2, 4-D, atrazine, glyphosate, butachlor benthiocarb; Fungicides – Major classes – Properties and uses of carbendazim, carboxin, captan, tridemorph and copper oxychloride – Insecticides Act, Plant growth regulators.
A501406 LAB - MANURES, FERTILIZERS AND AGRO-CHEMICALS 1
Total nitrogen and phosphorus in manures / composts – Ammoniacal and nitrate nitrogen – Water soluble P2O5, potassium, calcium, sulphur and zinc contents of fertilizers COD in organic wastes – Adulteration in fertilizer. Argentimetric and iodometric titrations – their use in the analysis of lindane metasystox, endosulfan, malathion, copper and sulphur fungicides – Compatibility of fertilizers with pesticides.
A501407 INSECT ECOLOGY AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT 2
Insect Ecology: Introduction, Environment and its components. Effect of abiotic factors– temperature, moisture, humidity, rainfall, light, atmospheric pressure and air currents. Effect of biotic factors – food competition, natural and environmental resistance. Concepts of Balance of life in nature, biotic potential and environmental resistance and causes for outbreak of pests in agro-ecosystem. Pest surveillance and pest forecasting. Categories of pests. IPM; Introduction, importance, concepts principles and tools of IPM-Host plant resistance, Cultural, Mechanical, Physical, Legislative, Biological (parasites, predators & transgenic plant pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses ) methods of control. Chemical control – importance, hazards and limitations. Classification of insecticides,toxicity of insecticides and formulations of insecticides. Study of important insecticides. Botanical insecticides – neem based products, Cyclodiens, Organophosphates, Carbamates, Synthetic pyrethroids, Novel insecticides, Pheromones, Nicotinyl insecticides, Chitin synthesis inhibitors, Phenyl pyrazoles, Avermectins, Macrocyclic lactones, Oxadiazimes, Thiourea derivaties, pyridine azomethines, pyrroles, etc. Nematicides, Rodenticides, Acaricides and fumigants. Recent methods of pest control, repellents, antifeedants, hormones, attractants, gamma radiation and genetic control. Practices, scope and limitations of IPM. Insecticides Act 1968 – Important provisions. Application techniques of spray fluids. Phytotoxicity of insecticides. Symptoms of poisoning, first aid and antidotes. Beneficial insects: parasites and predators used in pest control and their mass multiplication techniques. Important groups of microorganisms, bacteria, viruses and fungi used in pest control and their mass multiplication techniques. Important species of pollinators, weed killers and scavengers, their importance. Non insect pests – mites, nematology, rodents and birds. Vermiculture
A501408 LAB - INSECT ECOLOGY AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT 1
Visit to meteorological observatory / automatic weather reporting station; Study of terrestrial and pond ecosystems of insects; Studies on behaviour of insects and orientation (repellency, stimulation, deterancy); Study of distribution patterns of insects, sampling techniques for the estimation of insect population and damage; Pest surveillance through light traps, pheremone traps and field incidence; Practicable IPM practices, Mechanical and physical methods; Practicable IPM practices, Cultural and biological methods; Chemical control, Insecticides and their formulations; Calculation of doses/concentrations of insecticides; Compatibility of pesticides and Phytotoxicity of insecticides; IPM case studies; Identification of common phytophagous mites and their morphological characters; Identification of common plant parasitic nematodes and their morphological characters; Identification of rodents and bird pests and their damage; Identification of earthworms in vermiculture – visit to vermiculture unit; Other beneficial insects – Pollinators, weed killers and scavengers
A501409 AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, TRADE AND PRICES 1
Agricultural Marketing: Concepts and Definition, Scope and subject matter, Market and Marketing: Meaning, Definitions, Components of a market, Classification. Market structure,

Conduct, performance. Marketing structure, Market functionaries or agencies, Producer’s surplus: Meaning, Types of producers surplus, marketable surplus. Marketed surplus, importance, Factors affecting Marketable surplus. Marketing channels: Meaning, Definition, Channels for different products. Market integration, Meaning, Definition, Types of Market Integration. Marketing efficiency: Meaning, Definition, Marketing costs, Margins and price spread, Factors affecting the cost of marketing, Reasons for higher marketing costs of farm commodities, Ways of reducing marketing costs. Theories of International Trade: Domestic Trade, Free trade, International Trade, GATT, WTO, Implications of AOA. Market access, Domestic support, Export subsidies, EXIM-Policy & Ministerial conferences. Cooperative Marketing. State Trading. Ware Housing Corporation; Central and State, Objectives, Functions, Advantages. Food Corporation of India: Objectives and Functions. Quality Control, Agricultural Products, AGMARK. Price Characteristics of agricultural product process, Meaning, Need for Agricultural Price Policy. Risk in Marketing: Meaning and importance, Types of Risk in Marketing. Speculations and Hedging, Futures trading, Contract farming.


