The Project Gutenberg ebook of The Koran



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Mighty, the Wise!


His the Kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth; He maketh alive and killeth;

and He hath power over all things!


He is the first and the last; the Seen and the Hidden;2 and He knoweth all

things!
It is He who in six days created the Heavens and the Earth, then ascended His

throne. He knoweth that which entereth the earth, and that which goeth forth

from it, and what cometh down from Heaven, and what mounteth up to it; and

wherever ye are, He is with you; and God beholdeth all your actions!
His the kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth; and to God shall all things

return!
He causeth the night to pass into the day, and He causeth the day to pass

into the night: and He knoweth the very secrets of the bosom!
Believe in God and his apostle, and bestow in alms of that whereof God hath

made you heirs: for whoever among you believe and give alms�their's shall be

a great recompense.
What hath come to you that ye believe not in God, although the apostle

exhorteth you to believe in your Lord, and He hath accepted your alliance�if

ye are true believers?
He it is who hath sent down clear tokens upon His servant, that He may bring

you out of darkness into light; and truly, Kind, Merciful to you is God.


And what hath come to you that ye expend not for the cause of God? since the

heritage of the Heavens and of the Earth is God's only! Those among you who

contributed before the victory, and fought, shall be differently treated from

certain others among you! Such shall have a nobler grade than those who

contributed and fought after it. But a goodly recompense hath God promised to

all; and God is fully informed of your actions.


Who is he that will lend a generous loan to God? So will He double it to him,

and he shall have a noble reward.


One day thou shalt see the believers, men and women, with their light running

before them, and on their right hand.3 The angels shall say to them, "Good

tidings for you this day of gardens beneath whose shades the rivers flow, in

which ye shall abide for ever!" This the great bliss!


On that day the hypocrites, both men and women, shall say to those who

believe, "Tarry for us, that we may kindle our light at yours." It shall be

said, "Return ye back, and seek light for yourselves." But between them shall

be set a wall with a gateway, within which shall be the Mercy, and in front,

without it, the Torment. They shall cry to them, "Were we not with you?" They

shall say, "Yes! but ye led yourselves into temptation, and ye delayed, and

ye doubted, and the good things ye craved deceived you, till the doom of God

arrived:�and the deceiver deceived you in regard to God."


On that day, therefore, no ransom shall be taken from you or from those who

believe not:�your abode the fire!�This shall be your master!4 and wretched

the journey thither!
Hath not the time come, for those who believe, to humble their hearts at the

warning of God and at the truth which he hath sent down? and that they be not

as those to whom the Scriptures were given heretofore, whose lifetime was

prolonged, but whose hearts were hardened, and many of them were perverse?


Know that God quickeneth the earth after its death! Now have we made these

signs clear to you, that ye may understand.


Verily, they who give alms, both men and women, and they who lend a generous

loan to God,�doubled shall it be to them�and they shall have a noble

recompense.
And they who believed in God and his apostle are the men of truth, and the

witnesses in the presence of their Lord;5 They shall have their recompense

and their light: But as for the infidels, and those who give the lie to our

signs, these shall be the inmates of Hell.


Know ye that this world's life is only a sport, and pastime, and show, and a

cause of vainglory among you! And the multiplying of riches and children is

like the plants which spring up after rain�Their growth rejoiceth the

husband-man; then they wither away, and thou seest them all yellow; then they

become stubble. And in the next life is a severe chastisement,
Or else pardon from God and His satisfaction: and this world's life is but a

cheating fruition.6


Vie in hasting after pardon from your Lord, and Paradise�whose outspread is

as the outspread of the Heaven and of the Earth: Prepared is it for those who

believe in God and His apostles: Such is the bounty of God: to whom He will

He giveth it: and of immense bounty is God!


No mischance chanceth either on earth or in your own persons, but ere we

created them, it was in the Book;7�for easy is this to God�


Lest ye distress yourselves if good things escape you, and be over joyous for

what falleth to your share. God loveth not the presumptuous, the boaster,


Who are covetous themselves and incite others to covetousness. But whose

turneth away from almsgiving�Ah! God is the Rich, the Praiseworthy.


We have sent our apostles with the clear tokens, and we have caused the Book

and the balance8 to descend with them, that men might observe fairness. And

we have sent down IRON. Dire evil9 resideth in it, as well as advantage, to

mankind! God would know who will assist Him and his apostle in secret.

