Unit XI & V essay



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Unit XI & V
Essay
1. Professor Dement believes that different states of consciousness are each associated with increased levels of activity in specific, different parts of the brain. Develop at least one possible hypothesis Professor Dement might want to study to test this belief and design an experiment to test the hypothesis. Use the following terms correctly in your response.

Independent variable

Dependent variable

Operational definition

fMRI

Psychoactive drugs

REM sleep

Hypnosis


2. As you know, the Advanced Placement® (AP®) Psychology exam involves 100 multiple-choice questions and two free response essay questions. The goal of the exam is to accurately measure knowledge of psychological concepts and to communicate to colleges which students would most likely succeed in a college-level psychology course. Each year, few students receive composite scores of 1 and 5, and more students receive scores of 2, 3, or 4. Use the following terms to describe how the College Board® most likely developed and evaluates the AP® Psychology exam.

Recognition

Recall

Standardization

Normal curve

Reliability (test-retest reliability or split-half reliability)

Content validity

Predictive validity


Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. By 1960, the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists' renewed interest in

a.

perception.

b.

emotion.

c.

socialization.

d.

mental processes.

e.

mental health.



____ 2. Until reading this question you were unaware that your shoes are pressing against your feet. This focusing of your conscious attention, or selective attention, illustrates that

a.

consciousness is easily understood and defined.

b.

conscious awareness is one part of the dual processing that occurs in our two-track minds.

c.

the definition of consciousness is constantly evolving.

d.

behaviorism explains many psychological phenomena.

e.

advances in neuroscience make it possible to relate brain activity to our mental states.



____ 3. Consciousness is

a.

the ability to solve problems, reason, and remember.

b.

the sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem.

c.

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information.

d.

effortless encoding of incidental information into memory.

e.

our awareness of ourselves and our environment.



____ 4. Hypnosis involves a state of

a.

increased physical stamina.

b.

heightened openness to suggestion.

c.

improved perceptual skills.

d.

elevated autonomic arousal.

e.

low-amplitude and high-frequency brain waves.



____ 5. People are particularly responsive to hypnosis if they

a.

strongly expect that they can be hypnotized.

b.

are below average in intelligence and education.

c.

are easily distracted and have difficulty focusing attention.

d.

suffer a physical or psychological dependence on alcohol.

e.

were diagnosed with a psychological disorder at one time in their lives.



____ 6. Under hypnosis, Mrs. Mohammed is encouraged by her therapist to vividly experience and describe the details of an argument she had with her father when she was a child. The therapist is employing a technique called

a.

age regression.

b.

posthypnotic suggestion.

c.

paradoxical sleep.

d.

dissociation.

e.

posthypnotic amnesia.



____ 7. Which of the following is true of “hypnotically refreshed” memories?

a.

They are accurate except for minor details.

b.

The combine fact and fiction.

c.

They are difficult to dispute.

d.

They are produced by people looking for attention.

e.

They are the dissociated part of a person's memory.



____ 8. Just prior to awakening Chinua from a hypnotic state, the therapist told him that during the next few days he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette. Chinua's therapist was attempting to make use of

a.

age regression.

b.

posthypnotic suggestion.

c.

hypnagogic sensations.

d.

REM rebound.

e.

parallel processing.



____ 9. While Bev was hypnotized, her therapist suggested that during the next several days she would have a strong desire to eat well-balanced meals. The therapist was apparently making use of

a.

age regression.

b.

posthypnotic suggestion.

c.

activation-synthesis theory.

d.

posthypnotic amnesia.

e.

paradoxical sleep.



____ 10. Advocates of the social influence theory of hypnosis are likely to argue that

a.

hypnosis is a unique state of consciousness.

b.

hypnotized people are simply enacting the role of good hypnotic subjects.

c.

the process of dissociation best explains hypnotic phenomena.

d.

most hypnotized people are consciously faking hypnosis.

e.

hypnotic susceptibility is positively correlated with introversion.



