Unit 10: from paragraph to essay expanding the Paragraph



Download 77,02 Kb.
Date conversion28.12.2016
Size77,02 Kb.

Unit 10: FROM PARAGRAPH TO ESSAY

Expanding the Paragraph

As you have learned, a paragraph consists of three parts: a topic sentence, supporting sentences (the body), and a concluding sentence. Notice these three parts in Model Paragraph below.




Man’s Best Friend

There are three main relationships that dogs have with people. First, we have been working with dogs. These dogs, such as Siberian huskies and collies, serve people almost like employees. To the sheep farmers, for example, a good sheepdog is his most valuable partner. Other dogs are known primarily for their excellence in sports. The sleek and supremely fast greyhound is used in dog races, and many hunting dogs, such as setters, retrievers, and pointers, often complete in hunting trials. Third, many people enjoy dogs as companions. All kinds of dog can be excellent companions, but a few breeds are kept only for this purpose. Some examples are the toy dogs, such as a Chihuahua or a Lhasa apos. Because of the relationships they have with people, dogs are often called “man’s best friend.”

When you want to write about topic in more detail, you can turn your paragraph into an essay. Paragraph can be easily expanded to essay length. Similar to a paragraph, an essay is also composed of three sections. These sections are an introductory paragraph, supporting paragraph or a body, and concluding paragraph.



Here is an essay on the same topic.


Man’s Best Friend

The dog is generally considered the first domesticated animal. The domesticated dog has lived with human beings as a working partner and household pet in all eras and cultures since the time people lived in carves. It is generally believed that the direct ancestors of the domestic dog is the wolf, originally found throughout Europe, Asia, and North America. Archeologists have found remains of dogs that are 10,000 years old. In these ancient societies, as well as in our modern one, there are three main relationships that dogs have with people.

First, we have working dogs. These dogs, such as Siberian huskies and collies, serve people almost like employees. The dogs help pull heavy loads, round up cattle, and keep a sharp eye out for strangers. To a sheep farmer, for example, a good sheepdog is his most valuable partner. Sheepdogs, such as Border collies, standard collies, and Shetland sheepdogs, are very intelligent, and can learn to respond to hand signals as well as spoken words. Sheepdogs in Scotland, for instance, move sheep along with barely a glance from the shepherd. As a result, working dogs their worth to their master, and they are proud of it.





Other dogs are known primarily for their excellence is sports. The sleek and supremely fast greyhound is used in dog races. These races take place in specially prepared tracks where the competitors chase a mechanical rabbit. People gamble on these athletics’ performance. Bird dogs are a type of hunting dog. Setters and pointers, for example, recognize a bird’s scent long before it makes a sound and show their owner where the bird is by standing rock still. Retrievers, such as golden retrievers of Labrador retrievers, will throw themselves into an icy cold lake to pick up the bird their owner has shot. These special hunting dogs often compete in hunting trails. Clearly, sporting dogs are the athletes of the dog world.

Third, many people enjoy a dog as a companion. All kinds of dogs can be excellent companions. Both the working dogs and the hunting dogs have great patience and are very good with small children. Most of these dogs will allow children to climb all over them and are great-bady sitters because of their loyalty to their owner and their family. A few breeds are kept only for the purpose of being a companion. Some of these are the toy dogs, such as a chihuhuahua or a Lhasa apso. Since these dogs are so tiny, they are great to have if you live in a small apartment. In short, all dogs, including the toy dogs, are wonderful companions.

Although there are a great many breeds of dogs, they can be classified into these three main types by their relationships to their owners. Even if you no interests in sports and no farm to run, you can have a great companion in a dog. Because of the relationships they have with people, dogs are often called “man’s best friend.”

Look at the theme to see how a paragraph is expanded into as essay. The topic sentence of the paragraph becomes the thesis statement of the essay, which comes at the end of the introductory paragraph. The supporting sentences of the original paragraph expand into three separate body paragraphs in the essay. In other words, each major supporting sentence and its minor supports in Model Paragraph 1 become one body paragraph in the corresponding essay. Finally, the concluding sentence is made into a concluding paragraph.