A501410 LAB - AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, TRADE AND PRICES 1
Identification of marketing channels; Study of Rythu Bazars, Regulated markets; Study of unregulated markets; Study of livestock markets; Price spread analysis; Visit to market institutions, NAFED; Study of SWC, CWC and STC; Analysis of information of daily prices; Marketed and marketable surplus of different commodities.


A501411 PROTECTED CULTIVATION AND POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY 1
Green house technology, Introduction, Types of Green Houses; Plant response to Green house environment, Planning and design of greenhouses, Design criteria of greenhouse for cooling and heating purposes. Green house equipment, materials of construction for traditional and low cost green houses. Irrigation systems used in greenhouses, typical applications, passive solar green house, hot air green house heating systems, green house drying. Cost estimation and economic analysis. Choice of crops for cultivation under greenhouses, problems / constraints of greenhouse cultivation and future strategies. Growing media, soil culture, type of soil required, drainage, flooding and leaching, soil pasteurization in peat moss and mixtures, rock wool and other inert media, nutrient film technique (NFT) / hydroponics. Threshing, threshers for different crops, parts, terminology, care and maintenance. Winnowing, manual and power operated winnowers, care and maintenance. Groundnut decorticators, hand operated and power operated decorticators, principles of working, care and maintenance. Maize shellers & castor shellers. Drying, grain drying, types of drying, types of dryers. Storage, grain storage, types of storage structures. Fruits and vegetables cleaning, machinery for cleaning of fruits and vegetables, care and maintenance. Grading, methods of grading, equipment for grading of fruits and vegetables, care and maintenance. Size reduction. Equipment for size reduction care and maintenance. Evaporation, Principle, types of evaporators, quality standards – FAQ, ASTA, FPO, and FDA.
A501412 LAB -PROTECTED CULTIVATION AND POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY 1

Study of different types of green houses based on shape, construction and cladding materials; Calculation of air rate exchange in an active summer winter cooling system; Calculation of rate of air exchange in an active winter cooling system; Estimation of drying rate of agricultural products inside green house; Testing of soil and water to study its suitability for growing crops in greenhouses; The study of fertigation requirements for greenhouses crops and estimation of E.C. in the fertigation solution; The study of various growing media used in raising of greenhouse crops and their preparation and pasteurization / sterilization; Visit to commercial green houses; Study of threshers, their components, operation and adjustments; Winnowers, their components, operation and adjustements; Study of different components of groundnut decorticator; Study of maize shellers; Study of castor shellers; Study of improved grain storage structure; Study of dryers; Study of cleaners & graders.


A501413 DISEASES OF FIELD CROPS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT 2
Economic importance, symptoms, cause, epidemiology and disease cycle and integrated management of diseases of rice, sorghum, bajra, maize, wheat, sugarcane, turmeric, tobacco, groundnut, sesamum, sunflower, cotton, red gram, Bengal gram, black gram, green gram, tea, soybean.
A501414 LAB- DISEASES OF FIELD CROPS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT 1
Study of symptoms, etiology, host-parasite relationship and specific control measures of the following crop diseases. Preservation of disease samples survey and collection of diseases of rice, sorghum; Diseases of wheat, bajra & maize; Diseases of sugarcane, turmeric & tobacco; Diseases of groundnut, castor & sunflower; Diseases of sesamum & cotton; Diseases of red gram, green gram, black gram, Bengal gram & beans; Field visits at appropriate time during the semester.

Note: Students should submit 50 pressed, well mounted diseased specimens in three installments during the semester.