____ 11. Dissociation refers to

a.

a state of divided consciousness.

b.

a state of paradoxical sleep.

c.

conscious enactment of a hypnotic role.

d.

nonconformity to social pressure.

e.

manifest content, which is separate from latent content.



____ 12. Those who emphasize that mood fluctuations may be indicative of seasonal affective disorder are highlighting the importance of

a.

neuroadaptation.

b.

alpha waves.

c.

biological rhythms.

d.

narcolepsy.

e.

REM sleep.



____ 13. With the approach of night, our body temperatures begin to drop. This best illustrates the dynamics of the

a.

hypnagogic state.

b.

circadian rhythm.

c.

alpha wave pattern.

d.

REM rebound.

e.

latent content.



____ 14. Cindi prefers to take exams in the late afternoon rather than during the morning, because her energy level and ability to concentrate are better at that time. Her experience most likely reflects the influence of the

a.

REM rebound.

b.

menstrual cycle.

c.

circadian rhythm.

d.

hypnagogic state.

e.

NREM sleep.



____ 15. Our inability to fall asleep early as we had planned is most likely a reflection of

a.

dissociation.

b.

narcolepsy.

c.

circadian rhythm.

d.

night terrors.

e.

sleep apnea.



____ 16. After four years of working nights, Raymond now works days. His present difficulty in getting to sleep at night is most likely due to a disruption of his normal

a.

circadian rhythm.

b.

hypnagogic sensations.

c.

alpha wave pattern.

d.

sleep apnea.

e.

physical dependence.



____ 17. Sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus are called

a.

night terrors.

b.

neuroadaptations.

c.

dissociations.

d.

hallucinations.

e.

stressors.



____ 18. Which of the following is most accurate about a typical night's sleep?

a.

The sleep cycle repeats itself every 60 minutes.

b.

During REM sleep the muscles are tense and brain waves reveal deep relaxation.

c.

As sleep progresses, NREM-3 sleep diminishes while REM sleep increases.

d.

Most of a night's sleep is spent in REM.

e.

Everyone needs 8 hours of sleep per night.



____ 19. After sleeping for about an hour and a half, José enters a phase of paradoxical sleep. He is likely to

a.

be easily awakened.

b.

have slower, more regular breathing.

c.

have slower brain waves.

d.

talk in his sleep.

e.

have very relaxed muscles.



____ 20. Forty-year-old Lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably

a.

experiences very little REM sleep.

b.

would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep.

c.

dreams during NREM-3 rather than during REM sleep.

d.

experiences more NREM-2 sleep than most people.

e.

passes through the sleep cycle much more rapidly than most people.



____ 21. How is the hypothalamus involved in sleep?

a.

Cell clusters in the hypothalamus stimulate the production of relatively slow alpha waves, signaling the transition from deep relaxation to sleep.

b.

The hypothalamus triggers the pituitary gland in the endocrine system to produce the hormone thyroxin, which leads you to sleep.

c.

During sleep the hypothalamus stimulates the production of free radicals, molecules that are toxic to neurons, which weakens unused connections.

d.

In response to decreasing light the hypothalamus' suprachiastmatic nucleus causes the pineal gland to increase production of melatonin, leading you to sleep.

e.

The action of the hypothalamus suppresses immune cell production that fights off viral infections and cancer.



____ 22. Chronic sleep debt is most likely to promote

a.

sleep apnea.

b.

obesity.

c.

insomnia.

d.

night terrors.

e.

withdrawal.



____ 23. Bats need a lot of sleep because their high waking metabolism produces ________ that are toxic to neurons.

a.

amphetamines

b.

hypnagogic sensations

c.

free radicals

d.

alpha waves

e.

opiates



____ 24. Deep sleep appears to play an important role in

a.

narcolepsy.

b.

sleep apnea.

c.

paradoxical sleep.

d.

posthypnotic amnesia.

e.

physical growth.



