Very important characteristics that distinguish 1750-1914 from previous eras in world history include:
European dominance of long-distance trade - Whether by "unequal treaties" or colonization, sea-based trade gave European countries control of all major trade circuits in the world.
"Have" and "have not" countries created by Industrialization - The Industrial Revolution gave huge economic and political advantages to countries where it occurs over countries that remained primarily agricultural.
Inequalities among regions increase due to imperialism - Industrialized countries set out to form overseas empires, sometimes through colonization and other times by economic and/or political domination.
Political revolutions inspired by democracy and desire for independence - These revolutions continue to the present, but "seed" revolutions that put new democratic forms of government in place occurred during this era. The "nation" emerged as a new type of political organization.
Changes in global commerce, communications, and technology –
Patterns of world trade and contact changed as the Industrial Revolution revolutionized communications and commerce.
Distances became shorter as the Suez and Panama Canals cut new channels for travel, and new technology meant that ships were faster than before.
CHANGES IN GLOBAL COMMERCE, COMMUNICATIONS, AND TECHNOLOGY
By 1750 international trade and communications were nothing new.
During the 1450-1750 era Europeans had set up colonies in the Americas so that for the first time in world history the western and eastern hemispheres were in constant contact with one another.
However, after 1750 the pace of trade picked up dramatically, fed by a series of economic and technological transformations collectively known as the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution began in England in the late 18th century, and spread during the 19th century to Belgium, Germany, Northern France, the United States, and Japan.
Almost all areas of the world felt the effects of the Industrial Revolution because it divided the world into "have" and "have not" countries, with many of the latter being controlled by the former.
England's lead in the Industrial Revolution translated into economic prowess and political power that allowed colonization of other lands, eventually building a worldwide British Empire.
The Enclosure Movement
Metals, Woolens, & Canals
Child Labor in the Mines
Richard Arkwright: “Pioneer of the Factory System”
The “Water Frame”
Textile Factory Workers in England
James Watt’s Steam Engine
Railroads revived land travel.
Young Mill Worker
Demographic and environmental changes –
Huge numbers of people migrated to the Americas from Europe and Asia, so that population in the western hemisphere grew dramatically.
The slave trade ended, and so did forced migrations from Africa to the New World.
Industrialization had a huge impact on the environment, as demands for new fuels came about and cities dominated the landscape in industrialized countries.
Industrialization also increased the demand for raw materials from less industrialized countries, altering natural landscapes further.
Changes in social and gender structures –
Serf and slave systems became less common, but the gap between the rich and poor grew in industrialized countries.
Gender roles were generally fixed in agricultural societies, and if the lives of working class people in industrial societies are examined, it is difficult to see that any significant changes in the gender gap took place at all
However, middle class gender roles provide the real basis for the argument. On the one hand, some argue that women were forced out of many areas of meaningful work, isolated in their homes to obsess about issues of marginal importance.
On the farm, their work was "women's work," but they were an integral part of the central enterprise of their time: agriculture. Their work in raising children was vital to the economy, but industrialization rendered children superfluous as well, whose only role was to grow up safely enough to fill their adult gender-related duties.
On the other hand, the "cult of domesticity" included a sort of idolizing of women that made them responsible for moral values and standards. Women were seen as stable and pure, the vision of what kept their men devoted to the tasks of running the economy. Women as standard-setters, then, became the important force in shaping children to value respectability, lead moral lives, and be responsible for their own behaviors. Without women filling this important role, the entire social structure that supported industrialized power would collapse. And who could wish for more power than that?
Political revolutions and independence movements; new political ideas –
Absolutism was challenged in many parts of the globe, and democracy took root as a result of economic and social change and Enlightenment philosophies that began in the 17th century. "Nations" arose as political entities that inspired nationalism and movements of political reform.
Rise of western dominance –
The definition of "west" expanded to include the United States and Australia, and western dominance reached not only economic and political areas, but extended to social, cultural, and artistic realms as well.
THE END OF THE SLAVE TRADE
Most European countries and the United States had abolished the slave trade before the mid-19th century: Britain in 1807, the United States in 1808, France in 1814, the Netherlands in 1817, and Spain in 1845. Ardent abolitionists in Britain pressured the government to send patrol ships to the west coast of Africa to conduct search and seizure operations for ships that violated the ban. The last documented ship that carried slaves on the Middle Passage arrived in Cuba in 1867.
THE END OF SLAVERY
The institution of slavery continued in most places in the Americas long after the slave trade was abolished, with the British abolishing slavery in their colonies in 1833. The French abolished slavery in 1848, the same year that their last king was overthrown by a democratic government. The United States abolished slavery in 1865 when the north won a bitter Civil War that had divided the southern slave-holding states from the northern non-slavery states. The last country to abolish slavery in the Americas was Brazil, where the institution was weakened by a law that allowed slaves to fight in the army in exchange for freedom. Army leaders resisted demands that they capture and return runaway slaves, and slavery was abolished in 1888, without a war.