Verily, God is Powerful, Strong.
And of old sent we Noah and Abraham, and on their seed conferred the gift of

prophecy, and the Book; and some of them we guided aright; but many were evil

doers.
Then we caused our apostles to follow in their footsteps; and we caused Jesus

the son of Mary to follow them; and we gave him the Evangel,10 and we put

into the hearts of those who followed him kindness and compassion: but as to

the monastic life, they invented it themselves. The desire only of pleasing

God did we prescribe to them, and this they observed not as it ought to have

been observed: but to such of them as believed gave we their reward, though

many of them were perverse.
O ye who believe! fear God and believe in his apostle: two portions of his

mercy will He give you. He will bestow on you light to walk in, and He will

forgive you: for God is Forgiving, Merciful;
That the people of the Book may know that they have no control over aught of

the favours of God, and that these gifts of grace11 are in the hands of God,

and that He vouchsafeth them to whom he will; for God is of immense bounty.

_______________________


1 The general tone of this Sura shews it to have been revealed at Medina, and

from verse 22 it may be inferred that its true date lies between the battle

of Ohod and the battle of the Ditch.
2 Lit. the exterior and the interior.
3 To guide them on their route to paradise.
4 Patronus. Mar. Beschutzer. Ullm. Or, what ye have deserved.
5 Against the infidels.
6 Supellex deceptionis. Mar.
7 Of our eternal decrees.
8 Brought by Gabriel to Noah, who imparted its use to his posterity. So say

the commentators. But the expression seems rather to be figurative. Comp.

Sura lv. 6, p. 74.
9 Or, mighty warlike strength, but the antithesis requires the rendering

given in the text. Comp. Gen. iv. 22, and Michna Tr. Aboth, 5, 9.


10 We are not to understand by the word Evangel the actual volume of the New

Testament, or any one of its component parts, but rather the revelation made

to Jesus by God himself, which Muhammad may have imagined to have been

committed to writing subsequently, in the same way as his own Koran.


11 The word in the original is the same for favours, gifts of grace, bounty.

The reference is to the gift of prophecy (Beidh.) mentioned verse 27.

SURA IV.�WOMEN1 [C.]
MEDINA.�175 Verses
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
O MEN! fear your Lord, who hath created you of one man (nafs, soul), and of

him created his wife, and from these twain hath spread abroad so many men and

WOMEN. And fear ye God, in whose name ye ask mutual favours,�and reverence

the wombs that bare you. Verily is God watching over you!


And give to the orphans their property; substitute not worthless things of

your own for their valuable ones, and devour not their property after adding

it to your own; for this is a great crime.
And if ye are apprehensive that ye shall not deal fairly with orphans, then,

of other women who seem good in your eyes, marry but two, or three, or four;2

and if ye still fear that ye shall not act equitably, then one only; or the

slaves whom ye have acquired: this will make justice on your part easier.

Give women their dowry freely; but if of themselves they give up aught

thereof to you, then enjoy it as convenient, and profitable:


And entrust not to the incapable the substance which God hath placed with you

for their support; but maintain them therewith, and clothe them, and speak to

them with kindly speech.
And make trial of orphans until they reach the age of marriage; and if ye

perceive in them a sound judgment, then hand over their substance to them;

but consume ye it not wastefully, or by hastily entrusting it to them;
Because they are growing up. And let the rich guardian not even touch it; and

let him who is poor use it for his support (eat of it) with discretion.


And when ye make over their substance to them, then take witnesses in their

presence: God also maketh a sufficient account.


Men ought to have a part of what their parents and kindred leave; and women3

a part of what their parents and kindred leave: whether it be little or much,

let them have a stated portion.
And when they who are of kin are present at the division, and the orphans and

the poor, let them too have a share; and speak to them with kindly speech.


And let those be afraid to wrong the orphans, who, should they leave behind

them weakly offspring, would be solicitous on their account. Let them,

therefore, fear God, and let them propose what is right.
Verily they who swallow the substance of the orphan wrongfully, shall swallow

down only fire into their bellies, and shall burn in the flame!


With regard to your children, God commandeth you to give the male the portion

of two females; and if they be females more than two, then they shall have

two-thirds of that which their father hath left: but if she be an only

daughter, she shall have the half; and the father and mother of the deceased

shall each of them have a sixth part of what he hath left, if he have a

child; but if he have no child, and his parents be his heirs, then his mother

shall have the third: and if he have brethren, his mother shall have the

sixth, after paying the bequests he shall have bequeathed, and his debts. As

to your fathers, or your children, ye know not which of them is the most

advantageous to you. This is the law of God. Verily, God is Knowing, Wise!


Half of what your wives leave shall be your's, if they have no issue; but if

they have issue, then a fourth of what they leave shall be your's, after

paying the bequests they shall bequeath, and debts.
And your wives shall have a fourth part of what ye leave, if ye have no

issue; but if ye have issue, then they shall have an eighth part of what ye

leave, after paying the bequests ye shall bequeath, and debts.
If a man or a woman make a distant relation their heir, and he or she have a

brother or a sister, each of these two shall have a sixth; but if there are

more than this, then shall they be sharers in a third, after payment of the

bequests he shall have bequeathed, and debts,


Without loss to any one. This is the ordinance of God, and God is Knowing,

Gracious!


