20 The form of this word in the Arabic, with the h in the second syllable and
the final m, shews that the word was borrowed from the Hebrew, and not from
the Greek or Syriac.
21 Observe in this expression the same admixture of the Semitic and Indo-
Persian elements as was noticed above in the identification of Satans and
Djinn, verse 48.
SURA XXXII.�ADORATION [LXX.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
ELIF. LAM. MIM.1 This Book is without a doubt a Revelation sent down from the
Lord of the Worlds.
Will they say, He hath forged it? Nay, it is the truth from thy Lord that
thou mayest warn a people to whom no warner hath come before thee, that haply
they may be guided.
God it is who hath created the Heavens and the Earth and all that is between
them in six days; then ascended his throne. Save Him ye have no patron, and
none to plead for you. Will ye not then reflect?
From the Heaven to the Earth He governeth all things: hereafter shall they
come up to him on a day whose length shall be a thousand of such years as ye
This is He who knoweth the unseen and the seen; the Mighty, the Merciful,
Who hath made everything which he hath created most good; and began the
creation of man with clay;
Then ordained his progeny from germs of life,3 from sorry water:
Then shaped him, and breathed of His Spirit into him, and gave you hearing
and seeing and hearts: what little thanks do ye return!
And they say, "What! when we shall have lain hidden in the earth, shall we
become a new creation?"
Yea, they deny that they shall meet their Lord.
SAY: The angel of death who is charged with you shall cause you to die: then
shall ye be returned to your Lord.
Couldst thou but see when the guilty shall droop their heads before their
Lord, and cry, "O our Lord! we have seen and we have heard: return us then to
life: we will do that which is right. Verily we believe firmly!"
(Had we pleased we had certainly given to every soul its guidance. But true
shall be the word which hath gone forth from me�I will surely fill hell with
Djinn and men together.)
"Taste then the recompense of your having forgotten the meeting with this
your day. We, too, we have forgotten you: taste then an eternal punishment
for that which ye have wrought."
They only believe in our signs, who, when mention is made of them, fall down
in ADORATION, and celebrate the praise of their Lord, and are not puffed up
Who, as they raise them4 from their couches, call on their Lord with fear and
desire, and give alms of that with which we have supplied them.
No soul knoweth what joy of the eyes is reserved for the good in recompense
of their works.
Shall he then who is a believer be as he who sinneth grossly? they shall not
be held alike.
As to those who believe and do that which is right, they shall have gardens
of eternal abode as the meed of their works:
But as for those who grossly sin, their abode shall be the fire: so oft as
they shall desire to escape out of it, back shall they be turned into it. And
it shall be said to them, Taste ye the torment of the fire, which ye treated
as a lie.
And we will surely cause them to taste a punishment yet nearer at hand,
besides the greater punishment, that haply they may turn to us in penitence.
Who acteth worse than he who is warned by the signs of his Lord, then turneth
away from them? We will surely take vengeance on the guilty ones.
We heretofore gave the Book of the law to Moses: have thou no doubt as to our
meeting with him:5 and we appointed it for the guidance of the children of
And we appointed Imâms from among them who should guide after our command
when they had themselves endured with constancy, and had firmly believed in
Now thy Lord! He will decide between them on the day of resurrection as to
the subject of their disputes.
Is it not notorious to them how many generations, through whose abodes they
walk, we have destroyed before them? Truly herein are sings: will they not
See they not how we drive the rain to some parched land and thereby bring
forth corn of which their cattle and themselves do eat? Will they not then
They say, "When will this decision take place? Tell us, if ye are men of
SAY: On the day of that decision, the faith of infidels shall not avail them,
and they shall have no further respite.
Stand aloof from them then, and wait thou, for they too wait.6
1 See Sura lxviii. 1, p. 32.
2 Comp. Sura [cvii.] xxii. 46, and Ps. xc. 4, which is taken literally by
many of the Talmudists. Comp. e.g. Sanhed. 96, 2.
3 Lit. ex spermate genitali.
4 Lit. their sides are raised.
5 Nöldeke thinks that the word for meeting is used here in the same sense as
in v. 10 above and Sura [lxxi.] xli. 54, and that the clause does not belong
to this verse, p. 108, n.
6 Wait thou for their punishment as they wait for thy downfall.
SURA1 XLI.�THE MADE PLAIN [LXXI.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
HA. MIM.2 A Revelation from the Compassionate, the Merciful!
A Book whose verses (signs) are MADE PLAIN�an Arabic Koran, for men of
Announcer of glad tidings and charged with warnings! But most of them
withdraw and hearken not:
And they say, "Our hearts are under shelter from thy teachings, and in our
ears is a deafness, and between us and thee there is a veil. Act as thou
thinkest right: we verily shall act as we think right."