IMMIGRATION TO THE AMERICAS
Various immigration patterns arose to replace the slave trade. Asian and European immigrants came to seek opportunities in the Americas from Canada in the north to Argentina in the south.
By the mid 19th century European migrants began crossing the Atlantic to fill the factories in the eastern United States. Increasing rents and indebtedness drove farmers from Ireland, Scotland, Germany and Scandinavia to North America, settling in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys in search of land.
While migrants to the United States came to fill jobs in the developing industrial society, those who went to Latin America mostly worked on agricultural plantations.
About 4 million Italians came to Argentina in the 1880s and 1890s, and others went to Brazil, where the government paid the voyage over for Italian migrants who came to work on coffee plantations after slavery was abolished.
Others came from Asia, with more than 15,000 indentured laborers from China working in sugarcane fields in Cuba during the 19th century.
As the Industrial Revolution began in England, the economic changes were accompanied by demands for political changes that spread to many other areas of the world by the end of the 19th century
The influence of the Enlightenment - The 1700s are sometimes referred to as the "Age of Enlightenment," because philosophical and political ideas were begun to seriously question the assumptions of absolute governments
What is “Enlightenment?”
Reason & Logic
Traditions and Superstitions
Immanuel Kant –-- DARE TO KNOW!
nostalgia for the past
Reading During the Enlightenment
Literacy: - 80% for men; 60% women.
Books were expensive (one day’s wages.
Many readers for each book (20 : 1) - novels, plays & other literature. - journals, memoirs, “private lives.” - philosophy, history, theology. - newspapers, political pamphlets.
Essay on the Customs and Spirit of Nations, 1756
Philosophical Dictionary, 1764
“Must Read” Books of the Time
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
Discourse on the Arts & Sciences, 1751
The Social Contract, 1762
Frederick the Great of Prussia (r. 1740-1786)
1712 -– 1786.
Succeeded his father, Frederick William I (the “Soldier King”).
He saw himself as the “First Servant of the State.”
Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796)
German Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst.
1729 -– 1796.
The Partitions of Poland
New wealth of the bourgeoisie - Ongoing commercialization of the economy meant that the middle class grew in size and wealth, but not necessarily in political power.
These self-made men questioned the idea that aristocrats alone should hold the highest political offices.
Most could read and write, and found Enlightenment philosophy appealing in its questioning of absolute power.
They sought political power to match the economic power that they had gained.
Adam Smith –Wealth of Nations 1776 (Capitalism)
A combination of economic, intellectual, and social changes started a wave of revolutions in the late 1700s that continued into the first half of the 19th century. The started in North America and France, and spread into other parts of Europe and to Latin America.
June 1794 Robespierre introduced the cult of the Supreme Being in which the Republic acknowledged the existence of God
Robespierre wanted an ideal democratic republic without rich or poor
Through despotism and the guillotine he eliminated all opposition
Robespierre was arrested by the Convention and executed (July 28, 1794) by fearful middle class who really benefited from his removal
Inflation increased, self-indulgence increased, people turned to religion
National Convention abolished economic controls and wrote a new constitution
Coronation of Napoleon 1804
THE SPREAD OF REVOLUTION AND NEW POLITICAL IDEAS
No matter how the Congress of Vienna tried to stem the tide of revolution, it did not work in the long run.
France was to wobble back and forth between monarchy and republican government for thirty more years, and then was ruled by Napoleon III (Bonaparte's nephew) until 1871, when finally a parliamentary government emerged.
And other countries in Europe, as well as colonies in Latin America, had heard "the shot heard round the world," and the true impact of the revolutionary political ideas began to be felt.
Haitian Revolution 1804
The rebellion in 1791 led to several years of civil war in Haiti, even though French abolished slavery in 1793. When Napoleon came to power, he sent an army to tame the forces led by Toussaint L'Ouverture, a former slave. However, Napoleon's army was decimated by guerrilla fighters and yellow fever, and even though Toussaint died in a French jail, Haiti declared its independence in 1804.
See separate powerpoint on Revolutions in Latin America 19th and early 20th century.
IDEOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF REVOLUTIONS
Conservatism - People who supported this philosophy at first advocated return to absolute monarchy, but came to accept constitutional monarchy by the mid-1800s. Generally, conservatives disapproved of the revolutions of the era, particularly the French Revolution with all the violence and chaos that it brought.
Liberalism - Liberals supported a republican democracy, or a government with an elected legislature who represented the people in political decision-making. These representatives were generally from the elite, but were selected (usually by vote) from a popular base of citizens. Emphasis was generally on liberty or freedom from oppression, rather than on equality.
