University college of agriculture



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A501206 LAB - SOIL CHEMISTRY, SOIL FERTILITY AND NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT 1
Principles of analytical instruments and their calibration and applications, Colorimetry and flame photometry. Estimation of available N, P, K, S, and Zn in soils, pH, EC, carbonates, bicarbonates, Calcium and magnesium in soil and water. Lime requirement and gypsum requirement of problem soils. Estimation of N, P and K in plants.

A501207 FUNDAMENTALS OF NEMATOLOGY 1
Introduction: History of phytonematology. Economic importance. General characteristics of plant pathogenic nematodes. Nematode general morphology and biology. Classification of nematodes upto family level with emphasis on groups containing economically important genera. Classification of nematodes by habitat. Identification of economically important plant nematodes upto generic level with the help of keys and description. Symptoms caused by nematodes with examples. Interaction between plant parasitic nematodes and disease causing fungi, bacteria and viruses. Different methods of nematode management. Cultural methods (crop rotation, fallowing, soil amendments, other land management techniques), physical methods (soil solarisation, hot water treatment) Biological methods, Chemical methods (fumigants, non fumigants). Resistant varieties. IDM.
A501208 LAB - FUNDAMENTALS OF NEMATOLOGY 1
Methods of survey – sampling methods, collection of soil and plant samples; Extraction of nematodes from soil and plant tissues following combined Cobb’ s decanting – sieving and Baermann funnel technique, counting and estimation of plant parasitic nematodes; Preparation of temporary and permanent mounts; Method of preparation of perineal patterns for identification of species of Meloidogyne; Study and identification of most important plant parasitic nematodes with special reference to their characteristics and symptomtolgy – Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus; Heterodera, Ditylenchus, Globodera, Tylenchulus, Xiphinema, Radopholus, Rotylenchulus, and Helicotylenchus. Experimental techniques used in pathogenicity studies with root knot nematode.
A501209 AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY 2
History of Microbiology: Spontaneous generation theory, Role of microbes in fermentation, Germ theory of disease, Protection against infections, Applied areas of Microbiology Metabolism in bacteria: ATP generation, chemoautotrophy, photo autotrophy, respiration, fermentation. Bacteriophages: structure and properties of Bacterial viruses – Lytic and Lysogenic cycles: viroids, prions. Bacterial genetics; Gene expression; Genetic recombination: transformation, conjugation and transduction, genetic engineering, Plasmids, episomes, genetically modified Organisms. Soil Microbiology: Microbial groups in soil, microbial transformations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur, Biological nitrogen fixation. Microflora of Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere Microflora, microbes in composting. Microbiology of Water. Microbiology of food: microbial spoilage and principles of food preservation. Beneficial microorganisms in Agriculture: Biofertilizer (Bacterial Cyanobacterial and Fungal), microbial insecticides, Microbial agents for control of Plant diseases, Biodegradation, Biogas production, Biodegradable plastics, Plant – Microbe interactions.
A501210 LAB - AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY 1
General instructions, Familiarization with instruments, materials, glassware etc. in a microbiology laboratory : Practice of Aseptic methods: I -Evaluation of aseptic technique with Nutrient broth tubes. II-Evaluation of aseptic technique with a Nutrient agar plate. Methods of Sterilization and Preparation of media I-Preparation of nutrient broth, nutrient agar plates, nutrient agar slant and nutrient agar stabling; II-Sterilization of glassware by Dry heating; III -Sterilization of nutrient broth by Filtration. Plating methods for Isolation and Purification of bacteria I -Isolation of bacteria by Streak plate method. II -Isolation of aerobic spore forming bacteria by Enrichment using Streak plate method. III -Checking of purity of a bacterial culture by Streak plating method. Identification of bacteria by staining methods and Biochemical tests: I– Morphological examination of bacteria by Simple and Differential staining. II – Different biochemical tests for identification of bacterial culture; Enumeration of bacteria: I -Enumeration of bacteria by Stain slide method. II-Enumeration of bacteria by Most probable number method. III -Enumeration of bacteria by Pour plate method and Spread plate method.
A501211 PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 2
Economics: Meaning, Definition, Subject matter, Divisions of Economics, Importance of Economics; Agricultural Economics: Meaning, Definition; Basic Concepts: Goods, Service, Utility, Value, Price, Wealth, Welfare. Wants: Meaning, Characteristics, Classifications of Wants, Importance. Theory of consumption: Law of Diminishing Marginal utility, Meaning, Definition, Assumption, Limitations, Importance. Consumer’s surplus: Meaning, Definition, Importance. Demand: Meaning, Definition, Kinds of Demand, Demand schedule, Demand Curve, Law of Demand, Extension and Contraction Vs Increase and Decrease in Demand. Elasticity of Demand: Types of Elasticity of Demand, Degrees of price elasticity of Demand, Methods of Measuring Elasticity, Factors influencing elasticity of Demand, Importance of Elasticity of Demand. Welfare Economics: Meaning, Pareto’s optimality. National Income: Concepts, Measurement. Public Finance: Meaning, Principles. Public Resource: Meaning, Services Tax, Meaning, And Classification of Taxes: Cannons of Taxation, Public expenditure: Meaning, Principles. Inflation: Meaning, Definition, Kinds of inflation.
A501212 DIMENSIONS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION 2
Education – Meaning, Definition, Types – Formal, Informal and Non-formal education and their Characteristics. Extension Education and Agricultural Extension – Meaning, Definition, Concepts, Objectives and Principles. Rural development – Meaning, Definition, Concepts, Objectives, Importance and Problems in rural development. Developmental programmes of pre-independence era – Sriniketan, Marthandam, Gurgaon experiment and Gandhian constructive proprogramme. Development programmes of Post independence era, Firka Development, Etawah – Pilot project and Nilokheri Experiment. Community Development Programme – Meaning, Definition, Concepts, Philosophy, Principles, Objectives, Differences between Community Development and Extension Education, National Extension service. Panchayat Raj system – Meaning of Democratic – Decentralization and Panchayat Raj, Three tiers of Panchayat Raj system, Powers, Functions and Organizational setup. Agricultural Development Programmes with reference to year of start, objectives & sailent features – Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP), Institution Village Linkage Programme (IVLP), Watershed Development Programme (WDP), National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP), ATMA, ATIC. Social Justice and Poverty alleviation programmes – Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA), Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), Swarna Jayanthi Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY), Prime Minsiter Employment Yojana (CMEY). New trends in extension, privatization. Women Development programmes – Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA), Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK), Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) and Mahila Samriddi Yojana (MSY). Reorganized extension system (T&V System) – Salient features, Fortnight Meetings, Monthly workshops, Linkages, Merits and Demerits, Emergence of Broad Based Extension (BBE).