SAY: I am only a man like you.3 It is revealed to me that your God is one
God: go straight then to Him, and implore his pardon. And woe to those who
join gods with God;
Who pay not the alms of obligation, and in the life to come believe not!
But they who believe and do the things that are right shall receive a
SAY: Do ye indeed disbelieve in Him who in two days created the earth? and do
ye assign Him peers? The Lord of the worlds is He!
And he hath placed on the earth the firm mountains which tower above it; and
He hath blessed it, and distributed food throughout it, for the cravings of
all alike, in four days:
Then He applied himself to the Heaven, which then was but smoke: and to it
and to the Earth He said, "Come ye, whether in obedience or against your
will?" and they both said, "We come obedient."
And He made them seven heavens in two days, and in each heaven made known its
office: And we furnished the lower heaven with lights and guardian angels.
This, the disposition of the Almighty, the All-knowing.
If they turn away, then SAY: I warn you of a tempest, like the tempest of Ad
When the apostles came to them on every side,5 saying, "Worship none but
God," they said, "Had our Lord been pleased to send down, He had surely sent
down angels; and in sooth, your message we do not believe."
As to Ad, they bore them proudly and unjustly in the land, and said, "Who
more mighty than we in prowess?" Saw they not that God their creator was
mightier than they in prowess? And they rejected our signs.
Therefore on ill-omened days did we send against them an impetuous blast that
we might make them taste the chastisement of shame in this world:�but more
shameful shall be the chastisement of the life to come; and they shall not be
And as to Themoud, we had vouchsafed them guidance; but to guidance did they
prefer blindness; wherefore the tempest of a shameful punishment overtook
them for their doings:
But we rescued the believing and the God-fearing:
And warn of the day when the enemies of God shall be gathered6 unto the fire
urged on in bands:
Until when they reach it, their ears and their eyes and their skins shall
bear witness against them of their deeds:
And they shall say to their skins, "Why witness ye against us?" They shall
say, "God, who giveth a voice to all things, hath given us a voice: He
created you at first, and to Him are ye brought back.
And ye did not hide yourselves so that neither your ears nor your eyes nor
your skins should witness against you: but ye thought that God knew not many
a thing that ye did!
And this your thought which ye did think of your Lord hath ruined you, so
that ye are become of those who perish."
And be they patient, still the fire shall be their abode: or if they beg for
favour, yet shall they not be of favoured.
And we will appoint Satans as their fast companions; for it was they who made
their present and future state seem fair and right to them; and the sentence
passed on the peoples of Djinn and men who flourished before them hath become
their due, and they shall perish.
Yet the unbelievers say, "Hearken not to this Koran, but keep up a talking,
that ye may overpower the voice of the reader."
Surely therefore will we cause the unbelievers to taste a terrible
And recompense them according to the worst of their actions.
This the reward of the enemies of God,�the Fire! it shall be their eternal
abode, in requital for their gainsaying our signs.
And they who believed not shall say, "O our Lord! shew us those of the Djinn
and men who led us astray: both of them will we put under out feet, that they
may be of the humbled."
But as for those who say, "Our Lord is God;" and who go straight to Him,7
angels shall descend to them and say, "Fear ye not, neither be ye grieved,
but rejoice ye in the paradise which ye have been promised.
We are your guardians in this life and in the next: your's therein shall be
your soul's desire, and your's therein whatever ye shall ask for,
The hospitality of a Gracious, a Merciful One."
And who speaketh fairer than he who biddeth to God and doth the thing that is
right, and saith, "I for my part am of the Muslims"?
Moreover, good and evil are not to be treated as the same thing. Turn away
evil by what is better, and lo! he between whom and thyself was enmity, shall
be as though he were a warm friend.
But none attain to this save men steadfast in patience, and none attain to it
except the most highly favoured.8
And if an enticement from Satan entice thee, then take refuge in God, for He
is the Hearing, the Knowing.
And among his signs are the night, and the day, and the sun, and the moon.
Bend not in adoration to the sun or the moon, but bend in adoration before
God who created them both, if ye would serve Him.
But if they are too proud for this, yet they who are with thy Lord do
celebrate His praises night and day,9 and cease not.
And among His signs is this, that thou seest the earth drooping: but, when we
send down the rain upon it, it is stirred and swelleth; verily He who giveth
it life, will surely give life to the dead; for His might extendeth over all
They truly who with obloquy disown our signs are not hidden from us. Is he
then who shall be cast into the fire, or he who shall come forth secure on
the day of resurrection, in the better position? Do what ye will: but His eye
is on all your doings.
Verily, they who believe not in "the warning," after it hath come to them . .
. and yet the Koran is a glorious book!
Falsehood, from whatever side it cometh, shall not come night it;11 it is a
missive down from the Wise, the Praiseworthy.