Two other points are important to note. First, notice how each body paragraph mirrors the construction of the original paragraph. Just as the paragraphs you have written so far have had a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a concluding sentence, so does each body paragraph. Second, notice how the body paragraphs support the thesis statement of the essay just as the supporting sentences in a paragraph support the topic sentence.


Body




PRACTICE 1

I. Analyzing a Paragraph

Analyze this paragraph by labeling the three main parts: topic sentence, body, and concluding sentence.
Animal Camouflage
Many animals find security in blending in with their environment. In birds, for example, it is quite common for adult males to be brightly colored and very noticeable, white adult females and young chicks are light brown or stand colored in order to blend into their background and escape the sharp eyes of a predator. Many animals have also adopted the colors of their surroundings over the years. a zebra is almost invisible among the branches and stripes of sunlight in its native Africa, and a lion is very hard to see when it is sleeping on the beige sand of the plains. Most fish are darker on the top than on the bottom of the water, and form below, they look them survive over the ages.

2. Analyzing an Essay

This essay is an expansion of the paragraph about animal camouflage. First, draw boxes around the three components of the essay (introductory paragraph, supporting paragraphs, and concluding paragraph). Next, using a different colored pen, underline the topic and concluding sentences in each body paragraph.
Animal Camouflage
Animals in the wide have natural enemies. A small bird wants to avoid being seen by a hawk, a zebra doesn’t want the lion to find him, and a flatfish would prefer that the shark swim quietly by. If an animal can’t easily run away from its predator, how can it protect itself? One way that has evolved over time is protective coloring, or camouflage. Many animals find security in blending in with their environment.
In birds, for example, although it is quite common for adult males to be brightly colored and very noticeable, adult females and young chicks are light brown or sand colored in order to blend into their background and escape the sharp eyes of predator. This coloring protects the weaker birds. Consider the bright red cardinal, a very common bird in colder areas of North America. the male is like a red fire engine against white snow, but you hardly ever see the females. They are sandy brown, with touches of red on the wings, tail, and breast. The peacock is another bird where the male is bright and showy, while the female is easily overlooked because of her dull coloring. The tail feathers of a rich color, known as peacock blue. The female, called a peahen, has short tail feathers and is much less colorful than the male. Adopting camouflage colors helps the female birds survive and raise another generation of birds.

Many mammals have also adopted the colors of their surroundings. A zebra is almost invisible among the branches and stripes of sunlight in its native Africa because its black and white stripes mimic the shadows among the trees and bushes. A lion is very hard to see when it is sleeping on the beige sand of the plains. The lioness, in particular, looks just like a part of the ground until she raises her head. The camouflage of the lioness makes her invisible to her prey so she can concentrate on hunting and feeding her young. All these mammals have, over many years, developed protective coloring to assist them in the struggle to survive.

Most fish are darker on top than on the bottom; from above, they look like the land at the bottom of the water, and from below, they look like the water’s surface. Many ocean fish have a horizontal line along their body that separates the top from the bottom. As ocean mackerel, for example, is easily distinguished by this dark stripe. Some flatfish have taken this protection a step further; for example, a fish that lives on a sandy bottom has a light-brown upper side, while a flatfish that lives on the a rocky bottom has an upper side that looks like pebbles. Because they look just like their surroundings, these fish survive and avoid becoming someone else’s lunch.

Looking like their environment is helpful to these animals for the survival of the species. The mother bird that is invisible among the brown leaves, the lion snoozing on the sandy plains, and the fish that hides among the pebbles will live to see another day. The safety these animals find in their protective coloring had helped them survive over the ages.


3. Outlining an Essay

Here is part of an outline of the essay “Animal Camouflage.” Complete the outline by writing in the key words from each paragraph of the essay.



A. Introduction Paragraph

Thesis statement:



B. Body
Paragraph 1: Birds
Topic sentence: in birds, for example, although it is quite common for adult males to be brightly colored and very noticeable, adult females and young chicks are light brown or sand colored in order to blend into their background and escape the shape eyes of a predator.

