its billows�and that ye may go in quest of his bounties, and that ye might
And He hath thrown firm mountains on the earth, least it move with you; and
rivers and paths for your guidance,
And way marks. By the stars too are men guided.
Shall He then who hath created be as he who hath not created? Will ye not
And if ye would reckon up the favours of God, ye could not count them. Aye!
God is right Gracious, Merciful!
And God knoweth what ye conceal, and what ye bring to light,
While the gods whom they call on beside God, create nothing, but are
Dead are they, lifeless! and they know not
When they shall be raised!
Your God is the one God: and they who believe not in a future life, have
hearts given to denial, and are men of pride:�
Beyond a doubt God knoweth what they conceal and what they manifest:�
He truly loveth not the men of pride.
For when it is said to them, "What is this your Lord hath sent down?" they
say, "Fables of the ancients,"�
That on the day of resurrection they may bear their own entire burden, and
the burden of those whom they, in their ignorance, misled. Shall it not be a
grievous burden for them?
They who were before them did plot of old. But God attacked their building at
its foundation the roof fell on them from above; and, whence they looked not
for it, punishment overtook them:4
On the day of resurrection, too, will He shame them. He will say, "Where are
the gods ye associated with me, the subjects of your disputes?" They to whom
"the knowledge" hath been given will say, Verily, this day shall shame and
evil fall upon the infidels.
The sinners against their own souls whom the angels shall cause to die will
proffer the submission, "No evil have we done." Nay! God knoweth what ye have
Enter ye therefore the gates of Hell to remain therein for ever: and horrid
the abiding place of the haughty ones!
But to those who have feared God it shall be said, "What is this that your
Lord hath awarded?" They shall say, "That which is best. To those who do
good, a good reward in this present world; but better the mansion of the
next, and right pleasant the abode of the God-fearing!"
Gardens of Eden into which they shall enter; rivers shall flow beneath their
shades; all they wish for shall they find therein! Thus God rewardeth those
who fear Him;
To whom, as righteous persons, the angels shall say, when they receive their
souls, "Peace be on you! Enter Paradise as the meed of your labours."
What can the infidels expect but that the angels of death come upon them, or
that a sentence of thy Lord take effect? Thus did they who flourished before
them. God was not unjust to them, but to their ownselves were they unjust;
And the ill which they had done recoiled upon them, and that which they had
scoffed at encompassed them round about.
They who have joined other gods with God say, "Had He pleased, neither we nor
our fathers had worshipped aught but him; nor should we, apart from him, have
forbidden aught." Thus acted they who were before them. Yet is the duty of
the apostles other than public preaching?
And to every people have we sent an apostle saying:�Worship God and turn away
from Taghout.5 Some of them there were whom God guided, and there were others
decreed to err. But go through the land and see what hath been the end of
those who treated my apostles as liars!
If thou art anxious for their guidance, know that God will not guide him whom
He would lead astray, neither shall they have any helpers.
And they swear by God with their most sacred oath that "God will never raise
him who once is dead." Nay, but on Him is a promise binding, though most men
know it not,�
That He may clear up to them the subject of their disputes, and that the
infidels may know that they are liars.
Our word to a thing when we will it, is but to say, "Be," and it is.6
And as to those who when oppressed have fled their country for the sake of
God, we will surely provide them a goodly abode in this world, but greater
the reward of the next life, did they but know it
They who bear ills with patience and put their trust in the Lord!
None have we sent before thee but men inspired ask of those who have Books of
Monition,7 if ye know it not�
With proofs of their mission and Scriptures: and to thee have we sent down
this Book of Monition that thou mayest make clear to men what hath been sent
down to them, and that they may ponder it.
What! Are they then who have plotted mischiefs, sure that God will not cause
the earth to cleave under them? or that a chastisement will not come upon
them whence they looked not for it?
Or that He will not seize upon them in their comings and goings, while they
shall not be able to resist him?
Or that he will not seize them with some slowly wasting scourge? But verily
your Lord is Good, Gracious.
Have they not seen how everything which God hath created turneth its shadow
right and left, prostrating itself before God in all abasement?
And all in the Heavens and all on the Earth, each thing that moveth, and the
very angels, prostrate them in adoration before God, and are free from pride;
They fear their Lord who is above them, and do what they are bidden:
For God hath said, "Take not to yourselves two gods, for He is one God: me,
therefore! yea, me revere!
All in the Heavens and in the Earth is His! His due unceasing service! Will
ye then fear any other than God?
And all your blessings are assuredly from God: then, when trouble befalleth
you, to Him ye turn for help:
Then when He relieveth you of the trouble, lo! some of you join associates
with your Lord:�
To prove how thankless are they for our gifts! Enjoy yourselves then: but in
the end ye shall know the truth.
