Hussam ul Haramin Ala Manhar il Kufr wal main
The sword of two sanctuaries on the slaughter point of blasphemy and falsehood Ĥusām al-Ĥaramayn álā Manĥari’l Kufri wa’l Mayn حسام الحرمين علٰي منحر الكفر والمين
Written by: Ala’Hazrat Azeemul-Barkat Mujaddid Imam Ahmad Raza Khan Bareilvi(Alaihe Rahma Wal Ridhwan) English Translated Version Alhaaj Bashir Hussain Nazim (Pride of Performance)
Foreword One of the most outstanding exponents of the Islamic orthodoxy, His Eminence Imam Ahmad Raza Khan muhaddith Berailwi( 1856- 1921) wrote a treatise in Arabic entitled “Husam al Harmain Ala Munhir kufr wal myvan” which is in fact a powerful defense of the Islamic orthodoxy. After 1857 a.d. which marks the last year of the fall of the Mughul Empire witnessed upsurge of many anti-Islamic and anti-orthodoxy movements due to the process of degeneration of the religious life of the Muslim people. In this respect the large number of religious leaders who pretended to be alim-cum-sufis played a critical role in popularizing these movements among the Muslim masses. However, most of these so-called Ulamas were illiterate and worldy minded, and they have been described as Ulama-e-Su(degenerate Ulama), The British government took full advantage and sought their support to popularise false doctrines vis-à-vis the basic postulates of the Islamic orthodoxy. Ala Hazrat Imam Ahmad Raza Barelvi was able to put up scholastic attack against these heretical tendencies among the Muslims. In this respect his major contribution was to assert the supremacy of the Shariah in all his writings but in particular in this scholarly tract, Imam Ahmad Raza propounded his basic doctrines against the popular heretical tendencies. However, in order to appreciate his significant contribution, it might be useful to examine his views in the historical perspective. Here one may only refer to Maulvi Muhammad Ismail Dehelwi’s scholarly treatise Taqviatul Iman (The Power of Faith) which was directed against another book, Kitabal Tawhid written by Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahab Najdi in which he deliberately ignored the doctrine of Risalat and the Finality of the Prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad(ﷺ ) After this one in 1874 A.D. Mawlawi Muhammad Qasim Nanawati of Deoband school wrote Tahzeerun Nas (Warning/condemantion of People), Similarly in 1887 A.D. Mawlawi Khalil Ahmad Ambathwi wrote Brahin-e-Qa’tia (The Arguments in Refutation), and it was followed by another important work in 1901 A. D. by Malwai Ashraf All Thanwai entitled, Hifzul Iman(Protection of faith). The Malawai Rashid Ahmad Gangohawi wrote an extensive work entitled, Fatawa-e-Rashidiya(Religious verdicts of Rahsid). In this connection one may also mention the work of Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani’s book entitled, Khutbat-e- Ghulamiya(Speeches of Gulam Ahmad) and other works in which he claimed for himself the status of prophethood. These writings tended to destroy the doctrinal foundations of Islamic orthodoxy. Imam Ahmad Raza in fact dedicated himself to wage war against these popular heresies and presented a powerful defense of true Islam. In 1905 A., D. ImamAhmad Raza visited Holy places in Hejaz for performing pilgrimage. During this period he prepared a draft document entitled AlMotamad AlMustanad (The Reliable Proofs) for presentation to the eminent Ulamas of Mecca and Madina. Imam Ahmad Raza collected scholarly opinions of the Ulama of Hejaz and compiled them in a compendium written in Arabic language with the title, Husam al Harmain(The Sword of two sanctuaries).
This volume is a monumental work containing the thirty-three Ulamas’ thirty -four verdicts(20 Meccan and 13 Medinese Ulama). All of them gave their verdicts based on the consensus, that all popular factions were tantamount to apostasy. All of them condemned in unequivocal terms blasphemy. They also exhorted those at the helm of affairs of the Islamic state to indict and punish them according to the Shariah law. If these heretics do not resort to repentance after imprisonment, the head of the state must order their execution. This is mandatory obligation of the rulers to kill the apostates. Here one may refer to the opinion of a teacher in the illustrious Harm, Professor of Traditional Sciences, phoenix of time, Mawlana Shaikh Asad, son of Shaikh Ahmad Dahhan about the author of Husaam-Ul-Haramain. According to him, “lmam Ahmad Raza is the phoenix of time and epitome of day and night. He is such a great and illustrious scholar, pride of the past and the present era”. Shaikh Ahmad Makki writes, “illustrious author is a surging ocean of knowledge in view of his erudition. No body can raise his hands before his genuine and accurate arguments. He is trustee of traditions of his ancestors and would be a light-house for the coming generations of the Ulama”. About Husaam-Ul-Haramain, he writes, “this book is comprehensive and authentic”, Shaikh Asad goes on to say, “I have found in this book a strong citadel of Shariah on the basis of firm and matchless arguments”. In nutshell, this book is an authentic defense of the articles of faith. It proposes to expurgate the true Islamic orthodoxy from the corrupting influences of popular heresies and blasphemies. Professor
DR. MANZOORUDDIN AHMED Ex Vice Chancellor University of Karachi & Visiting Professor Colombia University, U.S.A.