A501213 LAB -INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 1
Practicing WINDOWS Operating System, Use of Mouse, Title Bar, Minimum, Maximum and Close Buttons, Scroll Bars, Menus and Tool Bars; WINDOWS Explorer, Creating Folders, COPY and PASTE functions; MSACCESS: Creating Database, Structuring with different types of fields; MS Power Point: Preparation of slides on Power Point; Transforming the data of WORD, EXCEL and ACCESS to other formats.
A501214 ZOOLOGY I 3
Introduction to Zoology. Structure of animal cell and its organelles. Differences between animal and plant cell. Cell divisionmitosis. Elementary knowledge of chemical constituents of living bodies- proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and enzymes. Types of animal tissues. Salient features of classification of animals (non-chordates upto phylum level and chordates upto class level with examples). Binomial nomenculature. Study of external characters, habits and habitat of Amoeba, Entamoeba, a sponge, Hydra, liverfluke, Ascaris, tape worm, earthworm, cockroach, grass-hopper, snail, starfish, fish, frog, snake, lizard, pigeon and rabbit. Study of different systems of earthworm and cockroach. Zoological parks and museums. Origin of life and evolution.
A501215 Lab-ZOOLOGY I
Microscopic study of animal cell, cell division and animal tissues. General survey of animal kingdom. Study of the characteristic features of different animal types. Dissection of earthworm and cockroach. Visit to a Zoological museum/park.
A501216 MATHEMATICS-II 3
Definition of function. Limit. Continuity. Differentiation, successive differentiation, geometrical interpretation of derivative. Indefinite integration, integration by substitution, partial fractions and their use in integration. Integration by parts.
A501217 LAB-MATHEMATICS-II 1
Tutorials on: limit, continuity, differentiation, successive differentiation, indefinite integration, integration by substitution, partial fractions and their application in integration. Integration by parts.
A501301 FIELD CROPS-I (KHARIF) 2
Origin, geographic distribution, economi3c importance, soil and climatic requirement, varieties, cultural practices and yield of kharif crops, Cereals – rice, maize, sorghum, pearl millet and minor millets; Pulses : pigeonpea, mungbean and urdbean; Oilseeds: groundnut, sesame and soybean; Fibre crops: cotton, jute and sunhemp; and Forage crops: sorghum, maize, cowpea, cluster bean and napier.

