endowments beyond many of our creatures have we endowed them.
One day we will summon all men with their leaders: they whose book shall be
given into their right hand, shall read their book, and not be wronged a
And he who has been blind here, shall be blind hereafter, and wander yet more
from the way.
And, verily, they had well nigh beguiled thee from what we revealed to thee,
and caused thee to invent some other thing in our name: but in that case they
would surely have taken thee as a friend;22
And had we not settled thee, thou hadst well nigh leaned to them a little:
In that case we would surely have made thee taste of woe23 in life and of woe
in death: then thou shouldest not have found a helper against us.
And truly they had almost caused thee to quit the land, in order wholly to
drive thee forth from it:24 but then, themselves should have tarried but a
little after thee.
This was our way with the Apostles we have already sent before thee, and in
this our way thou shalt find no change.
Observe prayer at sunset, till the first darkening of the night, and the
daybreak reading�for the daybreak reading hath its witnesses,
And watch unto it in the night: this shall be an excess in service:25 it may
be that thy Lord will raise thee to a glorious station:
And say, "O my Lord, cause me to enter26 with a perfect entry, and to come
forth with a perfect forthcoming, and give me from thy presence a helping
And SAY: Truth is come and falsehood is vanished. Verily, falsehood is a
thing that vanisheth.
And we send down of the Koran that which is a healing and a mercy to the
faithful: But it shall only add to the ruin of the wicked.
When we bestow favours on man, he withdraweth and goeth aside; but when evil
toucheth him, he is despairing.
SAY: Every one acteth after his own manner: but your Lord well knoweth who is
best guided in his path.
And they will ask thee of the Spirit.27 SAY: The Spirit proceedeth at my
Lord's command: but of knowledge, only a little to you is given.
If we pleased, we could take away what we have revealed to thee: none couldst
thou then find thee to undertake thy cause with us,
Save as a mercy from thy Lord; great, verily, is his favour towards thee.
SAY: Verily, were men and Djinn assembled to produce the like of this Koran,
they could not produce its like, though the one should help the other.
And of a truth we have set out to men every kind of similitude in this Koran,
but most men have refused everything except unbelief.
And they say, "By no means will we believe on thee till thou cause a fountain
to gush forth for us from the earth;
Or, till thou have a garden of palm-trees and grapes, and thou cause forth-
gushing rivers to gush forth in its midst;
Or thou make the heaven to fall on us, as thou hast given out, in pieces; or
thou bring God and the angels to vouch for thee;
Or thou have a house of gold; or thou mount up into Heaven; nor will we
believe in thy mounting up, till thou send down to us a book which we may
read." SAY: Praise be to my Lord! Am I more than a man, an apostle?
And what hindereth men from believing, when the guidance hath come to them,
but that they say, "Hath God sent a man as an apostle?"
SAY: Did angels walk the earth as its familiars, we had surely sent them an
angel-apostle out of Heaven.
SAY: God is witness enough between you and me. His servants He scanneth,
And He whom God shall guide will be guided indeed; and whom he shall mislead
thou shalt find none to assist, but Him: and we will gather them together on
the day of the resurrection, on their faces, blind and dumb and deaf: Hell
shall be their abode: so oft as its fires die down, we will rekindle the
This shall be their reward for that they believed not our signs and said,
"When we shall have become bones and dust, shall we surely be raised a new
Do they not perceive that God, who created the Heavens and the Earth, is able
to create their like? And he hath ordained them a term; there is no doubt of
it: but the wicked refuse everything except unbelief.
SAY: If ye held the treasures of my Lord's mercy ye would certainly refrain
from them through fear of spending them: for man is covetous.
We therefore gave to Moses nine clear signs. Ask thou, therefore, the
children of Israel how it was when he came unto them, and Pharaoh said to
him, "Verily, I deem thee, O Moses, a man enchanted."