____ 25. Researchers have demonstrated that people trained to perform tasks recall them better after a night's sleep than after several hours awake. This finding suggests that sleep

a.

inspires creative achievements and problem solving.

b.

patterns suit a species' ecological niche.

c.

helps restore and repair brain tissue.

d.

plays a role in the growth process.

e.

is involved in the memory process.



____ 26. Layla has difficulty going to sleep and staying asleep. Layla is most likely suffering from

a.

sleep apnea.

b.

night terrors.

c.

hypnagogic sleep.

d.

insomnia.

e.

paradoxical sleep.



____ 27. Which of the following is true of night terrors?

a.

They are usually recalled vividly for days following their occurrence.

b.

They are typically accompanied by a state of temporary muscular immobility or paralysis.

c.

They jolt the sleeper to a sudden state of full waking alertness.

d.

They typically occur during NREM-3 sleep.

e.

They involve the temporary inability to breathe.



____ 28. Research studies of the content of dreams indicate that

a.

men are less likely than women to report dreams with sexual overtones.

b.

the genital arousal that occurs during sleep is typically related to sexual dreams.

c.

people are more likely to dream of failure than of success.

d.

most dreams are pleasant, exotic, and unrelated to ordinary daily life.

e.

hypnosis increases the amount of time we spend in NREM sleep, which interferes with dreams.



____ 29. After suffering a trauma, people commonly report an increase in

a.

sleep apnea.

b.

narcolepsy.

c.

threatening dreams.

d.

the hollow face illusion.

e.

latent content.



____ 30. Greg remembered a recent dream in which his girlfriend suddenly grabbed the wheel of his speeding car. Greg's therapist suggested that the dream might be a representation of the girlfriend's efforts to avoid sexual intimacy. According to Freud, the therapist was attempting to reveal the ________ of Greg's dream.

a.

neuroadaptation

b.

circadian rhythm

c.

latent content

d.

manifest content

e.

NREM cycle



____ 31. According to Freud, the personally threatening and censored meaning of a dream is its

a.

manifest content.

b.

dissociated content.

c.

latent content.

d.

hallucinatory content.

e.

social influence.



____ 32. Josef, a high school student, tells his therapist that he has had a recurring dream in which he hunts and kills a ferocious tiger. The therapist explains that the dream reflects Josef's unresolved feelings of hostility toward his father. According to Freud, the therapist is revealing the possible ________ content of Josef's dream.

a.

manifest

b.

latent

c.

circadian

d.

dissociated

e.

delta



____ 33. Some researchers suggest that the brain activity associated with REM sleep provides the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation. This finding supports which of the following dream theories?

a.

wish-fulfillment

b.

information-processing

c.

physiological

d.

activation-synthesis

e.

developmental



____ 34. Which theory suggests that dreams are mental responses to random bursts of neural stimulation?

a.

dissociation theory

b.

social influence theory

c.

activation-synthesis theory

d.

Freud's dream theory

e.

paradoxical sleep theory



____ 35. One theory suggests that the brain activity associated with ________ is helpful for developing and preserving neural pathways in the brain.

a.

night terrors

b.

near-death experiences

c.

sleep apnea

d.

dreaming

e.

hypnagogic sensations



____ 36. The activation-synthesis theory best helps to explain why

a.

most dreams are realistic portrayals of pleasant life events.

b.

people often experience sudden visual images during REM sleep.

c.

dreams typically express unacceptable feelings in a symbolically disguised form.

d.

individuals with sleep apnea are unable to recall any of their dreams.

e.

some people experience insomnia throughout their lives.



____ 37. As a participant in a sleep-research study for the past three nights, Tim has been repeatedly disturbed during REM sleep. Tonight, when allowed to sleep undisturbed, Tim will likely experience

a.

an increase in REM sleep.

b.

sleep apnea.

c.

insomnia.

d.

dissociation.

e.

an increase in NREM sleep.