A501302 LAB-FIELD CROPS-I (KHARIF) 1
Study of tillage implements. Practice of ploughing and puddling. Seed bed preparation, sowing, fertilizer application, nursery raising and transplanting of Kharif crops. Calculations of seed rate. Effect of seed size and sowing depth on germination. Identification of weeds of Kharif crops. Fertilizer experiments on rice, maize, sorghum and millets. Study of yield components. Study of crop varieties and important agronomic experiments. Study of forage crops.
A501303 PRINCIPLES OF PLANT BREEDING 2
Classification of plants, Botanical description, floral biology, Emasculation and Pollination techniques in cereals, millets, pulses, oil seeds, fibers, plantation crops etc. Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding; Modes of reproduction, Sexual, Asexual, Apomixis and their classification; Significance in plant breeding; Modes of pollination, genetic consequences, differences between self and cross pollinated crops; Methods of breeding – introduction and acclimatization. Selection, Mass selection Johannson’ s pure line theory, genetic basis, pure line selection; Hybridization, Aims and objectives, types of hybridization; Methods of handling of segregating generations, pedigree method, bulk method, back cross method and various modified methods; Incompatibility and male sterility and their utilization in crop improvement; Heterosis, inbreeding depression, various theories of Heterosis, exploitation of hybrid vigour development of inbred lines, single cross and double cross hybrids; Population improvement programmes, recurrent selection, synthetics and composites; Methods of breeding for vegetative propagated crops; Clonal selection; Mutation breeding; Ploidy breeding;


A501304 LAB - PRINCIPLES OF PLANT BREEDING 1
Botanical description and floral biology; Study of megasporogenesis and

microsporogenesis; Fertilization and life cycle of an angiospermic plant; Plant Breeder’ s kit; Hybridization techniques and precautions to be taken; Floral morphology, selfing, emasculation and crossing techniques; Study of male sterility and incomparability in field plots; Rice and Sorghum; Maize and Wheat; Bajra and ragi; Sugarcane and coconut; Groundnut, Castor, Safflower and Sesamum; Red gram, Bengal gram and Green gram; Soybean and black gram; Chillies, Brinjal and Tomato; Bhendi, Onion, Bottle gourd and Ridge gourd; Cotton and Mesta; Jute and Sun hemp Wide hybridization, significance in crop improvement.