Said Moses, "Thou knowest that none hath sent down these clear signs but the
Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth; and I surely deem thee, O Pharaoh, a
So Pharaoh sought to drive them out of the land; but we drowned him and all
And after his death, we said to the children of Israel, "Dwell ye in the
land:" and when the promise of the next life shall come to pass, we will
bring you both up together to judgment. In truth have we sent down the Koran,
and in truth hath it descended, and we have only sent thee to announce and to
And we have parcelled out the Koran into sections, that thou mightest recite
it unto men by slow degrees, and we have sent it down piecemeal.
SAY: Believe ye therein or believe ye not? They verily to whom knowledge had
been given previously, fall on their faces worshipping when it is recited to
them, and say: "Glory be to God! the promise of our Lord is made good!"
They fall down on their faces weeping, and It increaseth their humility.
SAY: Call upon God (Allah),28 or call upon the God of Mercy (Arrahman), by
whichsoever ye will invoke him: He hath most excellent names. And be not loud
in thy prayer, neither pronounce it too low;29 but between these follow a
And SAY: Praise be to God who hath not begotten a son, who hath no partner in
the Kingdom, nor any protector on account of weakness. And magnify him by
proclaiming His greatness.30
1 Verses 12, 23-41, 75-82, 87, are supposed by many commentators to have
originated at Medina.
2 Waquidy says the night-journey took place on the 17th of Rabhy' 1, a
twelvemonth before the Hejira.
3 Of Jerusalem; and thence through the seven heavens to the throne of God on
the back of Borak, accompanied by Gabriel, according to some traditions;
while others, and those too of early date, regard it as no more than a
vision. It was, however, in all probability a dream. Muir ii. 219; Nöld. p.
102, who give the Muhammadan sources of information.
4 It is probable that as this verse has no real or apparent connection with
the preceding, a verse may have been lost, and that verse 1 has been placed
at the head of the Sura merely because the night-journey is elsewhere alluded
to in it.
5 According to the commentators the slaughter of Isaiah and the imprisonment
of Jeremiah, punished by the invasion of the Assyrians.
6 Over Sennacherib.
7 The slaying Zacharias, John Baptist, and Jesus, punished by the destruction
of Jerusalem by the Romans. Comp. Tr. Gittin, fol. 57, where we read of the
sufferings drawn down upon the Jews in consequence of the former of these
8 That is, if ye return to sin, we will return to punish.
9 Lit. bird.
10 Comp. Mischnah Aboth, 3, 20.
11 Comp. in Heb. Isai. liii. 3.
12 Lit. lower a wing of humility.
13 Comp. Sura [lxxxix.] vi. 151; lxxxi. 8, p. 45. Zaid, the sceptical seeker
after truth, is reported to have discouraged the killing of daughters,
saying, "I will support them." Kitâb al Wackidi, p. 255. See note at Sura
[xcvii.] iii. 18.
14 Or, next of kin.
15 Or, run not after vain things which will avail nought. Or, accuse not any
of a crime if thou art not sure of his guilt.
16 Used a variety of arguments and illustrations.
17 Thus Tr. Chagiga, fol. 9 b. "There are seven heavens (rakian): the veil,
the firmament, the clouds, the habitation, the abode, the fixed seat, the
araboth." See Wetst. on 2 Cor. xii. 2.
18 In obvious allusion to the saint-worship of the Christians.
19 See Sura [lxxxvii.] vii. 71.
20 See note on v. 1. The tree is Zakkoum, Sura [xlv.] lvi. The Rabbins teach
that food of the bitterest herbs is one of the punishments of Hell. See
Schröder's Rabb. und. Talm. Judenthum, p. 403.
21 That is, with all thy might.
22 Zamakshary relates that this passage was revealed when the Thaqyfites in
framing the document of agreement between themselves and Muhammad, required
that the words requiring the prostrations in worship should not be added. The
writer looked at the prophet, who stood by in silence, when Omar stood up and
drew his sword with menacing words. They replied, We speak not thee but to
Muhammad. Then this verse was revealed. Thus Dr. Sprenger. Life, p. 186. He
renders the last clause, but at the right moment a friend reprehended thee.