A501415 PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS 2
Definition and importance of horticulture. Divisions of horticulture. Climatic zones of horticulture crops. Area and production of different fruit crops. Selection of site, fencing, and wind break, planting systems, high density planting, planning and establishment. Propagation methods and use of rootstocks. Methods of training and pruning. Use of growth regulators in fruit production. Package of practices for the cultivation of major fruits – mango, banana, citrus, grape, guava, sapota, apple, litchi. Papaya, Minor fruits – pineapple, annonaceous fruits, pomegranate, ber, fig, phalsa, jack, pear, plum, peaches and cherry.
A501416 LAB -PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS 1
Study of horticultural tools and implements and their uses; Containers, potting mixture, potting, depotting and repotting; Plant propagation, seed propagation, scarification, and stratification; Propagation by cuttings (soft wood, hard wood and semi-hardwood) layering (simple layering, Air layering, stooping in guava); Layout and planting systems (Traditional system and high density planting methods); Methods of pruning and training; Training of ber, grape and pomegranate; Pruning of ber, grape, phalsa, fig, apple, pear, peach; Description and identification of varieties of mango, guava, grape, papaya, apple and sapota; Description and identification of varieties of banana, citrus, (lime lemon, sweet orange, mandarin, grape fruit) pomegranate, ber, pear and cherries; Irrigation methods in fruit crops including drip – Micro irrigation methods of establishment of orchard; Methods of Fertiliser application methods in fruit crops including fertigation technology; Visit to local commercial orchards; Preparation of growth regulators, powder, solution and lanolin paste for propagation; Application of growth regulators for improving fruit set, fruit size, quality, delaying ripening and hastening ripening.

A501501 PRINCIPLES OF PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY 2
Concepts of Plant Biotechnology: History of Plant Tissue Culture and Plant Genetic Engineering; Scope and importance in Crop Improvement: Totipotency and Morphogenesis, Nutritional requirements of in-vitro cultures; Techniques of In-vitro cultures, Micro propagation, Anther culture, Pollen culture, Ovule culture, Embryo culture, Test tube fertilization, Endosperm culture, Factors affecting above in-vitro culture; Applications and Achievements; Somaclonal variation, Types, Reasons: Somatic embryogenesis and synthetic seed production technology; Protoplast isolation, Culture, Manipulation and Fusion; Products of somatic hybrids and cybrids, Applications in crop improvement. Genetic engineering; Restriction enzymes; Vectors for gene transfer – Gene cloning – Direct and indirect method of gene transfer – Transgenic plants and their applications. Blotting techniques – DNA finger printing – DNA based markers – RFLP, AFLP, RAPD, SSR and DNA Probes – Mapping QTL – Future prospects. MAS, and its application in crop improvement.
A501502 LAB - PRINCIPLES OF PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY 1
Requirements for Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory; Techniques in Plant Tissue Culture; Media components and preparations; Sterilization techniques and Inoculation of various explants; Aseptic manipulation of various explants; Callus induction and Plant Regeneration; Micro propagation of important crops; Anther, Embryo and Endosperm culture; Hardening / Acclimatization of regenerated plants; Somatic embryogenesis and synthetic seed production; Isolation of protoplast; Demonstration of Culturing of protoplast; Demonstration of Isolation of DNA; Demonstration of Gene transfer techniques, direct methods; Demonstration of Gene transfer techniques, indirect methods; Demonstration of Confirmation of Genetic transformation; Demonstration of gel-electrophoricsis techniques.
A501503 CROP PESTS AND STORED GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT 2

Stored grain pests: Coleopteran and Lepidopteran pests, their biology and damage, preventive and curative methods. Distribution, biology, nature and symptoms of damage, and management strategies of insect and non insect pests of rice, sorghum, maize, ragi (Eleucine coracana), wheat, sugarcane, cotton, mesta, sunhemp, pulses, groundnut, castor, gingerly, safflower, sunflower, mustard, brinjal, bhendi, tomato, cruciferous and cucurbitaceous vegetables, potato, sweet potato, colacasia, moringa, amaranthus, chillies, mango, citrus, grapevine, cashew, banana, pomegranate, guava, sapota, ber, apple, coconut, tobacco, coffee, tea, turmeric, betelvine, onion, coriander, garlic, curry leaf, pepper, ginger and ornamental plants.