In the name of Allah, Most compassionate, Most Merciful
INTRODUCTION TO HUSAAM-UL-HARAMAIN
In the world of creed, cult, faith and ideology, Husaam-ul-Haramain (the Sword of two Sanctuaries- Makkah Mukarramah and Madinah Munawwarah) has, since a long time, been under the study of people of knowledge and excellence. Its several editions have got a popular currency in the market, several publishers of sub-continent have published its Urdu and Arabic versions and now it is being published in English version on the demand of the lovers of A’la Hazrat Imam Ahmad Reza Khan Brailvi to know what is Husaam-ul-Haramain all about, as they are not fully conversant with Arabic and Urdu languages.
The blissful book is actually a treatise, which contains the concerted opinions, laudable views and elegant reviews of the great savants, erudites and scholars of two sacred Sanctuaries, which were collected and compiled by A’la Hazrat Imam Ahmad Reza Khan Brailvi during the days of pilgrimage and visit to Madinah Munawwarah and other holy places.
It was the time when some dark-minded Maulavis of sub-continent and so-called leaders of religious factions started arguing and interpreting the station of Finality of Prophet-hood of the last of the prophets (ﷺ) that the advent and existence of a prophet during the times of the Prophet (ﷺ) or after his departure does not effect the Finality of Prophet-hood in anyway.
Since sub-continent was under the sway of British rulers, they, under the guise of freedom of expression, allowed every Tom, Dick and Harry to utter whatever he wished. This so-called freedom of expression created disturbance and chaos, which fragmented the unity of Islamic community. This lame excuse of philosophy gave a diabolical urge to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani to make a fake claim of prophet-hood under the umbrella of his British masters.
Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, Khalil Ahmad Anbaithwi and Ashraf Ali Thanwi, taking an undue advantage of freedom of thought and expression, started uttering jargons, they wrote some soul-striking books and treatises and issued certain juristic judgments, which shook the foundations of Islamic society as well as the admitted doctrines of Islam.
A’la Hazrat Imam Ahmad Reza Khan Brailvi and other illustrious Ulama of Ahle-Sunnat cordially felt this alarming, jeopardising and menacing state of affairs. They not only reprimanded such mullas vehemently but also made them aware of their prevarication and pulled their ears asking them to repent over their false notions, but due to the fake egoism and criminal freedom of expression of thought allowed by the Britishers, they did not refrain from their bubbub and jargons.
Imam Ahmad Reza Khan Brailvi, during this era of sedition and rebellion, boldly undertook the journey of pilgrimage and prepared a document, in the form of questionnaire comprehending and bracketing the blasphemous utterances of Indian followers of Diabolos in 1323 AH and presented it to the Ulama of eminence of Makkah Mukarramah and Madinah Munawwarah under the name of Al-Mo’tamad Al-Mustanad making a supplication to them to guide the Muslims of sub-continent by giving their opinions and views, duly stamped, and decide as to what those seditious mullas were doing.
The opinions and views of the illustrious Ulama of Makkah Mukarramah and Madinah Munawwarah were collected and A’Ia Hazrat Imam Ahmad Reza Brailvi in Arabic compiled a book. The historical name of this book is “Husaamul-Haramain Ala Manhar-if-Kufr-e-wal Mayn” (1324 AH).
On his return to India, A’la Hazrat published it and viz-a-viz it was translated into Urdu by an adept Arabic scholar namely Maulana Hasanain Reza Khan Brailvi (Mercy of Allah be upon him). Both Urdu and Arabic versions were brought out in the market simultaneously.