____ 38. As drug users experience neuroadaptation, they demonstrate signs of

a.

dissociation.

b.

narcolepsy.

c.

tolerance.

d.

hallucinations.

e.

NREM.



____ 39. Compulsive craving for and use of a drug is an indication of

a.

dissociation.

b.

narcolepsy.

c.

addiction.

d.

hypnagogic sensations.

e.

hallucination.



____ 40. The greatest danger of viewing drug addiction as a disease is that this may lead drug addicts to

a.

feel increased feelings of shame.

b.

hide the drug abuse from public view.

c.

feel powerless to overcome the addiction.

d.

become victims of social hostility and prejudice.

e.

seek help from medical professionals.



____ 41. Which of the following is true of alcohol?

a.

In large doses, it is a depressant; in small doses, it is a stimulant.

b.

In large doses, it is a stimulant; in small doses, it is a depressant.

c.

In large doses, it is a hallucinogen; in small doses, it is a depressant.

d.

In large doses, it is a stimulant; in small doses, it is a stimulant.

e.

In large doses, it is a depressant; in small doses, it is a depressant.



____ 42. Research indicates that alcohol

a.

impairs short-term recall of what has just been said.

b.

disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memories.

c.

impairs recall of existing long-term memories.

d.

increases REM sleep.

e.

decreases latent content.



____ 43. Soon after taking a psychoactive drug, Larisa's breathing slowed, her pupils constricted, and her feelings of anxiety were replaced by blissful pleasure. Larisa most likely experienced the effects of

a.

cocaine.

b.

heroin.

c.

LSD.

d.

nicotine.

e.

amphetamine.



____ 44. Which of the following psychoactive drugs is most likely to impair people's ability to sleep?

a.

alcohol

b.

marijuana

c.

caffeine

d.

heroin

e.

barbiturates



____ 45. Adolescents are most likely to start smoking in order to

a.

gain social acceptance.

b.

trigger the release of lymphocytes.

c.

reduce their mental alertness.

d.

reduce their blood pressure.

e.

gain decreased anxiety.



____ 46. A rewarding consequence of cigarette smoking is that it reduces

a.

blood pressure.

b.

sensitivity to pain.

c.

mental alertness.

d.

the release of epinephrine into the bloodstream.

e.

heart rate.



____ 47. Which of the following is a psychedelic drug?

a.

LSD

b.

cocaine

c.

heroin

d.

caffeine

e.

nicotine



____ 48. LSD is most likely to produce

a.

narcolepsy.

b.

hallucinations.

c.

dissociation.

d.

night terrors.

e.

age regression.



____ 49. LSD and other powerful hallucinogens are chemically similar to, and therefore block the actions of, a subtype of the neurotransmitter serotonin. At the synapse, these drugs act as a(n)

a.

agonist.

b.

stimulant.

c.

endorphin.

d.

depressant.

e.

antagonist.



____ 50. An altered state of consciousness similar to that of a near-death experience is most likely to result from the use of

a.

heroin.

b.

cocaine.

c.

marijuana.

d.

LSD.

e.

barbiturates.



____ 51. In contrast to alcohol, marijuana

a.

is rapidly eliminated from the body.

b.

does not impair motor coordination.

c.

amplifies sensitivity to sounds.

d.

does not impair memory.

e.

produces severe tolerance.



____ 52. Experts would most likely agree that intelligence is

a.

an inborn ability to perform well on standard intelligence tests.

b.

a mental ability to learn from experience.

c.

a general trait that underlies success on nearly any task.

d.

a multiple array of completely independent adaptive traits.

e.

the unconscious processing that occurs as the first step in problem solving.



____ 53. The sort of problem solving that demonstrates “school smarts” is what researchers have historically assessed in their tests of

a.

inductive reasoning.

b.

intelligence.

c.

content validity.

d.

neural plasticity.

e.

factor analysis.
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