A501305 INSECT MORPHOLOGY AND SYSTEMATIC 2
History of Entomology in India. Factors for insects abundance. Classification of phylum Arthropoda upto classes. Relationship of class Insecta with other classes of Arthropoda. Morphology: Structure and functions of insect cuticle and moulting. Body segmentation. Structure of Head, thorax and abdomen. Structure and modifications of insect antennae, mouth parts and legs. Wing venation, modifications and wing coupling apparatus. Structure male and female genetalia. Sensory organs. Metamorphosis and diapause in insects. Types of larvae and pupae. Structure and functions of digestive, circulatory, excretory, respiratory, nervous, secretory (Endocrine) and reproductive system in insects. Types of reproduction in insects. Systematics: Taxonomy –importance, history and development and binomial nomenclature. Definitions of Biotype, Sub-species, Species, Genus, Family and Order. Classification of class Insecta upto Orders. Orthoptera, Acrididae. Dictyoptera, Mantidae, Odonata, Isoptera, Termitidae, Thysanoptera, Thripidae, Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Lygaeidae, Cicadellidae, Delphacidae, Aphididae, Coccidae, Aleurodidae, Pseudococcidae, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Sphingidae, Pyralidae, Gelechiidae, Arctiidae, Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Bruchidae, Scarabaeidae, Hymenoptera, Tenthridinidae, Apidae, Trichogrammatidae, Ichneumonidae, Braconidae, Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Trypetidae, Tachinidae, Agromyziidae.
A501306 LAB - INSECT MORPHOLOGY AND SYSTEMATIC 1
Methods of collection and preservation of insects including immature stages; External features of Grasshopper/Blister beetle; Types of insect antennae, mouthparts and legs; Wing venation, types of wings and wing coupling apparatus Types of insect larvae and pupae; Dissection of digestive system in insects (Grasshopper); Dissection of male and female reproductive systems in insects (Grasshopper); Study of characters of orders Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Odonata, Isoptera, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Neuroptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera and their families of agricultural importance’s
A501307 FARM POWER AND MACHINERY 2
Farm power in India: sources, I.C engines, working principles, two stroke and four stroke engines, I.C. engine terminology, different systems of I.C. engine. Tractors, Types, Selection of tractor and cost of tractor power. Tillage implements: Primary and Secondary tillage implements, Implements for intercultural operations, seed drills, paddy transplanters, plant protection equipment and harvesting equipment; Equipment for land development and soil conservation.
A501308 LAB - FARM POWER AND MACHINERY 1
Study of different components of I.C. Engine; Study of working of four stroke engine; Study of working of two stroke engine; Study of M.B. plough, measurement of plough size, different parts, horizontal and vertical suction, determination of line of pull etc.; Study of disc plough; Study of seed–cum-fertilizer drills-furrow opener, metering mechanism, and calibration; Study, maintenance and operation of tractor; Learning of tractor driving; Study, maintenance and operation of power tiller; Study of different parts, registration, alignment and operation of mower. Study of different inter cultivation equipment in terms of efficiency, field capacity; Repairs and adjustments and operation of sprayers; Repairs and adjustments and operation of dusters; Study of paddy transplanters.
A501309 PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF VEGETABLES AND FLOWERS 2
Importance of Olericulture, vegetable gardens, vegetable classification. Origin, area, production, varieties, package of practices for fruit vegetables –, tomato, brinjal, chillies, and okera; Cucurbitaceous vegetables cucumber, ridge gourd, ash gourd, snake gourd, bottle gourd, bitter gourd and melons, Cole crops – cabbage, cauliflower and knol-khol. Bulb crops – onion and garlic. Beans and peas – French beans, cluster beans, dolichos beans, peas and cowpea. Tuber crops – potato, sweet potato, tapioca, colocasia, yams; Root crops – carrot, radish, turnip and beet root; Leafy vegetables – amaranthus, palak, gogu; Perennial vegetables – drumstick, coccinia and curry leaf. Importance of ornamental gardens. Planning of ornamental gardens. Types and styles of ornamental gardens. Use of trees, shrubs, climbers, palms, houseplants and seasonal flowers in the gardens. Package of practices for rose, jasmine, chrysanthemum, crossandra, marigold and tuberose.
A501310 LAB -PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF VEGETABLES AND FLOWERS 1
Planning and layout of kitchen garden; 2 Identification of important vegetable seeds and plants; Raising of vegetable nurseries; Identification of ornamental plants (trees ,shrubs,climbers,house plants, palms etc.,) and development of garden features; Transplanting of vegetable seedlings in main field; Layout of lawns and maintenance; Seed extraction in tomato and brinjal; Depotting, repotting and maintenance of house plants; Visit to commercial vegetable farms; Training and pruning of rose (standards, hybrid ‘T’ roses cented roses) and chrysanthemum (pinching and disbudding); Planning and layout of gardens and garden designs for public and private areas; Intercultural operations in vegetable plots; Seed production in vegetable crops; Harvesting indices of different vegetable crops; Grading and packing of vegetables; Prolonging the shelflife of cut flowers
A501311 CROP PHYSIOLOGY 2
Introduction and importance of crop physiology in agriculture. Seed structure. Morpho-physiological

and biochemical changes during seed development. Physiological and harvestable maturity. Seed

germination and seed dormancy. Growth and development. Crop water relations. Transpiration and its significance in relation to crop productivity. Water use efficiency. Significance of C3. C4 and CAM pathways. Photorespiration. Photosynthesis and crop productivity. Translocation of assimilates. Source and sink concept. Respiration. its types and significance. Mineral nutrition. Physiology of nutrient uptake. deficiency and toxicity symptoms and hydroponics. Photoperiodism and vernalization. Plant growth regulators-occurrence. Biosynthesis. mode of action and commercial applications. Senescence and abscission. Fruit ripening and its hormonal regulation.
A501312 LAB - CROP PHYSIOLOGY 1
Seed structure. germination and seed dormancy. Growth analysis. Calculation of growth parameters.

Methods of measuring water status in roots. stems and leaves. Measurement of water potential.