These are the precepts of God; and whoso obeyeth God and his prophet, him

shall God bring into gardens beneath whose shades the rivers flow, therein to

abide for ever: and this, the great blessedness!
And whoso shall rebel against God and his apostle, and shall break His

bounds, him shall God place in the fire to abide therein for ever; and his

shall be a shameful torment.
If any of your women be guilty of whoredom, then bring four witnesses against

them from among yourselves; and if they bear witness to the fact, shut them

up within their houses till death release them,4 or God make some way for

them.
And if two men among you commit the same crime, then punish them both; but if

they turn and amend, then let them be: for God is He who turneth, Merciful!
With God himself will the repentance of those who have done evil ignorantly,

and then turn speedily unto Him, be accepted. These! God will turn unto

them:for God is Knowing, Wise!
But no place of repentance shall there be for those who do evil, until, when

death is close to one of them, he saith, "Now verily am I turned to God;" nor

to those who die unbelievers. These! we have made ready for them a grievous

torment!
O believers! it is not allowed you to be heirs of your wives against their

will; nor to hinder them from marrying, in order to take from them part of

the dowry you had given them, unless they have been guilty of undoubted

lewdness; but associate kindly with them: for if ye are estranged from them,

haply ye are estranged from that in which God hath placed abundant good.


And if ye be desirous to exchange one wife for another, and have given one of

them a talent, make no deduction from it. Would ye take it by slandering her,

and with manifest wrong?
How, moreover, could ye take it, when one of you hath gone in unto the other,

and they have received from you a strict bond of union?


And marry not women whom your fathers have married: for this is a shame, and

hateful, and an evil way: though what is past5 may be allowed.


Forbidden to you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and

your aunts, both on the father and mother's side, and your nieces on the

brother and sister's side, and your foster-mothers, and your foster-sisters,

and the mothers of your wives, and your step-daughters who are your wards,

born of your wives to whom ye have gone in: (but if ye have not gone in unto

them, it shall be no sin in you to marry them;) and the wives of your sons

who proceed out of your loins; and ye may not have two sisters; except where

it is already done. Verily, God is Indulgent, Merciful!


Forbidden to you also are married women, except those who are in your hands

as slaves: This is the law of God for you. And it is allowed you, beside

this, to seek out wives by means of your wealth, with modest conduct, and

without fornication. And give those with whom ye have cohabited their dowry.

This is the law. But it shall be no crime in you to make agreements over and

above the law. Verily, God is Knowing, Wise!


And whoever of you is not rich enough to marry free believing women, then let

him marry such of your believing maidens as have fallen into your hands as

slaves; God well knoweth your faith. Ye are sprung the one from the other.

Marry them, then, with the leave of their masters, and give them a fair

dower: but let them be chaste and free from fornication, and not entertainers

of lovers.


If after marriage they commit adultery, then inflict upon them half the

penalty enacted for free married women. This law is for him among you who is

afraid of doing wrong:6 but if ye abstain,7 it will be better for you. And

God is Lenient, Merciful.


God desireth to make this known to you, and to guide you into the ways of

those who have been before you, and to turn Him unto you in mercy. And God is

Knowing, Wise!
God desireth thus to turn him unto you: but they who follow their own lusts,

desire that with great swerving should ye swerve! God desireth to make your

burden light: for man hath been created weak.
O believers! devour not each other's substance in mutual frivolities;8 unless

there be a trafficking among you by your own consent: and commit not

suicide:�of a truth God is merciful to you.
And whoever shall do this maliciously and wrongfully, we will in the end cast

him into the fire; for this is easy with God.


If ye avoid the great sins which ye are forbidden, we will blot out your

faults, and we will cause you to enter Paradise with honourable entry.


Covet not the gifts by which God hath raised some of you above others. The

men shall have a portion according to their deserts, and the women a portion

according to their deserts. Of God, therefore, ask his gifts. Verily, God

hath knowledge of all things.


To every one have we appointed kindred, as heirs of what parents and

relatives, and those with whom ye have joined right hands in contract, leave.

Give therefore, to each their portion. Verily, God witnesseth all things.
Men are superior to women on account of the qualities with which God hath

gifted the one above the other, and on account of the outlay they make from

their substance for them. Virtuous women are obedient, careful, during the

husband's absence, because God hath of them been careful.9 But chide those

for whose refractoriness ye have cause to fear; remove them into beds apart,

and scourage them: but if they are obedient to you, then seek not occasion

against them: verily, God is High, Great!
And if ye fear a breach between man and wife, then send a judge chosen from

his family, and a judge chosen from her family: if they are desirous of

agreement, God will effect a reconciliation between them; verily, God is

knowing, apprised of all!