A501504 LAB - CROP PESTS AND STORED GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT 1
Identification of pests, their damage symptoms and management of rice, sorghum, maize, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, pulses, Solanaceous and Malvaceous vegetables, cruciferous and cucurbitaceous vegetables, chilli, mango, carbon, citrus and sapota.
A501505 FUNDAMENTALS OF AGRI-BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 2
Agribusiness: Meaning, Definition, Structure of Agribusiness, (Input, Farm, Product Sectors). Importance of Agribusiness in the Indian Economy, Agricultural Policy. Agribusiness Management, Distinctive features, Importance of Good Management, Definitions of Management. Management Functions, Planning, Meaning, Definition, Types of Plans (Purpose or Mission, Goals or Objectives, Strategies, Polices, Procedures, rules, programmes, Budget) characteristics of sound plan, Steps in planning, Organization, Staffing, Directing, Motivation, Ordering, Leading, Supervision, Communication, control. Capital Management. Financial Management of Agribusiness: Importance of Financial Statements, Balance sheet, Profit and Loss Statement, Analysis of Financial statements. Agro-based Industries: Importance and Need, Classification of Industries, Types of Agro-based Industries, Institutional arrangement, Procedure to set up agro-based industries, Constraints in establishing agro-based industries. Marketing Management: Meaning, Definitions, Marketing Mix, 4Ps of Marketing. Mix, Market segmentation, Methods of Market, Product life cycle. Pricing policy, Meaning, pricing method. Prices at various stages of Marketing. Project, definitions, project cycle, Identification, Formulation, Appraisal, Implementation, Monitoring and evaluation, Appraisal and Evaluation techniques, NPW, BCR, IRR, N/K ratio, sensitivity analysis, characteristics of agricultural projects: preparation of project reports for various activities in agriculture and allied sectors: Dairying, poultry, fisheries, agro-industries etc.
A501506 LAB - FUNDAMENTALS OF AGRI-BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 1
Study of input markets: seed, fertilizers, pesticides. Study of output markets, grains, fruits, vegetables, flowers. Study of product markets, retail trade commodity trading, and value added products. Study of financing institutions cooperatives commercial banks, RRBs, Agribusiness Finance Limited, NABARD; Preparations of projects, Feasibility reports; Project appraisal techniques; Case study of agro-based industries.
A501507 DISEASES OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT 2
Economic Importance, symptoms, cause, disease cycle and integrated management of diseases of: citrus, mango, banana, grapevine, pomegranate, papaya, guava, sapota, apple, chilli, brinjal, bhendi, potato, crucifers, cucurbits, tomato, beans, onion, coconut, oil palm, betelvine, mulberry, coffee, tea, rose, chrysanthemum and jasmine.
A501508 LAB - DISEASES OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT 1
Diseases of beans, citrus, guava, & sapota; Diseases of papaya, banana, pomegranate & ber; Diseases of mango, grapes & apple; Diseases of chilli, brinjal & bhendi; Diseases of potato, tomato & crucifers; Diseases of cucurbits, onion & betelvine; Diseases of oil palm, coconut, tea, coffee & mulberry; Diseases of rose, chrysanthemum and jasmine. Field visits at appropriate time during the semester.

Note: Students should submit 50 pressed, well mounted diseased specimens in three installments during the semester.