And for idols, of which they know nothing, they set apart a share of our
bounties! By God ye shall be called to account for your devices!
And they ascribe daughters unto God! Glory be to Him! But they desire them
not for themselves:8
For when the birth of a daughter is announced to any one of them, dark
shadows settle on his face, and he is sad:
He hideth him from the people because of the ill tidings: shall he keep it
with disgrace or bury it in the dust?9 Are not their judgments wrong?
To whatever is evil may they be likened who believe not in a future life;10
but God is to be likened to whatever is loftiest: for He is the Mighty, the
Should God punish men for their perverse doings, he would not leave on earth
a moving thing! but to an appointed term doth He respite them; and when their
term is come, they shall not delay or advance it an hour.
Yet what they loathe themselves do they assign to God; and their tongues
utter the lie, that theirs shall be a goodly lot. But beyond a doubt is it
that the fire awaiteth them, and that they shall be the first sent into it.
By God we have sent Apostles to nations before thee, but Satan prepared their
work for them, and this day is he their liege; and a woeful punishment doth
And we have sent down the Book to thee only, that thou mightest clear up to
them the subject of their wranglings, and as a guidance and a mercy to those
And God sendeth down water from Heaven, and by it giveth life to the Earth
after it hath been dead: verily, in this is a sign to those who hearken.
Ye have also teaching from the cattle. We give you drink of the pure milk,
between dregs and blood, which is in their bellies; the pleasant beverage of
them that quaff it.
And among fruits ye have the palm and the vine, from which ye get wine and
healthful nutriment: in this, verily, are signs for those who reflect.
And thy Lord hath taught the BEE, saying: "Provide thee houses in the
mountains, and in the trees, and in the hives which men do build thee:
Feed, moreover, on every kind of fruit, and walk the beaten paths of thy
Lord." From its belly cometh forth a fluid of varying hues,11 which yieldeth
medicine to man. Verily in this is a sign for those who consider.
And God hath created you; by and bye will he take you to himself; and some
among you will he carry on to abject old age, when all that once was known is
known no longer. Aye, God is Knowing, Powerful.
And God hath abounded to some of you more than to others in the supplies of
life; yet they to whom He hath abounded, impart not thereof to the slaves
whom their right hands possess, so that they may share alike. What! will they
deny, then, that these boons are from God?
God, too, hath given you wives of your own race, and from your wives hath He
given you sons and grandsons, and with good things hath he supplied you.
What, will they then believe in vain idols? For God's boons they are
And they worship beside God those who neither out of the Heavens or Earth can
provide them a particle of food, and have no power in themselves!
Make no comparisons, therefore, with God.12 Verily, God hath knowledge, but
ye have not.
God maketh comparison between a slave13 the property of his lord, who hath no
power over anything, and a free man whom we have ourselves supplies, and who
giveth alms therefrom both in secret and openly. Shall they be held equal?
No: praise be to God! But most men know it not.
God setteth forth also a comparison between two men, one of whom is dumb from
his birth, and hath no power over anything, and is a burden to his lord: send
him where he will, he cometh not back with success. Shall he and the man who
enjoineth what is just, and keepeth in the straight path, be held equal?
God's are the secrets of the Heavens and of the Earth! and the business of
the last hour will be but as the twinkling of an eye, or even less. Yes! for
all things is God Potent.
God hath brought you out of your mothers' wombs devoid of all knowledge; but
hath given you hearing, and sight, and heart, that haply ye might render
Have they never looked up at the birds subjected to Him in Heaven's vault?
None holdeth them in hand but God! In this are signs for those who believe.
And God hath given you tents to dwell in: and He hath given you the skins of
beasts for tents, that ye may find them light when ye shift your quarters, or
when ye halt; and from their wool and soft fur and hair, hath He supplied you
with furniture and goods for temporary use.
And from the things which He hath created, hath God provided shade for you,
and hath given you the mountains for places of shelter, and hath given you
garments to defend you from the heat, and garments to defend you in your
wars. Thus doth He fill up the measure of His goodness towards you, that you
may resign yourselves to Him.
But if they turn their backs, still thy office is only plain spoken
They own the goodness of God�then they disown it�and most of them are
But one day, we will raise up a witness out of every nation: them shall the
infidels have no permission to make excuses, and they shall find no favour.
And when they who have acted thus wrongly shall behold their torment, it
shall not be made light to them, nor will God deign to look upon them.
And when they who had joined associates with God shall see those their
associate-gods, they shall say, "O our Lord! these are our associate-gods
whom we called upon beside Thee." But they shall retort on them, "Verily, ye
And on that day shall they proffer submission to God; and the deities of
their own invention shall vanish from them.