Nothing hath been said to thee which hath not been said of old to apostles
before thee. Verily with thy Lord is forgiveness, and with Him is terrible
Had we made it a Koran in a foreign tongue, they had surely said, "Unless its
signs be made clear . . . !12 What! in a foreign tongue? and the people
Arabian?" SAY: It is to those who believe a guide and a medicine;13 but as to
those who believe not, there is a thickness in their ears, and to them it is
a blindness: they are like those who are called to from afar.
Of old we gave the Book to Moses, and disputes arose about it: and if a
decree of respite from thy Lord had gone before, there would surely have been
a decision between them: for great were their doubts and questionings about
He who doth right�it is for himself:15 and he who doth evil�it is for
himself: and thy Lord will not deal unfairly with his servants.
With Him alone16 is the knowledge of "the Hour." No fruit cometh forth from
its coverings, neither doth any female conceive, nor is she delivered, but
with His knowledge. And on that day He shall call men to Him, saying, "Where
are the companions ye gave me?" They shall say, "We own to thee, there is no
one of us can witness for them."
And what they erst called on shall pass away from them, and they shall
perceive that there will be no escape for them.
Man ceaseth not to pray for good: but if evil betide him he despondeth,
And if we cause him to taste our mercy after affliction hath touched him, he
is sure to say, "This is my due: and I take no thought of the Hour of
Resurrection: and if I be brought back to my Lord, I shall indeed attain with
Him my highest good." But we will then certainly declare their doings to the
Infidels, and cause them to taste a stern punishment.
When we are gracious to man, he withdraweth and turneth him aside: but when
evil toucheth him, he is a man of long prayers.
SAY: What think ye? If this Book be from God and ye believe it not, who will
have gone further astray than he who is at a distance from it?
We will shew them our signs in different countries and among themselves,
until it become plain to them that it is the truth. Is it not enough for thee
that thy Lord is witness of all things?
Are they not in doubt as to the meeting with their Lord? But doth he not
encompass all things?
1 In some MSS. this Sura is entitled Adoration. Thus Beidh. According to His.
186, comp. Caussin 1, 375 f., Muhammad's aim in this Sura was the conversion
of a noble Meccan, Utba ben Rabia, to Islam. The precise year is uncertain.
2 See Sura lxviii. 1, p. 32.
3 Thus SS. Paul and Barnabas, Acts xiv. 15.
4 Or, never failing.
5 Lit. from before them and from behind them.
6 See Sura [lx.] xxxvi. 64, n.
7 Comp. Sura [lxxxviii.] xlvi. 12.
8 Lit. the possessor of great good fortune.
9 Comp. Rev. iv. 8 in the original.
10 Thus Tr. Taanith (init.).
11 Lit. vanity shall not come to it from before it, or from behind it.
12 We will not receive it. The literal rendering of the following words is
what! foreign and Arabian?
13 Comp. Sura [lxvii.] xvii. 83, 84.
14 Lit. verily they were in suspicious doubting about it.
15 Lit. for his soul. See next Sura, v. 14.
16 Lit. to Him is referred.
SURA XLV.�THE KNEELING [LXXII.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
HA. MIM.1 This Book is sent down2 from God, the Mighty, the Wise!
Assuredly in the Heavens and the Earth are signs for those who believe:
And in your own creation, and in the beasts which are scattered abroad are
signs to the firm in faith:
And in the succession of night and day, and in the supply which God sendeth
down from the Heaven whereby He giveth life to the earth when dead, and in
the change of the winds, are signs for a people of discernment.
Such are the signs of God: with truth do we recite them to thee. But in what
teaching will they believe, if they reject3 God and his signs?
Woe to every lying sinner,
Who heareth the signs of God recited to him, and then, as though he heard
them not, persisteth in proud disdain! Apprise him of an afflictive
And when he becometh acquainted with any of our signs he turneth them into
ridicule. These! a shameful punishment for them!
Hell is behind them! and neither their gains nor the lords whom they have
adopted beside God shall avail them in the least: and theirs, a great
This is "Guidance:" and for those who disbelieve the signs of their Lord is
the punishment of an afflictive torment.
It is God who hath subjected the sea to you that the ships may traverse it at
his bidding, and that ye may go in quest of the gifts of his bounty, and that
ye may be thankful.
And he hath subjected to you all that is in the Heavens and all that is on
the Earth: all is from him. Verily, herein are signs for those who reflect.
Tell the believers to pardon those who hope not for the days of God4 in which
He purposeth to reward men according to their deeds.
He who doth that which is right, doth it to his own behoof, and whoso doth
evil, doth it to his own hurt. Hereafter, to your Lord shall ye be brought
To the children of Israel gave we of old the Book and the Wisdom, and the
gift of Prophecy, and we supplied them with good things, and privileged them
above all peoples:
And we gave them clear sanctions for our behests: neither did they differ,
through mutual envy, till after they had become possessed of knowledge; but
thy Lord will judge between them on the day of resurrection, as to the
subject of their disputes.