A501509 POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT AND VALUE ADDITION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 1
Importance of post harvest technology in horticultural crops. Maturity indices, harvesting and post harvest handling of fruits and vegetables. Maturity and ripening process. Factors affecting ripening of fruits, and vegetables. Pre harvest factors affecting quality on post harvest shelf life of fruits and vegetables. Factors responsible for detioration of harvested fruits and vegetables. Chemicals used for hastening and delaying ripening of fruits and vegetables. Methods of storage – precooling, prestorage treatments, low temperature storage, controlled atmospheric storage, hypobaric storage, irradiation and low cost storage structures. Various methods of packing, packaging materials and transport. Packing technology for export. Fabrication of types of containers, cushioning material, vacuum packing, poly shrink packing, specific packing for export of mango, banana, grapes kinnow, sweet orange, and mandarin etc. Importance and scope of fruit and vegetable preservation in India. Principles of preservation by heat, low temperature, chemicals and fermentation. Unit layout – selection of site and precautions for hygienic conditions of the unit. Preservation through canning, bottling, freezing, dehydration, drying, ultraviolet and ionizing radiations. Preparation of jams, jellies, marmalades, candies, crystallized and glazed fruits, preserves, chutneys, pickles, ketchup, sauce, puree, syrups, juices, squashes and cordials Spoilage of canned products, biochemical, enzymatic and microbial spoilage. Preservatives, Colours permitted and prohibited in India.
A501510 LAB -POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT AND VALUE ADDITION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 1
Practice in judging the maturity of various fruits and vegetables. Conservation of zero energy cool chambers for on farm storage. 3& 4. Determination of physiological loss in weight (PLW), total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars, acidity and ascorbic and content in fruits and vegetables. Packing methods and types of packing and importance of ventilation. Pre cooling packing methods for export or international trade. Methods of prolonging storage life. Effect of ethylene on ripening of banana, sapota, mango, sapota. Identification of equipment and machinery used is preservation of fruits and vegetables. Preservation by drying and dehydration. Preparation of jam, jelly and marmalades. Preparation of squash, cordials and syrups. Preparation of chutneys, pickles sauces and ketchup. Visit to local processing units. Visit to local market yards and cold storage units. Visit to local market and packing industries.
A501511 PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF SPICES, AROMATIC, MEDICINAL AND PLANTATION CROPS 1
Importance and cultivation technology of Spices – ginger, turmeric, pepper, cardamom, coriander, cumin, fenugreek; Aromatic crops – lemon grass, citronella, palmarose, vetiver, geranium, dawana; Plantation crops – coconut, arecanut, betelvine, cashew, cocoa, coffee, oilpalm; Medicinal plants – diascoria, rauvolfia, opium, ocimum, perwinkle, aloe, guggul, belladonna, nuxvomica, Solanum khasiamum , aonla,senna, plantago, stevia,coleus and Acorus.
A501512 LAB - PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF SPICES, AROMATIC, MEDICINAL AND PLANTATION CROPS 1
Botanical description and identification of aromatic plants; Identification of varieties in spices and plantation crops; Identification of medicinal plants; Propagation techniques in aromatic and spice crops; Selection of mother palm, and seed nuts in coconut and oil palm; Study of identification of aromatic plants; Distillation procedures for aromatic crops; Propagation methods in plantation crops; Propagation and planting methods in turmeric; Propagation and planting techniques in ginger; Harvesting procedures in aromatic plants; Processing and curing of spices (ginger, turmeric and black pepper); Training methods in betel vine; Rejuvenation practices in cashew nut; Products – byproducts of spices and plantation crops; Procedures for oleoresin extraction; Visit to local commercial plantations. Aromatic & medicinal plant nurseries and seed spices field.

A501513 FUNDAMENTALS OF RURAL SOCIOLOGY AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 2
Extension Education and Agricultural Extension – Meaning, Definition, Scope and Importance. Sociology and Rural Sociology, Meaning, Definition, Scope, Importance of Rural Sociology in Agricultural Extension and Interrelationship between Rural Sociology & Agricultural Extension. Indian Rural Society, Important characteristics, Differences and Relationship between Rural and Urban societies. Social Groups – Meaning, Definition, Classification, Factors considered in formation and organization of groups, Motivation in group formation and Role of Social groups in Agricultural Extension. Social Stratification – Meaning, Definition, Functions, Basis for stratification, Forms of Social stratification – Characteristics and – Differences between Class & Caste System. Cultural concepts – Culture, Customs, Folkways, Mores, Taboos, Rituals and Traditions – Meaning, Definition and their Role in Agricultural Extension. Social Values and Attitudes – Meaning, Definition, Types and Role of Social Values and Attitudes in Agricultural Extension. Social Institutions – Meaning, Definition, Major institutions in Rural society, Functions and their Role in Agricultural Extension. Social Organizations – Meaning, Definition, Types of organizations and Role of Social organizations in Agricultural Extension. Social Control – Meaning, Definition, Need of social control and Means of Social control. Social change – Meaning, Definition, Nature of Social change, Dimensions of social change and factors of social change. Leadership – Meaning, Definition, Classification, Roles of a leader, Different methods of Selection of Professional and Lay leaders. Training of Leaders – Meaning, Definition, Methods of training, Advantages and Limitations in use of local leaders in Agricultural Extension. Psychology and Educational Psychology – Meaning, Definition, Scope and Importance of Educational Psychology in Agricultural Extension. Intelligence – Meaning, Definition, Types, Factors affecting intelligence and Importance of intelligence in Agricultural Extension. Personality – Meaning, Definition, Types, Factors influencing the Personality and Role of personality in Agricultural Extension. Teaching – Learning process – Meaning and Definition of Teaching, Learning, Learning experience and Learning situation, Elements of learning situation and its characteristics. Principles of learning and their implication for teaching.
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