Disorders outlined by DSM-5 are reliable thus diagnosis by different professional are similar.
Others criticize DSM-5 for “putting any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry.”
Labeling Psychological Disorders
Critics of the DSM-IV manual for identifying disorders argue that labels can stigmatize individuals.
On the Psychopathology Zimbardo video, psychologist David Rosenhans talked about his study where he faked a mental illness.
When he informed the hospital of his normal mental state he was released as mentally ill but in remission. He had been diagostically labeled as mentally ill, even though he was quite normal.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension.
2. Autonomic nervous system arousal.
3. Unable to identify or avoid the cause of their feelings.
An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by: a. linkage analysis. b. a biopsychosocial approach. c. the medical model. d. the learning perspective.
A current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders is known as the: a. DID. b. medical model. c. DSM-V. d. biopsychosocial approach.
Brian often interrupts his teacher while she is speaking and frequently forgets to complete his homework assignments. He also has difficulty taking turns in playground games with classmates. Brian most clearly exhibits symptoms of: a. DID. b. OCD. c. PTSD. d. ADHD
After participants in one study were informed that a videotaped interviewee was a psychiatric patient, they characterized the person with phrases such as “a passive type” and “frightened of his own impulses.” This study best illustrated the: a. dangers of dissociative identity disorder. b. unreliability of the DSM-IV. c. biasing power of diagnostic labels. d. shortcomings of the social-cognitive perspective.
The woman featured on a Today Show segment, Sandy Smith, suffered from panic attacks.
She suffered from short, intense periods of dread along with dizziness and trembling.
Anxiety Disorder: Phobia, 662
persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation
Today show video segment on phobias shown in class:
Diane Rivero has a fear of driving on a certain kind of bridge.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, 663
Persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urge to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions) that cause distress.
Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Having a sense of being unreal.
2. Being separated from the body.
3. Watching yourself as if in a movie.
Lenore is unexplainably and continually tense and is plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from a(n): a. phobia. b. dysthymic disorder. c. obsessive-compulsive disorder. d. generalized anxiety disorder.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 664
Four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
3. Social withdrawal.
4. Jumpy anxiety.
5. Sleep problems.
Major Depressive Disorder
Major depressive disorder occurs when signs of depression last two weeks or more and are not caused by drugs or medical conditions.
Years after he barely survived a terrorist attack that killed his wife and two children, Mr. Puskari suffers recurring flashbacks and frequent nightmares of the event that render him incapable of holding a steady job. Mr. Puskari is most clearly showing signs of: a. obsessive-compulsive disorder. b. generalized anxiety disorder. c. post-traumatic stress disorder. d. dissociative identity disorder.
Neurotransmitters & Depression, 678
Reduction of norepinephrine and serotonin has been implicated in depression.
Literal translation “split mind”. A group of severe disorders characterized by:
Disorganized and delusional thinking.
Disturbed perceptions (hallucinations)
Inappropriate emotions and actions.
Although Mark realizes that his behavior is unreasonable, he is so alarmed by high bridges or expressway overpasses that he avoids them by taking an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Mark appears to suffer from a(n): a. obsessive-compulsive disorder. b. mood disorder. c. phobia. d. generalized anxiety disorder.
Elaine feels that her life is empty, has lost all interest in her career and hobbies, and wonders if she would be better off dead. She is most likely suffering from: a. a dissociative disorder. b. antisocial personality disorder. c. a mood disorder. d. agoraphobia.
1. Disorganized & Delusional Thinking, 684
Other forms of delusions include, delusions of persecution (“someone is following me”) or grandeur (“I am a king”).
“This morning when I was at Hillside [Hospital], I was making a movie. I was surrounded by movie stars … I’m Mary Poppins. Is this room painted blue to get me upset? My grandmother died four weeks after my eighteenth birthday.”
This monologue illustrates fragmented, bizarre thinking with distorted beliefs, called delusions (“I’m Mary Poppins”).
Mrs. Higgins believes that aliens from another planet have removed her stomach and are watching her to see how long it takes her to grow another one. Mrs. Higgins is most likely suffering from: a. agoraphobia. b. bipolar disorder. c. schizophrenia. d. a dissociative identity disorder.