23 Lit. weakness, languors.
24 "The Jews, envious of Muhammad's good reception and stay there, told him,
by way of counsel, that Syria was the land of the Prophets, and that if he
was really a prophet, he ought to go there." Sale from Djelal Eddin ap. Mar.
Geiger, p. 12, quotes a Talmudical saying to the same effect, but without any
25 A work of supererogation, and therefore doubly meritorious. Thus Tr.
Berachoth, fol. 4. The word station (mekam) is still used of the nearness to
God, attained in spiritual ecstacies, etc.
26 That is, to enter the Grave or Mecca. Lit. with an entry of truth.
27 The word spirit is probably to be understood of the Angel Gabriel. Comp. 1
Kings xxii. 21. Others understand it of the immaterial soul of man. See note
on Sura [xci.] ii. 81.
28 The infidels hearing Muhammad say, Ya Allah! Ya Rahman! in his prayers,
imagined that he was addressing two Deities; hence this passage. Comp.
[lxxiii.] xvi. 52; [lxvi.] xxv. 61. As this title of God (Rahman) disappears
from the later Suras, it has been inferred that Muhammad's original intention
was to have combined it with Allah, but that through fear lest Allah and
Arrahman should be supposed to be two Gods, he dropped the latter.�This title
was applied to their deities by the Himyarites; and it occurs in Ps. lxxviii.
38, and Ex. xxxiv. 6. The root is not found in Ćthiopic.
29 The Talm. Tr. Berachoth, 31, 2, forbids loudness in prayer by the example
30 Lit. magnify Him by magnifying.
SURA XXVII.�THE ANT [LXVIII.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful
TA. SAD.1 These are the signs (verses) of the Koran and of the lucid Book;
Guidance and glad tidings to the believers who observe prayer and pay the
stated alms, and believe firmly�do they�in the life to come.
As to those who believe not in the life to come, we have made their own
doings fair seeming to them, and they are bewildered therein.
These are they whom the woe of chastisement awaiteth; and in the next life
they shall suffer�yes shall they�greatest loss;
But thou hast certainly received the Koran from the Wise, the Knowing.
Bear in mind when Moses said to his family, "I have perceived a fire;
I will bring you tidings from it, or will bring you a blazing brand, that ye
may warm you."
And when he came to it, he was called to, "Blessed, He who is in the fire,
and He who is about it; and glory be to God, the Lord of the worlds!
O Moses! verily, I am God, the Mighty, the Wise!
Throw down now thy staff." And when he saw that it moved itself as though it
were a serpent, he retreated backward and returned not. "O Moses, fear not;
for the Sent Ones fear not in my presence,
Save he who having done amiss shall afterwards exchange the evil for good;
for I am Forgiving, Merciful.
Put now thy hand into thy bosom: it shall come forth white, yet free from
hurt:2 one of nine signs to Pharaoh and his people; for a perverse people are
And when our signs were wrought in their very sight,3 they said, "This is
And though in their souls they knew them to be true, yet in their wickedness
and pride they denied them. But see what was the end of the corrupt doers!
And of old we gave knowledge to David and Solomon: and they said, "Praise be
to God, who hath made us to excel many of his believing servants!"
And in knowledge Solomon was David's heir. And he said, "O men, we have been
taught the speech of birds,4 and are endued with everything. This is indeed a
clear boon from God."
And to Solomon were gathered his hosts of Djinn5 and men and birds, and they
were marched on in bands,
Till they reached the Valley of Ants. Said AN ANT, "O ye ants, enter your
dwellings, lest Solomon and his army crush you and know it not."
Then smiled Solomon, laughing at her words, and he said, "Stir me up, O Lord,
to be thankful for thy favour which thou hast shewed upon me and upon my
parents, and to do righteousness that shall be well pleasing to thee, and
bring me in, by thy mercy, among thy servants the righteous."