Radicalism - Radicals advocated drastic changes in government and emphasized equality more than liberty. Their philosophies varied, but they were most concerned with narrowing the gap between elites and the general population. The Jacobins during the French Revolution, and Marxism that appeared in the mid 19th century were variations of this ideological family.
Mexico - Father Miguel Hidalgo led Mexico's rebellion that eventually led to independence in 1821. He was a Catholic priest who sympathized with the plight of the Amerindian peasants and was executed for leading a rebellion against the colonial government. The Creole elite then took up the drive for independence that was won under the leadership of Agustin de Iturbide, a conservative military commander. However, Father Hidalgo's cause greatly influenced Mexico's political atmosphere, as his populist ideas were taken up by others who led the people in revolt against the Creoles. Two famous populist leaders were Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa, who like Father Hidalgo were executed by the government. Mexico was not to work out this tension between elite and peasants until well into the 20th century.
Pancho Villa and Zapata
Advocates of women's rights were particularly active in Britain, France, and North America. Mary Wollstonecraft, an English writer, was one of the first to argue that women possessed all the rights that Locke had granted to men, including education and participation in political life. Many French women assumed that they would be granted equal rights after the revolution. However, it did not bring the right to vote or play major roles in public affairs. Since gender roles did not change in the immediate aftermath of revolution, social reformers pressed for women's rights in North America and Europe. Americans like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in the United States decided to concentrate their efforts on suffrage, or the right to vote. A resolution passed at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848, emphasized women's rights to suffrage, as well as to education, professional occupations, and political office. Their movement did not receive popular support, however, until the 20th century, but their activism laid a foundation for large-scale social change later.
Social Darwinism –
This philosophy justified not racial differences, but differences between the rich and the poor.
It used Darwin's theory of natural selection (living things that are better adapted to the environment survive, others don't) to explain why some get rich and others remain poor. In the competition for favored positions and bigger shares of wealth, the strong, intelligent, and motivated naturally defeat the weak, less intelligent, and the lazy.
So, people who get to the top deserve it, as do the people who remain at the bottom
Another reaction to the revolution in political thought was Marxism, The father of communism is generally acknowledged to be Karl Marx, who first wrote about his interpretation of history and vision for the future in The Communist Manifesto in 1848. He saw capitalism; or the free market; as an economic system that exploited workers and increased the gap between the rich and the poor.
Karl Marx –Founder of Communism 1848
He believed that conditions in capitalist countries would eventually become so bad that workers would join together in a Revolution of the Proletariat (workers), and overcome the bourgeoisie, or owners of factories and other means of production.
According to Marx, communism encourages equality and cooperation, and without property to encourage greed and strife, governments would be unnecessary. His theories took root in Europe, but never became the philosophy behind European governments, but it eventually took new forms in early 20th century Russia and China
The era 1750 to 1914 saw the creation of a new type of political organization - the nation - that survived even if the rulers failed. Whereas nations' political boundaries were still often decided by military victory, the political entity was much broader than control by one person or family. Nations were built on nationalism - the feeling of identity within a common group of people.
NEW EUROPEAN NATIONS
A major political development inspired by growing nationalism was the consolidation of small states into two important new nations: Italy and Germany
Count Cavour [The “Head”]
Giuseppi Garibaldi [The “Sword”]
King Victor Emmanuel II
Giuseppi Mazzini [The “Heart”]
Italian Nationalist Leaders
Chancellor Otto von Bismarck
“Blood & Iron”
Unification of Germany
The Russian and Ottoman Empires - two land-based powers in Eurasia - suffered the disadvantages of being neighbors to the rising nations in Europe. Russia had its wins and losses during the era yet managed to retain its power, but the Ottomans were in steep decline during most of the period and on the brink of destruction by 1914.
Empire building is an old theme in world history. Societies have sought to dominate weaker neighbors as long ago as ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, all the way through to the present. Motivations have been similar - to obtain natural resources, to subdue enemies, to accrue wealth, to win power and glory - but until the rise of the west, most empires have expanded to territories next to their borders. With the combination of sea power, centralized governments, and industrialized economies, European nations set out to build empires all over the world, like none that had been seen before. They were driven by the need to provide raw materials for their industrial capacity, and the types of goods exchanged were determined by that need.
TYPES OF IMPERIALISM
Europeans began building their empires in the western hemisphere in the early 1500s, but by the 1800s, Spain and Portugal were no longer powerful countries, and the largest British colony had become the United States. Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and the Netherlands continued to colonize during this era, but they also devised other ways to spread their empires.
In the late 19th century Japan and the United States joined the European nations as an imperialist power.
