But as to those in whose hearts is a disease, it will add doubt to their
doubt, and they shall die infidels.
Do they not see that they are proved every year once or twice? Yet they turn
not, neither are they warned.
And whenever a Sura is sent down, they look at one another. . . . "Doth any
one see you?" then turn they aside. God shall turn their hearts aside,
because they are a people devoid of understanding.
Now hath an Apostle come unto you from among yourselves: your iniquities
press heavily upon him. He is careful over you, and towards the faithful,
If they turn away, SAY: God sufficeth me: there is no God but He. In Him put
I my trust. He is the possessor of the Glorious Throne!
1 The "Immunity" is said by some commentators to have formed originally one
Sura with the eighth, p.375, and that on this account the usual formula of
invocation is not prefixed. The Caliph Othman accounted for this omission of
the Bismillah from the fact of this Sura having been revealed, with the
exception of a few verses, shortly before the prophet's death, who left no
instructions on the subject. (Mishcat 1, p. 526.) The former verses from 1-
12, or, according to other traditions, from 1-40, were recited to the
pilgrims at Mecca by Ali, Ann. Hej. 9.
2 Lit. that ye cannot weaken God.
3 Shawâl, Dhu'lkaada, Dhu'lhajja, Muharram. These months were observed by the
Arabians previous to the time of Muhammad.
4 Al Abbas, Muhammad's uncle, when taken prisoner, had defended his unbelief,
and declared that he had performed these two important duties. Beidh.
5 Or, shall issue his behest.
6 At the battle of Honein, a valley three miles from Mecca (A.H. 8), the
Muhammadans, presuming upon the great superiority of their numbers, 12,000
men, over the enemy who were only 4000 strong, were seized with a panic
throughout their ranks. Order was restored and victory obtained through the
bravery and presence of mind of Muhammad and his kindred.
7 The enemy attacked and routed you on all sides.
8 See ii. 249, p. 365.
9 Through the breaking off commercial relations.
10 Or, by right of subjection, Sale; in cash, Wahl.; all without exception,
K. i.e. as if by counting hands.
11 Thus Hilchoth Melachim, vi. 4. The Jews are commanded, in case of war with
the Gentiles, to offer peace on two conditions:�that they become tributaries,
and renounce idolatry. Thus also chap. viii. 4.
12 The Muhammadan tradition is that Ezra was raised to life after he had been
lost during the captivity, to the scribes. That the Jews regarded Ezra as a
son of God is due to Muhammad's own invention. See Sonna, 462 v. H. v.
Purgstall's Fundgruben des Orients, i. 288. The Talmudists, however, use very
exaggerated language concerning him. Thus, Sanhedrin, 21, 22. "Ezra would
have been fully worthy to have been the lawgiver, if Moses had not preceded
him." Josephus, Ant. xi. 5, 5, speaks of his high repute ([greek text]) with
the people, and of his honourable burial. Muhammad probably represents the
Jews as having deified Ezra with the view of showing that they, as well as
the Christians, had tampered with the doctrine of the Divine unity.
13 An allusion to the word Rabbi, used by Jews and Christians, of their
priests, etc., but in Arabic of God only. Comp. Matt. xxiii. 7, 8.
14 See Sur. [cxiv.] v. 85.
15 The intercalation of a month every third year, in order to reduce the
lunar to the solar years, is justified by the Muhammadans from this passage.
16 See Sur. xiii. 26, p. 336 (n.).
17 With Abubekr. lit. second of two.
18 Wahk. reich oder arm. Savary, young or old. Ibn Hisam (924) pronounces
this to be the oldest verse of the Sura.
19 This refers to the expedition of Tabouk, a town half-way between Medina
and Damascus, against the Greeks, A.H. 9. Muhammad was now at the head of an
army of 30,000 men. Verses 42-48 are said to have been revealed during the
20 Lit. prepared a preparation.
21 Lit. written.
22 That is, victory or martyrdom.
23 Compare Sura iii. 172. Geiger, p. 76, shews that this is precisely the
teaching of the Talmudists with regard to the wicked.
24 The poor, i.e. absolute paupers; the needy i.e. those in some temporary
25 The petty Arab chiefs with whom Muhammad made terms after the battle of
Honein, in order to secure their followers.
26 There seems to be a play, in the original, upon the similarity of the
words for injure and ear.
27 Lit. (are) the one from the other.
28 From giving alms.
29 Comp. Sura liv. 15, p. 77. The traditions as to the collection of pitch
from wood of the Ark, in the time of Berosus (B.C. 250?) for amulets, and of
the wood itself, in the time of Josephus (Ant. i. 3, 6, c. Apion, i. 19) must
have reached Muhammad through his Jewish informants. Fragments are said to
have existed in the days of Benjamin of Tudela, and to have been carried away
by the Chalif Omar, from the mountain al Djoudi to the mosque of Gazyrat Ibn
30 To kill Muhammad. The circumstances are given in a tradition preserved ap.
Weil, p. 265, note. The meaning is, that the people of Medina, who had become
enriched by Muhammad's residence among them, had no better motive for
disapproving the attempt upon his life. Lit. they had nothing to avenge but
31 Prayers for the dead were customary among the Arabians before Muhammad.
See Freyt. Einl. p. 221.
32 The Mohadiers were those who fled with Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, the
Ansars his auxiliaries in Medina.
33 The commentators are not agreed as to the nature of this double
34 The fine of a third part of all their substance was imposed upon seven of
those who had held back from the expedition to Tabouk. This is the fault
spoken of in the preceding verse.
35 The tribe of Beni Ganim had built a mosque, professedly from religious
motives, which they invited Muhammad on his way to Tabouk to dedicate by a
solemn act of prayer. Muhammad, however, discovered that the real motive of
the Beni Ganim was jealousy of the tribe of Beni Amru Ibn Auf, and of the
mosque at Kuba, and that there existed and understanding between them and his
enemy the monk Abu Amir, who was then in Syria, for the purpose of urging the
Greeks to attack the Muslims and their mosque. It is to him that the word
36 To the dwellers at Kuba. Verses 108-111 were probably promulged on the
return from Tabouk previous to the entry into Medina.
37 Abu Amir.
38 Or, never stand thou in it (to pray).
39 The mosque of Kuba, about three miles S.S.E. of Medina. The spot where
this verse was revealed is still pointed out, and called "Makam el Ayat," or
"the place of signs." Burton's "Pilgrimage," ii. p. 214.Muhammad laid the
first brick, and it was the first place of public prayer in El Islam. Ib. p.
40 The Beni Ganim.
41 That is, up to the time of their death they will never reflect on what
they have done without bitter pangs of conscience. See Weil's M. der Prophet,
pp. 268, 269, and note.
42 Lit. limits, i.e. laws.
43 Shall have their recompense.
44 See verse 101.
45 Lit. turned aside, swerved.
46 Three Ansars who did not accompany Muhammad to Tabouk, and who on his
return were put under interdict, and not released from it till after fifty