And he reviewed the birds, and said, "How is it that I see not the lapwing?
Is it one of the absent?
Surely, with a severe chastisement will I chastise it, or I will certainly
slaughter it, unless it bring me a clear excuse."
Nor tarried it long ere it came and said, "I have gained the knowledge that
thou knowest not, and with sure tidings have I come to thee from Saba:
I found a woman reigning over them, gifted with everything, and she hath a
And I found her and her people worshipping the sun instead of God; and Satan
hath made their works fair seeming to them, so that he hath turned them from
the Way: wherefore they are not guided,
To the worship of God, who bringeth to light the secret things of heaven and
earth, and knoweth what men conceal and what they manifest:
God! there is no god but He! the lord of the glorious throne!"
He said, "We shall see whether thou hast spoken truth, or whether thou art of
them that lie.
Go with this my letter and throw it down to them: then turn away from them
and await their answer."
She said, "O my nobles! an honourable letter hath been thrown down to me:
It is from Solomon; and it is this: 'In the name of God, the Compassionate,
Set not up yourselves against me, but come to me submitting (Muslims).' "
She said, "O my nobles, advise me in mine affair: I decide it not without
They said, "We are endued with strength and are endued with mighty valour.�
But to command is thine: See therefore what thou wilt command us."
She said, "Kings when they enter a city spoil it, and abase the mightiest of
its people: and in like manner will these also do.
But I will send to them with a gift, and await what my envoys bring back."
And when the messenger came to Solomon, he said, "Aid ye me with riches? But
what God hath given to me is better than what he hath given you: yet ye glory
in your gifts:
Return to them: for we will surely come to them with forces which they cannot
withstand, and we will drive them from their land humbled and contemptible."
Said he, "O nobles, which of you will bring me her throne before they come to
me, submitting? (Muslims)."
An Efreet7 of the Djinn said: "I will bring it thee ere thou risest from thy
place: I have power for this and am trusty."
And one who had the knowledge of Scripture said, "I will bring it to thee in
the twinkling of an eye."8 And when he saw it set before him, he said, "This
is of the favour of my Lord, to try me whether I will be thankful or
unthankful. And he who is thankful is thankful to his own behoof; and as for
him who is unthankful�truly my Lord is self-sufficient, bounteous!"
Said he, "Make her throne so that she know it not: we shall see whether she
hath or not guidance."
And when she came he said, "Is thy throne like this?" She said, "As though it
were the same." "And we," said he, "have had knowledge given us before her,
and have been Muslims."
But the gods she had worshipped instead of God had led her astray: for she
was of a people who believe not.
It was said to her,"Enter the Palace:" and when she saw it, she thought it a
lake of water, and bared her legs. He said, "It is a palace paved with
She said, "O my Lord! I have sinned against my own soul, and I resign myself,
with Solomon, to God the Lord of the Worlds."
And of old we sent to Themoud their brother Saleh, with "Serve ye God:"but
lo! they became two sets of disputants wrangling with each other.
He said, "O my people, why, if ye ask not pardon of God that ye may find
mercy, hasten ye on evil rather than good?"
They said,"We augur9 ill concerning thee and those who are with thee." He
said, "The ills of which ye augur10 depend on God. But ye are a people on
And there were in the city nine persons who committed excesses in the land
and did not that which is right.
They said, "Swear ye to one another by God that we will surely fall on him
and on his family by night: then will be say to the avenger of blood, we
witnessed not the destruction of his family: and verily we speak the truth."
And they devised a device, and we devised a device, and they were not aware
And see what was the end of their device! We destroyed them and their whole
And for their sin these their houses are empty ruins: Verily in this is a
sign to those who understand;
And we delivered those who believed and feared.
And Lot, when he said to his people, "What! proceed ye to such filthiness
with your eyes open?
What! come ye with lust unto men rather than to women? Surely ye are an
And the answer of his people was but to say, "Cast out the family of Lot from
your city: they, forsooth, are men of purity!"