As for those who were infidels and turned others aside from the way of God,
to them we will add punishment on punishment for their corrupt doings.
And one day we will summon up in every people a witness against them from
among themselves; and we will bring thee up as a witness against these
Meccans: for to thee have we sent down the Book which cleareth up everything,
a guidance, and mercy, and glad tidings to those who resign themselves to God
Verily, God enjoineth justice and the doing of good and gifts to kindred, and
he forbiddeth wickedness and wrong and oppression. He warneth you that haply
ye may be mindful.
Be faithful in the covenant of God when ye have covenanted, and break not
your oaths after ye have pledged them: for now have ye made God to stand
surety for you. Verily, God hath knowledge of what ye do.
And, because you are a more numerous people than some other people, be not
like her who unravelleth the thread which she had strongly spun, by taking
your oaths with mutual perfidy. God is making trial of you in this: and in
the day of resurrection he will assuredly clear up to you that concerning
which ye are now at variance.
Had God pleased, He could have made you one people: but He causeth whom He
will to err, and whom He will He guideth: and ye shall assuredly be called to
account for your doings.
Therefore take not your oaths with mutual fraud, lest your foot slip after it
hath been firmly fixed, and ye taste of evil because ye have turned others
aside from the way of God, and great be your punishment.
And barter not the covenant of God for a mean price; for with God is that
which is better for you, if ye do but understand.
All that is with you passeth away, but that which is with God abideth. With a
reward meet for their best deeds will we surely recompense those who have
Whoso doeth that which is right, whether male or female, if a believer, him
will we surely quicken to a happy life, and recompense them with a reward
meet for their best deeds.
When thou readest the Koran, have recourse to God for help against Satan the
For no power hath he over those who believe, and put their trust in their
But only hath he power over those who turn away from God, and join other
deities with Him.
And when we change one (sign) verse for another, and God knoweth best what He
revealeth, they say, "Thou art only a fabricator." Nay! but most of them have
SAY: The Holy Spirit15 hath brought it down with truth from thy Lord, that He
may stablish those who have believed, and as guidance and glad tidings to the
We also know that they say, "Surely a certain person teacheth him." But the
tongue of him at whom they hint is foreign,16 while this Koran is in the
As for those who believe not in the signs of God, God will not guide them,
and a sore torment doth await them.
Surely they invent a lie who believe not in the signs of God�and they are the
Whoso, after he hath believed in God denieth him, if he were forced to it and
if his heart remain steadfast in the faith, shall be guiltless:17 but whoso
openeth his breast to infidelity�on such shall be wrath from God, and a
severe punishment awaiteth them.
This, because they have loved this present life beyond the next, and because
God guideth not the unbelievers!
These are they whose hearts and ears and eyes God hath sealed up: these are
the careless ones: in the next world shall they perish beyond a doubt.
To those also who after their trials fled their country,18 then fought and
endured with patience, verily, thy Lord will in the end be forgiving,
On a certain day shall every soul come to plead for itself, and every soul
shall be repaid according to its deeds; and they shall not be wronged.
God proposeth the instance of a city,19 secure and at ease, to which its
supplies come in plenty from every side. But she was thankless for the boons
of God; God therefore made her taste the woe20 of famine and of fear, for
what they had done.
Moreover, an apostle of their own people came to them, and they treated him
as an impostor. So chastisement overtook them because they were evil doers.
Of what God hath supplied you eat the lawful and good, and be grateful for
the favours of God, if ye are his worshippers.
Forbidden to you is that only which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's
flesh, and that which hath been slain in the name of any other than God: but
if any be forced, and neither lust for it nor wilfully transgress, then
verily God is forgiving, gracious.21
And say not with a lie upon your tongue, "This is lawful and this is
forbidden:" for so will ye invent a lie concerning God: but they who invent a
lie of God shall not prosper:
Brief their enjoyment, but sore their punishment!
To the Jews22 we have forbidden that of which we before told thee; we injured
them not, but they injured themselves.
To those who have done evil in ignorance, then afterwards have repented and
amended, verily thy Lord is in the end right gracious, merciful.
Verily, Abraham was a leader in religion:23 obedient to God, sound in
faith:24 he was not of those who join gods with God.
Grateful was he for His favours: God chose him and guided him into the
And we bestowed on him good things in this world: and in the world to come he
shall be among the just.
We have moreover revealed to thee that thou follow the religion of Abraham,
the sound in faith. He was not of those who join gods with God.
The Sabbath was only ordained for those who differed about it: and of a truth
thy Lord will decide between them on the day of resurrection as to the
subject of their disputes.