Major support 1:

Minor support(s)



Major support 2:

Minor support(s)



Concluding Sentence:

Paragraph 2: Mammals

Topic sentence:

Major support 1:

Minor support(s)



Concluding sentence:

Paragraph 3: Fish

Topic sentence:

Major support 1:

Minor support(s)

Concluding sentence:
C. Concluding Paragraph

Reemphasis of the Thesis Statement:


Mechanics

Semicolons with Transitions

As you learned in year one and previous units, transitions are words that make connections. Transitions are usually followed by a comma when they occur at the beginning of the sentence. The usual pattern is:


Independent clause. Transition, independent clause.

Example: your first reason is clear. However, your second is unclear.

Another common pattern is to use a semicolon instead of a period. In this case, the patter is:


Independent clause; Transition, independent clause.



Example: your first reason is clear; however, your second is unclear.
4. Punctuating with Commas and Semicolons

Punctuate these sentences. Use commas and semicolons in the appropriate places.


  1. Baby whales stay with their mothers for one or two years after that they usually go out on their own.

  2. Loggers in the Northwest cut down the forests consequently they destroy some animals’ natural habits.

  3. First we will feed the dogs later on we will feed ourselves.

  4. The city government is trying many ways to decrease the number of wild cats in the park for instance animal control officers are catching the cats and neutering them.

  5. Furthermore the police can suspend your dog’s license.

  6. Frank seems to hate people on the other hand he is very loving with his cats.

  7. Some birds live permanently in the Arctic however most migrate.

  8. For example I never leave home without my dogs.

  9. It is raining today therefore my pet snake cannot go outside.

  10. She tore up her old love letters then she filed for divorce.


PRACTIC 2

Almost everyone has moved at some points in his or her life. You may have moved from the countryside to the city, from one state or region to another, even to a different country. As discussed in the chapter opener, the environment often plays a big role in our choice of where to live. In addition, once we move, we often, make many changes based on our environment. How did your life change when you moved?

On the following page are the introductory, and concluding paragraphs of an essay and space to write, in outline form, the content of the body paragraphs. The title of this essay is “Adapting to a new environment.” The thesis of the essay is that people change their ways of bebaving when they move to a new environment. Follow these steps in writing your essay:


  1. Talk with your classmates about how all of you have made changes in your lives as a result of moving to a different environment. Some changes might be the way you dress, the way you speak, the way you travel (e.g., driving a car vs. using public transition) how you look at the strangers, what you do environment, and so on.

  2. Make a list and select three types of changes that have been true for you.

  3. Next, write a topic sentence for each of those changes, and write a few examples in note form underneath each topic sentence.

  4. Finally, copy the introduction, write your body paragraphs, and copy the conclusion. Use good paragraph format.

  5. Share your essay with a classmate, using the Peer Help worksheet to help improve each other’s essay.

Note: You may not need to use two major supports for every paragraph, and you may want to have more than two in other paragraphs. As the writer, you make these decisions based on what you want to say to your paragraph.

Adapting to a New Environment
I. Introduction Paragraph
Human beings are very adaptable. We live in most climates of the world. In the past, people tented to stay in the place they were born, but now we move easily from countryside to city, from one part of a country to another, and even from country to country. Each place has its own customs and ways of life, and countries also have different languages. When I moved from to , I changed my behavior in three significant ways.
II. Body

A. Paragraph 1

Topic sentence:

Major support 1:

Minor support(s):

Major support 2:

Minor support(s):


B. Paragraph 2

Topic sentence:

Major support 1:

Minor support(s):

Major support 2:

Minor support(s):



C. Paragraph 3

Topic sentence:

Major support 1:

Minor support(s):

Major support 2:

Minor support(s):



III. Concluding Paragraph
Am I the same person I was before or am I different now? Change makes us examine our values and our habits. By changing my , my ___ , and my , I think I may appear to others as if I am a new person. I do not really think so, however. I prefer to think of it not so much as having changed but as having grown.

The End of Unit 10!



The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page