So we rescued him and his family: but as for his wife, we decreed her to be
of them that lingered:
And we rained a rain upon them, and fatal was the rain to those who had had
SAY: Praise be to God and peace be on His servants whom He hath chosen! Is
God the more worthy or the gods they join with Him?
Is not He who hath made the Heavens and the Earth, and hath sent down rain to
you from Heaven, by which we cause the luxuriant groves to spring up! It is
not in your power to cause its trees to spring up! What! A god with God? Yet
they find equals for Him!
Is not He, who hath set the earth so firm, and hath made rivers in its midst,
and hath placed mountains upon it, and put a barrier between the two seas?11
What! a god with God? Yet the greater part of them have no knowledge!
Is not He the more worthy who answereth the oppressed when they cry to him,
and taketh off their ills, and maketh you to succeed your sires on the earth?
What! a god with God? How few bear these things in mind!
Is not He, who guideth you in the darkness of the land and of the sea, and
who sendeth forth the winds as the forerunners of His mercy? What! a god with
God? Far from God be what ye join with Him!
Is not He, who created a Being, then reneweth it, and who supplieth you out
of the Heaven and the Earth? What! a god with God? SAY: Bring forth your
proofs if you speak the truth.
SAY: None either in the Heavens or in the Earth knoweth the unseen but God.
And they know not
When they shall be raised.
�Yet they have attained to a knowledge of the life to come:12�yet are they in
doubt about it:�yet are they blind about it!
And the unbelievers say: "When we and our fathers have been dead shall we be
Of old have we been promised this, we and our sires of old it is but fables
of the ancients."
SAY: Go ye through the land, and see what hath been the end of the wicked.
And grieve not thou for them, nor be in distress at their devisings.
And they say, "When will this promise be made good, if ye speak true?"
SAY: Haply a part of what ye desire to be hastened may be close behind you.
And truly thy Lord is full of goodness towards men: But most of them are not
And thy Lord knoweth well what their breasts enshroud, and what they bring to
And there is no secret thing in the Heaven or on the Earth, but it is in the
Truly this Koran declareth to the children of Israel most things wherein they
And it is certainly guidance and a mercy to the faithful.
Verily, by his wisdom will thy Lord decide between them: for He is the
Mighty, the Knowing.
Put thou then thy trust in God: for thou hast clear truth on thy side.13
Thou shalt not make the dead to hear; neither shalt thou make the deaf to
hear the call, when they turn away backward;
Neither art thou the guide of the blind out of their errors: none truly shalt
thou make to hear but those who believe our signs: and they are Muslims.
When the doom shall be ready to light upon them, we will cause a monster14 to
come forth to them out of the earth, and cry to them "Verily men have not
firmly believed our signs."
And on that day shall be gathered out of every nation a company of those who
have gainsaid our signs, in separate bands;
Till they come before God, who will say, "Treated ye my signs as impostures,
although ye embraced them not in your knowledge? or what is it that ye were
And doom shall light upon them for their evil deeds, and nought shall they
have to plead.
See they not that we have ordained the night that they may rest in it, and
the day with its gift of light? Of a truth herein are signs to people who
On that day there shall be a blast on the trumpet, and all that are in the
heavens, and all that the on the earth shall be terror-stricken, save him
whom God pleaseth to deliver; and all shall come to him in humble guise.
And thou shalt see the mountains, which thou thinkest so firm, pass away with
the passing of a cloud! 'Tis the work of God, who ordereth all things! of all
that ye do is He well aware.
To him who shall present himself with good works, shall be a reward beyond
their desert,15 and they shall be secure from the terror on that day;
And they who shall present themselves with evil shall be flung downward on
their faces into the fire. Shall ye be rewarded but as ye have wrought?
SAY: Specially am I commanded to worship the Lord of this land, which He hath
sanctified. All things are His: and I am commanded to be one of those who
surrender them to God (a Muslim)
And to recite the Koran: and whoever is rightly guided, assuredly will be