Afterwards we set thee over our divine law:5 follow it then: and follow not
the wishes of those who have no knowledge,
For against God shall they avail thee nothing. And in sooth, the doers of
evil are one another's patrons; but the patron of them that fear Him is God
This Book hath insight for mankind, and a Guidance and Mercy to a people who
are firm in faith.
Deem they whose gettings are only evil, that we will deal with them as with
those who believe and work righteousness, so that their lives and deaths
shall be alike? Ill do they judge.
In all truth hath God created the Heavens and the Earth, that he may reward
every one as he shall have wrought; and they shall not be wronged.
What thinkest thou? He who hath made a God of his passions, and whom God
causeth wilfully to err, and whose ears and whose heart he hath sealed up,
and over whose sight he hath placed a veil�who, after his rejection by God,
shall guide such a one? Will ye not then be warned?
And they say, "There is only this our present life: we die and we live, and
nought but time destroyeth us." But in this they have no knowledge: it is
merely their own conceit.
And when our clear signs are recited to them, their only argument is to say,
"Bring back our fathers, if ye speak the truth."
Say: God giveth you life, then causeth you to die: then will He assemble you
on the day of resurrection: there is no doubt of it: but most men have not
And God's is the kingdom of the Heavens and of the Earth; and on the day when
the Hour shall arrive, on that day shall the despisers6 perish.
And thou shalt see every nation KNEELING: to its own book shall every nation
be summoned:��This day shall ye be repaid as ye have wrought.
This our Book will speak of you with truth: therein have we written down
whatever ye have done."
As to those who have believed and wrought righteously, into his mercy shall
their Lord cause them to enter. This shall be undoubted bliss!
But as to the Infidels�"Were not my signs recited to you? but ye proudly
scorned them, and became a sinful people."
And when it was said, "Verily the Promise of God is truth; and as to the
Hour, there is no doubt of it;" ye said, "We know not what the hour is�we
conceive it a mere conceit,�we have no assurance of it."
And the evils they have wrought shall rise up into their view, and that at
which they mocked shall hem them in on every side.
And it shall be said to them, "This day will we forget you as ye forgat your
meeting with us this day, and your abode shall be the fire, and none shall
there be to succour you:�
This, because ye received the signs of God with mockery, and this present
life deceived you." On that day therefore they shall not come out from it;
and they shall not be asked to win the favour of God.
Praise then be to God, Lord of the Heavens and Lord of the Earth; the Lord of
And His be the greatness in the Heavens and on the Earth; for He is the
Mighty, the Wise!
1 See Sura lxviii. p. 32.
2 Lit. the sending down, i.e. the revelation of the Book.
3 Lit. after God.
4 That is, the days of victory. In Scripture phrase, "the days of the right
hand of the Most High."
5 The Arabic amri may be rendered either command or business, i.e. of
6 Lit. the makers vain, i.e. vanitatis arguentes alcoranum. Mar.
SURA XVI.�THE BEE [LXXIII.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
THE doom of God cometh to pass. Then hasten it not. Glory be to Him! High let
Him be exalted above the gods whom they join with Him!
By his own behest will He cause the angels to descend with the Spirit on whom
he pleaseth among his servants, bidding them, "Warn that there is no God but
me; therefore fear me."
He hath created the Heavens and the Earth to set forth his truth;1 high let
Him be exalted above the gods they join with Him!
Man hath He created from a moist germ;2 yet lo! man is an open caviller.
And the cattle! for you hath He created them: in them ye have warm garments
and gainful uses; and of them ye eat:
And they beseem you well3 when ye fetch them home and when ye drive them
forth to pasture:
And they carry your burdens to lands which ye could not else reach but with
travail of soul: truly your Lord is full of goodness, and merciful:
And He hath given you horses, mules, and asses, that ye may ride them, and
for your ornament: and things of which ye have no knowledge hath he created.
Of God it is to point out "the Way." Some turn aside from it: but had He
pleased, He had guided you all aright.
It is He who sendeth down rain out of Heaven: from it is your drink; and from
it are the plants by which ye pasture.
By it He causeth the corn, and the olives, and the palm-trees, and the grapes
to spring forth for you, and all kinds of fruits: verily, in this are signs
for those who ponder.
And He hath subjected to you the night and the day; the sun and the moon and
the stars too are subjected to you by his behest; verily, in this are signs
for those who understand:
And all of varied hues that He hath created for you over the earth: verily,
in this are signs for those who remember.
And He it is who hath subjected the sea to you, that ye may eat of its fresh
fish, and take forth from it ornaments to wear�thou seest the ships ploughing