Understanding Reading / Writing Problems of Students with adhd
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Workshop on Students who are gifted and /or have ADHD Rudolf Stockling MSc (Psych) MAPS Lexicon Reading Center 7/12/2010 Session Outline 1. Definition of ADHD 2. Types of ADHD 3. Executive Functions and Reading 4. ADHD and Reading 5. Children with ADHD and Dyslexia 6. Activity: Case Study Definition of ADHD “ADHD consists of developmental of behavior by rules and consequences. These deficiencies give rise to problems with deficiencies in the regulation and maintenance responses to tasks or stimuli and inhibiting, initiating, or sustaining of instructions….” adhering to rules Barkley, R. (1990). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A Handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford, p.71. ADHD, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type ADHD, Combined Type: DSM-IV, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Attention and Executive Function M. Levine, MD Nancy Cushen White, Ed.D. Attention and Executive Function Nancy Cushen White, Ed.D. SELECTIVE FOCUS AND CONCENTRATION Filtering out irrelevant stimuli Focusing actively and deliberately on relevant stimuli Resisting distractions Shifting attention as required Attention and Executive Function M. Levine, MD Nancy Cushen White, Ed.D. INTENTION/IMPULSIVITY/HYPERACTIVITY Thinking about and analyzing demands of a task Making decisions about appropriate strategies for accomplishing a task Acting purposefully, at optimal pace, while monitoring efforts throughout a task Associated : disorders that are a direct result of the ADHD disorders A result of the deficits in executive function General Learning Problems Co-morbid disorders: disorders that exist in addition to the ADHD Specific Learning Disability ADHD & reading I’m a very slow reader. In high school & middle school I really hated to read because it took me a long time & I would have to read things over and over again. I would find myself at the end of the chapter & not remember anything I had just read…I realized would have to go back and read it all over again. It got to the point in middle school where I was sick of school already & I hated going.” Knowles (2006): Grant, a 21-yr-old college student ADHD and Co-morbid Disorders Externalizing disorders (Type One) Conduct disorder Oppositional defiant disorder Learning Difficulties (including reading) Internalizing disorders (Type Two) Anxiety/depression Speech/language disorders affecting phonology, syntax, semantics Dyslexia (deficits in decoding) Impact of ADHD on Reading Phonological processing: OK maybe problem inattentive type Rapid Automatised Naming: Slow Reading fluency: Slow Reading Comprehension: Weak Factual – OK Inferential - Weak Comprehension Strategies - Weak Literacy and ADHD: Comprehension Comprehension requires the student to Attend to input Organize information Comprehend vocabulary Identify main ideas & their connections (Caplan et al., 2007 for review) Students with ADHD have significant weaknesses in comprehension across a range of tasks (Keenan et al. 2008) show weaknesses with understanding inferences & error monitoring, but not with recalling factual information (McInnes et al., 2003) Literacy and ADHD Written Expression Written Expression Requires: Transcription skills Text generation Thinking of ideas Organization/coherence of text Monitoring Revising text Juggling these tasks concurrently requires WORKING MEMORY and self-regulation ADHD: Written Expression Students with ADHD” Write less Make more spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors Written work is poorly organized Handwriting is often illegible ADHD & DYSLEXIA
Sometimes OK Reading poorer than listening X (inferential) Listening poorer than reading INTERVENTION If Reading Problems are associated with ADHD Reading problems are due to Dyslexia comorbidity Specific Multi-sensory Dyslexia Intervention
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