Which of the following best illustrates a negative symptom of schizophrenia?: a. hallucinations b. delusions. c. social withdrawal d. inappropriate rage
Mr. James believes that people are constantly laughing at him and that FBI agents are trying to steal his life savings. Mr. James is most clearly suffering from: a. compulsions. b. catatonia. c. delusions. d. hallucinations.
Eating Disorders, 478
Anorexia Nervosa: A condition in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent woman) continuously loses weight but still feels overweight.
The analyst notes childhood issues, resistance to therapy and significant patient behaviors to promoteinsight in the patient.
The patient blocks from their conscious mind the events from the past that are causing them anxiety.
Dr. Davenport has to get Antwone to open up so they can explore the source of his rage.
The patient transfers emotions linked with other relationships to the therapist.
Ex. If the patient hates their father, they might hate the therapist.
(This can prevent the therapist from helping the patient.)
Kyle is extremely manipulative and can look anyone in the eye and lie convincingly. His deceit often endangers the safety and well-being of those around him, but he is indifferent to any suffering they might experience as a result of his actions. His behavior best illustrates: a. schizophrenia. b. bipolar disorder. c. obsessive-compulsive disorder. d. an antisocial personality disorder.
Client-centered therapists emphasize the importance of: a. interpreting the meaning of clients’ nonverbal behaviors. b. enabling clients to feel unconditionally accepted. c. helping clients identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences. d. discouraging clients from using antianxiety or antidepressant drugs.
Exposure Therapy, 717
Expose patients to things they fear and avoid.
Through repeated exposures, anxiety lessens because they habituate to the things feared.
Unlike the previous examples, In this case you want to eliminate a behavior
For example: With an alcoholic you want to teach the following association
nausea ---> alcohol
In order to help Janet overcome her nearly irresistible craving for chocolate, a therapist provides her with a supply of chocolate candies that contain solidified droplets of a harmless but very bitter-tasting substance. This approach to treatment best illustrates: a. systematic desensitization. b. light exposure therapy. c. aversive conditioning. d. stress inoculation training.
Behavior Therapy: Token Economy, 719
An operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior
Person exchanges a token of some sort--- earned for exhibiting the desired behavior--- for various privileges or treats
EXAMPLE: First, you set a goal: I want to lose ten pounds.
Reward yourself 1 “point” for every pound lost. When you get to ten, you get to go to a movie.
teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting
based on the assumption that negative thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
Albert Ellis and RET, 721
This was on the Zimbardo video
Ellis challenged his clients unreasonable attitudes and false beliefs
He called it Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)
Cognitive therapists often combine the reversal of self-defeated thinking with efforts to modify behavior.
Cognitive-behavior therapy aims to alter the way people act (behavior therapy) and alter the way they think (cognitive therapy).
Family therapy treats the family as a system. Therapy guides family members toward positive relationships and improved communication.
Focuses on tensions in the family that may causes individuals to experience mental disorders or problems
Several years after his wife’s death, Mr. Sanchez remains incapacitated by feelings of guilt and sadness. In order to reduce Mr. Sanchez’s depression, a therapist is actively encouraging him to stop blaming himself for not being able to prevent his wife’s death. The therapist’s approach is most representative of: a. systematic desensitization. b. psychoanalysis. c. cognitive therapy. d. client-centered therapy.
Does Therapy Work?
procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
a. meta-analysis: statistically combines results of many studies (meta=many)
a. meta-analysis: statistically combines results of many studies (meta=many)
b. regression toward the mean
the more something is done the closer it gets to average
Ex: the Milwaukee Brewers had a big lead early in the year, but the more games they played the closer they achieved to their ability: an average team
c. double blind studies neither researcher nor subjects know who gets treatment
Research concepts, 730
When people’s symptoms of psychological distress are at their worst, whatever they do to try to alleviate the condition is likely to be followed by improvement rather than further deterioration. This is best explained in terms of: a. systematic desensitization. b. the therapeutic alliance. c. counter-conditoning. d. regression toward the mean.
Placebo effect. 730
the phenomenon that a patient's symptoms can be alleviated by an otherwise ineffective treatment