The publication of this book was hailed by the men of faith and beliefs with great fervour and ebullience as the mullas professing bad beliefs were put on the pinion by illustrious Ulama and celebrated scholars of Haramain. A charge sheet was waiting for them. They screamed like kites and made great clamour over the publication of this illustrious book. Actually, those mullas felt a dire convulsion. They started writing so-called fatawa and books, arranging gatherings for making interpretations over interpretations. However, the wounds and cuts of Husaam-ul-Haramain were so deep that the fellers of edifice of Finality of Prophet-hood and breakers of the grand building of prophet-hood are hitherto perplexed. They had neither any reply to Husaam-ul-Haramain nor had repented over their obnoxious writings. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani having a false claim of prophet-hood, dragged himself from the pale of Islam, and the mullas protected the sham ideas of their elders very obdurately.
With the passage of time, some illustrious erudites made sincere efforts to disseminate the contents and import of the significant work of A’la Hazrat to the people of ken and knowledge and all and sundry. In this respect the services of Maulana Hasanain Reza Khan Brailvi are laudable and worth remembering. His Urdu translation of Husaam-ul-Haramain in currency is most beneficial. Some lovers of A’la Hazrat Imam Ahmad Reza Khan (may his secret be sanctified) who are not fully acquainted with Urdu and Arabic, to understand the contents, have been requesting for rendering the unique work of A’la Hazrat into English for general benefit.
Idara-e-Tahqiqat-e-Imam Ahmad Reza Khan Brailvi Registered International made a special request to a staunch lover of A’la Hazrat, A1-Haaj Bashir Hussain Nazim (Pride of Performance and Allama Iqbal Special Gold Medal) to render the treatise into English. He accorded to our request and has translated Husaam-ul.-Haramain for the benefit of English knowing people.
Idara-e-Tahqiqat-e-Imam Ahmad Reza Registered International, Karachi, feels honoured to present this blissful gift of A’la Hazrat Imam Ahmad Reza to the readers. May Allah the Exalted accept this effort of Idara with His unending Kindness.
Supporters of Hussam al Harmain
Abdul Haq Ensari
Maulana Fazal Rasul Badayuni (1798-1872AD/ 1213-1289AH) a celebrated scholar of India and murshid of Sufi chain Qadaria, wrote a book in Arabic entitled al Mu‘taqid al Muntaqid1. The book was published from India during the author’s lifetime2. After a span of half century Faqih -i- Hind Maulana Ahmad Raza Khan Barelvi (1856-1921AD/1272-1340AH) wrote an Arabic note on this book of Badayuni in 1320AH entitled as al Mo’tamad al Mustanad,in which he stated shar‘ia orders about the decrees of some new sects which had been emerged during the colonial age among Indian Muslims. This note of Fazal Barelvi has been published for more than one time from Lahore and Istanbul, along with the book on which the note has been made3.
Fazal Barelvi, when he was in Makkah for second and last time4, himself prepared an abridgement of this note and presented it before celebrated scholars of Haramain Sharifain asking them for shar‘i order. It was during his stay in Makkah that 33 Ulama 5of the city issued their detailed fatawa and declared the beliefs of these sects non Islamic mentioned in al Mo’tamad al Mustanad. On his return to the country, Fazal Barelvi compiled the abridgement of Mo’tamad al Mustanad with fatawa and reviews of Ulama of Haramain in 1324AHentitled as Hussam- al-Haramain ‘ala Minhar al Kufr wal Main which was also in Arabic.
In 1325AH Maulana Muhammad Husnain Raza (1892-1981/1310-1401), nephew and khalifa of Fazal Barelvi, translated the final compilation into Urdu6. Afterwards, Urdu translation of Hussam al Harmain ‘ala Minhar al Kufr wal Main along with Arabic text was published more than one time. The latest edition has been published by Maktabah Nabvia Lahore7. Moreover, Arabic text can be viewed on the website developed by Barkati Foundation8.
In 1906 when Hussam al Harmain was published, the magnificent Empire of the Ottomans-, which covered most of the Muslim areas-, was subjected to its downfall. The capital of this vast empire was at Istanbul and the Holy Hijaz was a province of it. In Hijaz, Makkah was of the central position for the high officials and scholars resided here. Sultan Abdul Hamid Usmani II (1842-1918AD/1258-1336AH) was the ruler9 while Sayyid ‘Ali Pasha bin Abdullah Abu Aun (d. 1941) was the Governor of Makkah10, whom Fazal Barelvi met11. Sami Pasha Faruqi was the Governor of Madina12.
In 1916/1334 Ottoman rule ended in Hijaz and Ottoman Governor of Makkah Sayyid Hussain bin ‘Ali Hashmi (1854-1931AD/1270/1350AH) declared his independence and established Mamlakat -i- Hashmia Hijaz13. He was forefather of present Jordanian King Sayyid Abdullah II. In 1924/1343 al Saud of Najd overthrew this Hashmi Kingdom and annexed it to Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and this position has been prevailing up to the date. Thus supporters of Husaam-ul-Haramain have seen Ottoman, Hashmi and Saudi rule. The former two have been styled as Ahle-Sunnat-Wa-Jamaat while later one is acclaimed of Wahhabi thoughts.