European Explorations in mid-19c: “The Scramble for Africa”
The “White Man’s Burden”
The Congo Free State or The Belgian Congo
Punishing “Lazy” Workers
5-8 Million Victims! (50% of Popul.)
It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official
IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA
In the latter half of the 19th century, dramatic changes occurred, as Europeans began to explore Africa's interior, and by 1914, virtually the entire continent was colonized by one or the other of the competing European countries
Shaka Zulu (1785 – 1828)
The Great Trek, 1836-38
The Struggle for South Africa
IMPERIALISM IN INDIA
The British "Raj" - 1818-1857
India was under "company" rule for almost forty years, but they were not actually a British colony during that time because the British East India Company was still private, even though the British government supported it. However, the company administered governmental affairs and initiated social reform that reflected British values.
Sir Robert Clive
Battle of Plassey: 1757
The Sepoy Mutiny: 1857
Areas of the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857
Execution of Sepoys: “The Devil’s Wind”
British Rule - 1857-1947
The Sepoy Rebellion showed the British government how serious the problems in India were, and they reacted by removing the British East India Company from control and declaring India a British colony. British officials poured into India to keep control of its valuable raw materials for industry and trade, particularly cotton and poppies for opium. They expanded production, built factories in India, and constructed huge railroad and irrigation, and telegraph systems
At the same time, they depended on the nawabs to support them, and so they also had to abide by Indian customs and rules as well. The contradictory roles they played eventually erupted in the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857. The Sepoys were Indian Muslims and Hindus who served the British as soldiers in the army that defended the subcontinent. The rebellion took the British by surprise, but they found out that the Indian fury could be traced to a new training technique that the soldiers refused to follow. It required them to put a bullet shell in their mouths that had been greased in either pork or beef fat, with the pork fat being highly offensive to the Muslims and the beef to the Hindu
The British changed the practice, but it was too late because nationalism had reached India, too, and a movement for a country based on Indian identity was beginning. The leaders of the movement would have to wait about 90 years, though, to fulfill their dreams
1877: Queen Victoria Becomes “Empress of India”
Queen Victoria in India
IMPERIALISM IN CHINA
The Opium Wars (1839-1842)
began after the Qing refused to listen to British protests of the trade ban.
The British used the Canal to reach inland areas, fought the ill-equipped villagers all the way to the Yellow River, when the Qing surrendered.
Although the British did not take over the government, they forced the Qing to sign a treaty allowing the trade.
The Unequal Treaties
The Treaty of Nanjing, signed by the Chinese after the Opium Wars, was oriented toward trade. The Chinese agreed to allow the trade of opium and open other ports to exclusive trade with Britain. Beyond that, it gave the British control of Hong Kong (near Guangzhou), and it released Korea, Vietnam, and Burma from Chinese control. This was the first of many unequal treaties signed by Asians with European nations, and they eventually led to "spheres of influence." China was divided up into trading spheres, giving each competing European nation exclusive trading rights in a particular areas. By the early 20th century, virtually all of China was split into these areas, and the Qing government was virtually powerless.
1900 Boxer Rebellion,
in which a group called the Boxers led an army against the Qing with the express purpose of recovering "China for the Chinese."
The group fed on their efforts to rid the country of European interests, and even though the rebellion was unsuccessful, the Boxers laid the foundations for the 1911 Chinese Revolution that finally ended the Qing Dynasty
United States sea captain Matthew Perry may take some credit for the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate. By the mid 19th century the Japanese were most concerned about European incursions in China, and so they kept up their guard against Europeans trying to invade their islands from the south. They were most surprised when Perry arrived from the east with his demands for opening of Japan to trade with the United States through an "unequal treaty."
Ms. Susan M. Pojer & Mrs. Lisbeth Rath Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
See this separate power-point
Japan tramples Korea
That was all the daimyos needed to joint together in an insurrection against the Tokugawa, who indeed signed such a treaty. To legitimize their cause, the daimyos fought in the name of the emperor, and when they won, they declared that the legitimate government had been "restored." The Meiji Restoration took advantage of the fact that their geography made them less strategically important than the Chinese, so that the Europeans and Americans tended to leave them alone. They were left to their own devices - to create a remarkable state that built the foundations for Japan as a world power.
The Meiji (meaning "enlightened rule") claimed to have ended centuries of shogun-dominated governments that made the emperor totally powerless. They mystified and revered the position of the emperor, who became a very important symbol for Japanese unity. However, the new state did not give the emperor any real power, either. Japanese nationalism was built on the mysticism of the emperor, anxiety over the foreign threat, and an amazing transformation of Japan's military, economy, and government. The country was ruled by oligarchs, a small group of leaders who together directed the state. They borrowed heavily from the west to industrialize their country and to build a centralized, strong military.