Unit #9: Free-response Section ap biology name

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AP Biology NAME:

Unit #9: The Nervous System, Muscle Enervation, Due: Monday, March 28th

Animal Reproduction & Development
Of the following, please choose three of the four topics using complete sentences. For each topic be sure to address all subtopics in order to earn maximum credit. Labeled diagrams may be used to supplement discussion, but in no case will a diagram alone suffice; you must explain your diagrams. Write all of your answers on the following pages, making sure that you clearly indicate which question you are addressing.

  1. The human body reacts to stimuli from both the external and internal environment using the different systems in conjunction with one another to maintain homeostasis. In an essay discuss the following points:

    1. The homeostatic maintenance of blood-sugar levels

      1. Be certain to include the organs involved, hormones secreted and the term negative feedback.

    2. The homeostatic maintenance of the female menstrual cycle

      1. Be certain to include the organs involved, hormones secreted and the terms negative and positive feedback.

  1. Like most animals, humans reproduce sexually. Not like all animals, only mammals, humans fertilize and develop internally. In an essay discuss the following points:

    1. Compare and contrast sperm and egg production in humans.

    2. Describe the process of fertilization.

    3. Describe mechanisms that cause differentiation during embryonic development.

  1. In humans, messages are sent throughout the body in order for different systems to cooperate and function properly. In the nervous system, electrical impulses are sent at a rapid pace. In an essay discuss the following points (do not discuss muscle enervation):

    1. Describe what occurs when one feels a prick on their foot (in this case, we’ll say that this is not a reflex).

      1. Be certain to discuss the electrical relay through different types of neurons.

    2. Specifically discuss how an impulse is created via the movement of an action potential down an axon.

      1. Be certain to describe the different parts of a neuron, the different steps involved during an action potential.

  1. Continuing from the last question, discuss how the nervous system and musculature interact with one another. In your essay discuss the following points:

    1. Describe how the nervous system communicates to skeletal muscle.

    2. Explain the Sliding Filament Model of muscle (skeletal) contraction.

      1. Be certain to include all relevant chemicals, steps and processes.

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