Supporters of Husaam-ul-Haramain were among leading Ulama of not only Hijaz but of whole Islamic world in earlier decades of 14th century AH. But as the time of one century has been passed detailed accounts of these Ulama are not available for readers of non Arabic circles. In recent times some of the accounts have been published in a book Tazkirah -i- Khulfa A‘la Hazrat and Monthly M‘araf -i- Raza Karachi, but more attention is needed for the purpose. In running lines an account of 25 out of 33 Ulama of Haramain is given. These accounts have been extracted from Arabic books mentioned in the endnotes.
1. Sheikh Muhammad Sa’id bin Muhammad Salam Ba Busail (1829-1912AD/1245-1330AH)
Born and died in Makkah, he was formerly appointed as mudarris in Masjad-i-Haram and then designation of Mufti -i-Shaf‘i was entrusted to him by the government. Afterward he was appointed as sheikh ul Ulama, a duty of supervising all the Ulama of the entire Holy city. He served this post till his death. He also made some publications and was known as Sheikh ul Islam. When a contemporary gher muqallad writer of India Maulavi Muhammad Bashir Sehswani (d.1905/1323) and others of this school, published an Arabic book Sianat ul Insan which was against the creeds and practices of Ahl -i- Sunnat, the Sheikh wrote two books as rejoinder to this book. One of these was al Qoul ul Majdi, which has been published from Indonesia. Two sons of the Sheikh, Sheikh Abu Bakr ba Busail (Alive in 1930/1349) and Sheikh ‘Ali ba Busail (d.1934/1353) were also renowned scholars of Makkah14.
Sheikh Muhammad Sa’id also wrote supporting fatawa and reviews on two more books of Fazal Barelvi and one book of Maulana Ghulam Dastgir Qasoori (d.1897/1315). Fazal Barelvi‘s books include al Dawlat al Makkiah bil Madat ul Ghabiyyah and Fatawa al Harmain bi Rajf Nadwat ul Main while that of Qasoori was Taqdis ul Wakil an Tawhin ul Rashid wal Khalil. Certain Urdu chroniclers mentioned the Sheikh as khalifaof Fazal Brelvi15, but it is not correct.
2. Sheikh Ahmad bin Abdullah Abu al Khair Mirdad (1843-1916AD/1259-1335AH)
Born and died in Makkah, he had been the imam, khatib and mudarris in Haram mosque. He was also naib of Mufti Ahnaf, while the designation of Mufti was also presented to him but he declined to accept. The government had established a department for the supervision of the affairs of a large number of imams and khatibs appointed in Haram, and sheikh ul a‘imma wal khutba was the head. This designation had been in the family of Mirdad for almost two centuries. Sheikh Abd ur Rehman Mirdad (d.1793) was the first in chain to be appointed. When Fazal Barelvi visited the Harmain, Sheikh Ahmad was on the designation, while his son Sheikh Abdullah Abu al Khair Mirdad, author of Nasr un Noor, was last in the chain who held the designation16 Besides Husaam-ul-Haramain the Sheikh also wrote review on al Dawlat ul Makkiyah. On this occasion Fazal Barelvi entrusted khilafat to Sheikh’s son Abdullah17while Maulana Abdul Ahad Pili bhiti (d.1933) who was with Fazal Barelvi, took allocation of sanad wa rawait18 from the Sheikh.
3. Sheikh Muhammad Saleh bin Sadiq Kamal (1847-1914AD/1263-1332AH)
Born and died in Makkah, he was imam, khatib and mudarris of the Haram. He was appointed as qadi of Jeddah city in 1297AH, but resigned after two years in love to returning of the holy city of Makkah, where he accepted the seat of naib qadi. He was the right hand and a close one to the Governor of the Makkah named Sayyid Abdul Mutlab bin Ghalib Hussainy (d.1885). He was appointed Mufti Ahnaf in later days. He was famous in delivering lectures on Hadaya in Haram mosque. He wrote some books on topics like tragedy of Karbala.