Summon thou to the way of thy Lord with wisdom and with kindly warning:
dispute with them in the kindest manner: thy Lord best knoweth those who
stray from his way, and He best knoweth those who have yielded to his
If ye make reprisals,25 then make them to the same extent that ye were
injured: but if ye can endure patiently, best will it be for the patiently
Endure then with patience. But thy patient endurance must be sought in none
but God. And be not grieved about the infidels, and be not troubled at their
devices; for God is with those who fear him and do good deeds.
1 See Sura [lxxxiv.] x. 5, n.
2 Ex gutta spermatis. Pirke Aboth iii. Unde venisti? ex guttá foetidâ. This
verse is said to be an allusion to a difficulty proposed by an idolatrous
Arab, who brought a carious leg-bone to Muhammad, and asked whether it could
be restored to life. Compare a similar argument for the Resurrection, Tr.
Sanhedrin, fol. 91 a.
3 Lit. there is beauty in them for you, i.e. they win you credit.
4 In allusion to Gen. xi. 1-10.
5 An Arabian idol.
6 Ps. xxxv. 9.
7 Lit. the family of the admonition, i.e. Jews and Christians versed in the
Pentateuch and Gospel.
8 The idolatrous Arabians regarded Angels as females and daughters of God.
But their own preference was always for male offspring. Thus Rabbinism
teaches that to be a woman is a great degradation. The modern Jew says in his
Daily Prayers, fol. 5, 6, "Blessed art thou, O Lord our God! King of the
Universe! who hath not made me a woman."
9 See Sura lxxxi. 8, p. 45. It is said that the only occasion on which Othman
ever shed a tear was when his little daughter, whom he was burying alive,
wiped the dust of the grave-earth from his beard.
10 Lit. the likeness of evil to those, etc.
11 The Arabs are curious in and fond of honey: Mecca alone affords eight or
nine varieties�green, white, red, and brown. Burton's Pilgr. iii. 110.
12 Ex. xx. 4.
13 The slave, and the dumb in verse following, are the idols.
14 See Sura [xcvii.] iii. 34, and n. 1, p. 114.
16 This passage has been supposed to refer to Salman the Persian. He did not,
however, embrace Islam till a much later period, at Medina. Nöld. p. 110. Mr.
Muir thinks that it may refer to Suheib, son of Sinan, "the first fruits of
Greece," as Muhammad styled him, who, while yet a boy, had been carried off
by some Greeks as a slave, from Mesopotamia to Syria, brought by a party of
the Beni Kalb, and sold to Abdallah ibn Jodda'ân of Mecca. He became rich,
and embraced Islam. Dr. Sprenger thinks the person alluded to may have been
Addas, a monk of Nineveh, who had settled at Mecca. Life of M. p. 79.
17 This is to be understood of the persecutions endured by the more humble
and needy Muslims by their townspeople of Mecca.
18 From Mecca to Medina, i.e. the Mohadjers, to whom also verse 43 refers.
Both passages, therefore, are of a later date than the rest of this Sura.
Thus Nöldeke. Sprenger, however (Life, p. 159), explains this passage of the
seven slaves purchased and manumitted by Abu Bekr. They had been tortured for
professing Islam, shortly after Muhammad assumed the Prophetic office.
20 Lit. the garment.
21 Comp. Sura [lxxxix.] vi. 119.
22 Comp. Sura [lxxxix.] vi. 147. This verse as well as the following, and
verse 125, were probably added at Medina.
23 Antistes. Maracci. Or the text may be literally rendered Abraham was a
people, i.e. the people of Abraham; from whom the idolatrous Koreisch
pretended to derive their origin.
24 Ar. a Hanyf. According to a tradition in Waquidi, fol. 255, Zaid (who died
only five years before Muhammad received his first inspiration, and
undoubtedly prepared the way for many of his subsequent announcements)
adopted this term at the instance of a Christian and a Jew, who exhorted him
to become a Hanyf. Zaid having at this time renounced idolatry, and being
unable to receive either Judaism or Christianity, "What," said he, "is a
Hanyf?" They both told him, it was the religion of Abraham, who worshipped
nothing but God. On this Zaid exclaimed, "O God, I bear witness that I follow
the religion of Abraham." The root, whence Hanyf is derived, means generally
to turn from good to bad, or vice versâ, and is equivalent to the verbs
convert and pervert.
25 All Muhammadan commentators explain this verse as a prohibition to avenge
the death of Hamza on the Meccans with too great severity.
SURA XXX.�THE GREEKS [LXXIV.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
ELIF. LAM. MIM.1 THE GREEKS have been defeated2
In a land hard by: But after their defeat they shall defeat their foes,
In a few years.3 First and last is the affair with God. And on that day
shall the faithful rejoice
In the aid of their God: He aideth whom He will; and He is the Mighty, the
It is the promise of God: To his promise God will not be untrue: but most men
know it not.