the creed of Abraham, the sound in faith; for he was not of those who join
gods with God.
SAY: My prayers and my worship and my life and my death are unto God, Lord of
the Worlds. He hath no associate. This am I commanded, and I am the first of
SAY: Shall I seek any other Lord than God, when He is Lord of all things? No
soul shall labour but for itself; and no burdened one shall bear another's
burden. At last ye shall return to your Lord, and he will declare that to you
about which you differ.
And it is He who hath made you the successors of others on the earth, and
hath raised some of you above others by various grades, that he may prove you
by his gifts. Verily thy Lord is swift to punish. But He is also Gracious,
1 Lit. their affair would have been decided. In that case there would no
longer have been an opportunity for the warnings of the prophets and for
repentance, but the angels would at once have executed the divine judgments.
2 See Sura xli. 13, p. 193.
3 See Sura [xc.] xiii. 36.
4 This denunciation is repeated in eleven other passages of the Koran, and
coupled with the known reverence of the early Muslims for what they
considered as the word of God, must have greatly tended to secure the
revelations of the Prophet from being in any way tampered with and corrupted.
5 They are self-convicted of their own hypocrisy and of the hollowness of
6 The Resurrection, etc.
7 Abu Jahl had said: "Muhammad speaks truth, and he never said a falsehood;
but, if the Banu Chosai, who enjoy already the offices of bearing the
standard, of providing the pilgrims with water, and of keeping the keys of
the Kaaba, should also obtain the Prophetship, what would remain for the
other Koreisch." Kashaf in 1.
8 See Sura lii. 38, p. 65. These passages may allude to the ladder set up in
a tower by Wacih ben Salamah, one of the ancient doorkeepers of the Caaba, by
which he professed to mount up to God and receive divine Oracles. Freyt.
Einl. p. 371.
9 A community. Comp. Prov. xxx. 25, 26. Animals as well as mankind are under
the control of God, are held within the limits of his decrees, are
accountable to him, and will stand before him in the judgment.
10 Of the Eternal decrees.
11 Or, embellished, made it fair-seeming.
12 Lit. openly, i.e. preceded by some sign.
13 The Rabbins speak of the three keys in the hand of God. Tr. Tanith, fol.
15 That is, during sleep. See Sura xxxix. 43, p. 258. Or, layeth to rest.
Mar. renders literally, defungi faciet vos, id est, obdormiscere. Thus also
Beidh. But see the use of the same word in the next verse.
16 Or, to perplex you (by dividing you into) sects.
17 Comp. Sura [cx.] 1x. 13.
18 Azar. This form is probably borrowed from Athar, as Terah is called by
Eusebius. See Maracci Prodr. iv. 90. Compare a similar narrative (Midr.
Rabbah on Gen. par. 17) in which Abraham is given over by his idolatrous
father Zarah to Nimrod, who says, "We will adore the Fire:" "Rather," said
Abraham, "the water which puts out fire." "The Water then"�"Rather the clouds
that bear the water." "The Clouds then"�"Rather the wind which scatters the
clouds." "The Wind then"�"Rather man who endures the wind." Whereupon Abraham
was thrown into the furnace. It is quite possible that in what follows,
Muhammad may have intended to imply that Abraham had renounced the Sabian
starworship of his fathers, and to vindicate him from the habit of consulting
the stars attributed to him by the Talmudists. Shabbath, fol. 156, col. 1.
"Abraham replied, I have consulted my Astrology." Comp. Rashi on Gen. xv. 5.
See Maim. Yad Hachaz. vii. 6.
19 Comp. Gen. xv. 5.
20 See Sura xxi. 52.
21 Lit. unless that my Lord shall will anything.
22 Or, confuse not their faith with wrong, injustice, i.e. idolatry.
24 This verse and the following were probably added at Medina after the
Hejira; at least it is difficult to conceive that Muhammad would have
ventured thus to have written at Mecca.
25 This verse is said to have been revealed at Medina and to be aimed at the
false prophets Moseilama, Aswad and Amsi; also at Abdallah Ibn Saad,
Muhammad's secretary, who for corrupting the sacred text and apostacy, was
one of the ten proscribed at the taking of Mecca.
26 In the womb.
27 Of all sorts.
28 Lit. attaineth to. Mr. Lane renders, "the eyes see not Him, but He seeth
29 The verses of the Koran.
30 Comp. Ex. xxii. 28.
31 Notwithstanding this disclaimer, the Muslim tradition, etc. speak of many
of their Prophet's miracles. See Maracci's Prodr. p. ii. p. 16, and 30 46.
32 Verses 118-121 seem misplaced, and should probably follow 154.
33 Lit. the outside of iniquity and its inside. Some understand these words
of open sins, and secret sins.
34 That is, God's method of dealing with the guilty was to send apostles
previous to the execution of his judgments.
35 It appears to have been the custom of the idolatrous Arabs to set apart
one portion of their fields for the Supreme God, and the other for the
fall from the part consecrated to the idols into that consecrated to God,
they restored it, but if the reverse occurred, they gave it to the idols.
God, said they, is rich and can dispense with it. The secret, however, was
that the idols' portion was reserved for the priests, Beidhawi. Freytag
mentions the names of 73 idols worshipped by the Arab tribes, previous to
Islam (Einl. pp. 270 and 342 357) and generally with Allah, as Supreme God.
36 Comp. Sura [cxiv.] v. 102.
37 Comp. Sura xvii. 33, p. 167.
38 See verse 120 above.
39 This very abrupt transition to Jewish history seems to indicate that a
passage between this and the preceding verse is lost.
40 Lit. we were careless of their studies
SURA XIII.�THUNDER [XC.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
ELIF. LAM. MIM. RA.1 These, the signs of the Book! And that which hath been
sent down to thee from thy Lord is the very truth: But the greater part of
men will not believe.
It is God who hath reared the Heavens without pillars thou canst behold; then
mounted his throne, and imposed laws on the sun and moon: each travelleth to
its appointed goal. He ordereth all things. He maketh his signs clear, that
ye may have firm faith in a meeting with your Lord.
And He it is who hath outstretched the earth, and placed on it the firm
mountains, and rivers: and of every fruit He hath placed on it two kinds: He
causeth the night to enshroud the day. Verily in this are signs for those who
And on the earth hard by each other are its various portions: gardens of
grapes and corn, and palm trees single or clustered. Though watered by the
same water, yet some make we more excellent as food than other: Verily in all
this are signs for those who understand.
If ever thou dost marvel, marvellous surely is their saying, "What! when we
have become dust, shall we be restored in a new creation?"
These are they who in their Lord believe not: these! the collars shall be on
their necks; and these shall be inmates of the fire, to abide therein for
To hasten evil rather than good will they challenge thee: but, before their
time have been like examples. Full, truly, of mercy is thy Lord unto men,