He wrote a book on the topic of hila isqat entitled al Qawl ul Mukhtasir al Mufid li Ahl al Ansaf fi Bian ud Dalil li ‘Amal Isqat as Salat wal Sawm al Mashhur ‘ind al Ahnaf. Five leading Hanfi Ulama of Makkah wrote reviews on this book in which the review of Sheikh Ahmad Abu al Khair Mirdad was also included. The book was published in Makkah for the first time in 1910/1328 by Matba‘ Majdia and then in Lahore in 1930/1358 by Sabir Electric Press. In recent times the book has been translated into Urdu by Professor Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Zakir Hussain Shah Sialvi on the instigation of Hazrat Khawja Abu al Khair Muhammad Abdullah Jan of Naqshbandi Khankah of Murshid Abad Peshawar. With Arabic text, it has been published entitled as Hila Isqat ki Sara‘i Hisiat from Murshad Abad Peshawar19 Besides Husaam-ul-Haramain Sheikh Saleh Kamal has also written reviews on al Dawlat ul Makkiyah, Fatawa ul Harmainand Taqdis ul Wakil which have been published. He was also granted Khilafat by Fazal Barelvi with permission in different Islamic sciences.
4. Sheikh ‘Ali bin Sadiq Kamal (1837-1917AD/1253-1335AH)
Born and died in Makkah, he was mudarris in Haram mosque. He was an important Hanfi ‘alim and had been appointed as qadi in sharia court of Jeddah. He was famous for his humiliation and gratification. He also wrote review on al Dawlat ul Makkiyah20.
5. Maulana Shah Muhammad Abdul Haq Alahabadi Muhajar Makki (1836-1915AD/1252-1333AH)
Born at Allah abad in India, he migrated to Makkah afterward and died there. He was a mufassar, muhaddis,Sufi and sahib -i- karamat. For about half century he delivered lectures on his residence in Makkah during which a large number of Ulama and mashaikh from all over the world learnt from him the knowledge of tafsir, hadith and tasawwuf etc. They also took permission for Dalail ul Khairat from Maulana. Maulana also wrote some books which gained public fame. He wrote commentary on Minhaj ul ‘Abidin of Imam Ghazali, which has been published. More over he wrote an Arabic note on Tafsir Nasfi which has been published from India in three volumes entitled as alAklil ‘ala Madarik al Tanzil21. He was also the reviewer of al Dawlat ul Makkiyah.
6. Sheikh Sayyid Muhammad Marzuqi Abu Hussain bin Abd ur Rehman Hussaini (1867-1946AD/1284-1365AH)
Born and died in Makkah, he was a Hanfi ‘alim, hafiz Quran and imam of travih in Nabvi mosque. Besides holding the post of naib qadi in Makkah, he had been appointed on several official and non official duties in Ottoman age. He had been the member of education department and khilafat conference during Hashmite rule. In Saudi government he was appointed sadr judge of local court and also was the member of Islamic conference22.
7. Sheikh Umer bin abuBakr ba Junaid (1857-1935AD/1274-1354AH)
Born at Hazarmot in South Yemen, he migrated to Makkah afterward and died there. Besides hafiz Quran and qari, he was murshid of sufi silsila ‘alvia. He had been a mudarris of hadith, tafsir and shafite fiqh. He was appointed as Mufti Shafi’a in Hashmite rule. He gained fame for the love of Ahl ul Bait. A special lecture of Sheikh was used to hold at the palace of Shah Hussain, the founder of Hashmite rule. The King also used to consult the Sheikh in several affairs and paid confidence to him23.
Besides Husaam-ul-Haramain Sheikh has also written reviews on al Dawlat ul Makkiyah and Fatawa ul Harmain
8. Sheikh Muhammad ‘Abid bin Hussain Maliki (1859-1923AD/1275-1341AH)
Born and died in Makkah, his father was Mufti Malikiya and several Ulama of this family had been attached to this designation. Though he was mudarris at Haram mosque, his residence was not less than any madrasah. He had been Mufti Malikiya in Ottoman and Hashmite reigns. Historians have specially mentioned the atrocities made by Governor of Makkah24, Sayyid ‘awn Rafiq Pasha bin Muhammad Hasni (d.1905/1323). He exiled some leading Ulama from Makkah for their righteousness; the Sheikh was one of them. He could not come to his native city for several years. He was the author of some books and pamphlets; one of these is comprised of the justifications and proofs of wasilah25.
A renowned faqih of India, the author of the famous book Bahar -i- Shariat, Maulana Muhammad Amjad ‘Ali A’zmi (d.1948/1327) met the Sheikh during his tour to Makkah in 1338AH26.
Besides Husaam-ul-Haramain Sheikh has also written reviews on al Dawlat ul Makkiyah and Taqdis ul Wakil. He was also khalifa of Fazal Barelvi.