Worship God, and join not aught with Him in worship. Be good to parents,10

and to kindred, and to orphans, and to the poor, and to a neighbour, whether

kinsman or new-comer, and to a fellow traveller, and to the wayfarer, and to

the slaves whom your right hands hold; verily, God loveth not the proud, the

vain boaster,
Who are niggardly themselves, and bid others be niggards, and hide away what

God of his bounty hath given them. We have made ready a shameful chastisement

for the unbelievers,
And for those who bestow their substance in alms to be seen of men, and

believe not in God and in the last day. Whoever hath Satan for his companion,

an evil companion hath he!
But what blessedness would be theirs, if they should believe in God and in

the last day, and bestow alms out of what God hath vouchsafed them; for God

taketh knowledge of them!
God truly will not wrong any one of the weight of a mote; and if there be any

good deed, he will repay it doubly; and from his presence shall be given a

great recompense.
How! when we shall bring up against them witnesses from all peoples, and when

we shall bring thee up as witness against these? On that day they who were

Infidels and rebelled against the prophet, shall wish that the earth were

levelled with them! But nothing shall they hide from God.


O ye true believers,11 come not to prayer when ye are drunken, but wait till

ye can understand what ye utter; nor when ye are polluted, unless ye be

travelling on the road, until ye have washed you. If ye be sick, or on a

journey, or have come from the unclean place, or have touched a woman, and ye

find not water, then rub pure sand, and bathe your face and your hands with

it: verily, God is Lenient, Merciful.


Hast thou not remarked those12 to whom a part of the Scriptures hath been

given? Vendors are they of error, and are desirous that ye go astray from the

way. But God knoweth your enemies; and God is a sufficient patron, and God is

a sufficient helper!


Among the Jews are those who displace the words of their Scriptures, and say,

"We have heard, and we have not obeyed. Hear thou, but as one that heareth

not; and LOOK AT US;"13 perplexing with their tongues, and wounding the Faith

by their revilings.


But if they would say, "We have heard, and we obey; hear thou, and REGARD

US;" it were better for them, and more right. But God hath cursed them for

their unbelief. Few only of them are believers!
O ye to whom the Scriptures have been given! believe in what we have sent

down confirmatory of the Scripture which is in your hands, ere we efface your

features, and twist your head round backward, or curse you as we cursed the

sabbath-breakers:14 and the command of God was carried into effect.


Verily, God will not forgive the union of other gods with Himself! But other

than this will forgive to whom He pleaseth. And He who uniteth gods with God

hath devised a great wickedness.
Hast thou not marked those who hold themselves to be righteous? But God

holdeth righteous whom He will; and they shall not be wronged the husk of a

date stone.
Behold how they devise a lie of God! Therein is wickedness manifest enough!
Hast thou not observed those to whom a part of the Scriptures hath been

given?15 They believe in Djibt and Thagout, and say of the infidels, "These

are guided in a batter path than those who hold the faith."
These are they whom God hath cursed: and for him whom God hath cursed, thou

shalt by on means find a helper.


Shall they have a share in the kingdom who would not bestow on their fellow

men even the speck in a date stone?


Envy they other men what God of his bounty hath given them? We gave of old

the Scriptures and wisdom to the line of Abraham, and we gave them a grand

kingdom:
�Some of them believe on the prophet and some turn aside from him:�the flame

of Hell is their sufficing punishment!


Those who disbelieve our signs we will in the end cast into the fire: so oft

as their skins shall be well burnt,16 we will change them for fresh skins,

that they may taste the torment. Verily God is Mighty, Wise!
But as for those who have believed, and done the things that are right, we

will bring being them into gardens 'neath which the rivers flow therein to

abide eternally;�therein shall they have wives of stainless purity: and we

will bring them into aye-shadowing shades.


Verily, God enjoineth you to give back your trusts to their owners, and when

ye judge between men, to judge with fairness. Excellent is the practice to

which God exhorteth you. God Heareth, Beholdeth!
O ye who believe! obey God and obey the apostle, and those among you invested

with authority; and if in aught ye differ, bring it before God and the

apostle, if ye believe in God and in the latter day. This is the best and

fairest way of settlement.


Hast thou not marked those who profess that they believe in what hath been

sent down to thee, and what hath been sent down before thee? Fain would they

be judged before Thagout, though commanded not to believe in him; and fain

would Satan make them wander with wanderings wide of truth.


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