Absorption spectrum of chloroplastic pigments. Transpiration. Photosynthesis and respiration.

Stomatal frequency and index. Deficiency symptoms of nutrients. Leaf anatomy of C3 and C4 plants.


A501313 LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT 2
Place of livestock in the national economy, different livestock development programmes of Govt. of India. Important exotic and Indian breeds of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and swine. Measures and factors affecting fertility in livestock, reproductive behaviour like oestrus, parturition, farrowing etc. Milk secretion, milking of animals and factors affecting milk yield and composition. Selection and breeding of livestock for higher milk and meat production. Feeding and management of calves, growing heifers and milch animals and other classes and types of animals, housing principles, space requirements for different species of livestock. Disease control measures, sanitation and care, breeding, feeding and production records. Breed characteristics of poultry, their methods of rearing, breeding, feeding and management, incubation, hatching and brooding, vaccination and prevention of diseases, preservation and marketing of eggs, its economics and keeping quality. Cost of production of milk, economical units of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and swine.
A501314 LAB - LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT 1
Identification, handling and restraining of animals; Judging and culling; Feeding and ration formulation; Hatching, housing and management of poultry; Visit to livestock farms and Economics of livestock production.
A501315 AGRICULTURAL FINANCE AND CO-OPERATION 2
Agricultural finance: nature and scope. Time value of money, Compounding and Discounting. Agricultural credit: meaning, definition, need, classification. Credit analysis: 4R’ s 5C’ s and 7 P’ s of credit, repayment plans. History of financing agriculture in India. Commercial banks, nationalization of commercial banks. Lead bank scheme, regional rural banks, scale of finance. Higher financing agencies, RBI, NABARD, AFC, Asian Development Bank, World Bank, Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation of India. Assessment of crop losses, determination of compensation. Crop insurance, advantages and limitations in application, estimation of crop yields. Agricultural cooperation: philosophy and principles. History of Indian cooperative Movement, pre-independence and post independence periods, cooperation in different plan periods, cooperative credit structure: PACS, FSCS. Reorganization of cooperative credit structure in Andhra Pradesh and single window system. Successful cooperative systems in Gujarat, Maharashtra. Punjab etc.
A501401 FIELD CROPS-II (RABI) 2
Origin, geographical distribution, economic importance, soil and climatic requirements, varieties, cultural practices and yield of rabi crops; Cereals: wheat, barley; Pulses: chickpea, lentil, peas, french bean; Oilseeds: rapeseed and mustard, sunflower, safflower and linseed; Sugar crops: sugarcane and sugarbeet, Medicinal and aromatic crops such as mentha, lemon grass, citronella, palma rosa, isabgol and posta; Commercial crops: potato and tobacco, Forage crops: berseem, lucerne and oat.
A501402 LAB-FIELD CROPS-II (RABI) 1
Study of manures, fertilizers and green manure crops. Study of interculture implements.

Methods of fertilizer application. Seed bed preparation and sowing of wheat, sugarcane and

sunflower. Calculations of seed rate. Identification of weeds in wheat and grain legumes.

Morphological characteristics of wheat, sugarcane, chickpea and mustard. Yield components of



wheat and sugarcane.
A501403 BREEDING OF FIELD / HORTICULTURE CROPS 2
Breeding objectives and important concepts of breeding self pollinated, cross pollinated and vegetatively propagated crops; Hardy-Weinberg Law; Study in respect of origin, distribution of species, wild relatives and forms, Cereals, (rice, wheat, maize, millets, sorghum, bajra, ragi); Pulses (redgram, greengram, blackgram, soybean); Oilseeds (Groundnut, sesame, sunflower, safflower, castor, mustard) etc. Fibers (Cotton, kenaf, roselle, jute) etc. Vegetables (Tomato, bhindi, chilli, cucumbers); Flowers crops (Chrysanthemum, rose, galardia, gerbera & marigold); Fruit crops (aonla, guava, mango, custard apple, banana, papaya); Major breeding procedures for development of hybrids / varieties of various crops; Plant Genetic Resources their conservation and utilization in crop improvement; Ideotype concept in crop improvement; Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses variability in pathogens and pests; Mechanisms of resistance in plant to pathogens and pest; Genetic basis of adaptability to unfavourable environments; Definition of biometrics, assessment of variability i.e., additive, dominance and epistasis and their differentiation; Genotype x Environment interaction and influence on yield/performance. IPR and its related issues.
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