The Progressive Era Chapter Nine Chapters in Brief – Questions



Download 44,64 Kb.
Date conversion20.07.2017
Size44,64 Kb.

The Progressive Era Chapter Nine

Chapters in Brief – Questions

  • 1. Describe the four areas of Progressive reform.
  • 2. How did women’s lives change in the early twentieth century?
  • 3. What policies did Teddy Roosevelt pursue?
  • 4. Why did the Republican Party split, and what
  • was the result?
  • 5. What progressive reforms did Woodrow Wilson
  • advance, and which did he do little or nothing to achieve?

Chapters in Brief – Answers

  • Describe the four areas of Progressive reform.
  • > protecting social welfare
  • > promoting moral reform
  • (such as Prohibition)
  • > reforming the economy
  • (busting trusts)
  • (reforming business practices)
  • > making businesses more efficient
  • (scientific management / assembly line)

Chapters in Brief – Answers

  • 2. How did women’s lives change in the early twentieth century?
  • > In the early 1900s, more women entered the
  • workforce. Many middle and upper-class
  • women joined groups to promote culture and
  • reform movements, including the effort to
  • improve the lives of African-American women
  • and to win suffrage for women.
  • 3. What policies did Teddy Roosevelt pursue?
  • > Roosevelt pushed for a strong national
  • government through government intervention
  • in regulating business and conserving
  • wilderness.

Chapters in Brief – Answers

  • 4. Why did the Republican Party split, and what
  • was the result?
  • > the Republican Party split when Roosevelt
  • and progressives objected to Taft’s slow pace
  • on reform. The result was that Wilson won
  • the White House and Democrats won
  • Congress.
  • 5. What progressive reforms did Woodrow Wilson
  • advance, and which did he do little or nothing to achieve?
  • > Wilson pushed for reforms in business and
  • banking, but did little or nothing to aid
  • women and African Americans to win equal
  • rights.

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Background Essay
  • 1. When was the Progressive Period?
  • 1890 to 1920
  •  
  • 2. What was the poverty level in dollars for a
  • family of six in 1900? $600
  •  
  • 3. What was the average earnings of an American
  • worker in 1900? $500
  •  
  • 4. What three Presidents served during the
  • Progressive Period?
  • Teddy Roosevelt / William Howard Taft
  • Woodrow Wilson

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Background Essay
  • 5. What were two areas where Progressivism
  • made little or no change?
  • reducing racial segregation
  • assisting the growth of workers’ unions
  •  
  • 6. Define each of the following:
  •  
  • underside: the dark side; the hidden problems
  • that are not usually talked about
  •  
  • muckraker: a Progressive era reformer who wrote
  • about social problems of the time
  •  

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Background Essay
  • 6. Define each of the following:
  •  
  • Progressivism: reform period in US history that
  • lasted from about 1900 to 1920

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document A

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document A
  • 1. Who is the man in the cartoon?
  • Teddy Roosevelt
  •  
  • 2. Why is he represented in this way (hunting,
  • his attire)?
  • Roosevelt is an avid hunter and once
  • spared a bear
  • 3. What is he doing?
  • he is distinguishing between good and bad trusts
  •  

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document A
  • 4. What do the bears represent?
  • good trusts and bad trusts (monopolies)
  •  
  • 5. What has the man done with the bears?
  • What does this represent?
  • good trusts = properly restrained by the
  • government
  • bad trusts = prevention of corporations
  • dominating the market
  • Roosevelt was the first president to exercise
  • his powers
  •  

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document B
  •  

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document B
  • 1. What are two political problems identified by
  • Joseph J. Keppler in this cartoon?
  • > corporate business threatening over
  • small senators
  • > people have no say (door closed and
  • bolted)
  •  
  • 2. What is / are the specific meanings of the
  • objects?
  • the galleries stand empty while the special interests have floor privileges
  •  

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document B
  •  
  • 3. What is the main idea that the illustrator /
  • author is trying to get across?
  • > growth of American industry with a
  • disturbing trend of increase monopolies
  • > excessive influence on politics

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document C
  • 1. State two ways the 17th amendment
  • addressed the concern expressed in the
  • political cartoon (Document B).
  • > regular votes elect Senators
  • > end corruption in government

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document D
  • 1. According to this political party platform, what
  • were five specific problems that led to the
  • foundation of the Populist Party?
  • a. corruption in voting
  • b. isolation of voters
  • c. public opinion silenced
  • d. denied unionization / protests / strikes
  • e. work of many for few to become wealthy

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document E
  • 1.  What was a breaker boy?
  • a breaker boy was a young mine worker whose job was to separate coal from slate rock as it came up and out from the coal mine
  •  
  • 2. How old were the two boys who were injured
  • and killed at the Lee Breaker? 15 years old

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document E
  • 3. What is the main idea of the Lewis Hine
  • report?
  • the main idea is that some children in America in the early 19th century were legally employed doing dangerous and unhealthy work
  • 4. How does the photograph help support the
  • report’s descriptions?
  • the photo shows young boys working in dark and cramped conditions sorting coal

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document F
  • 1. State two problems faced by cities in the
  • United States in the late 1800s.
  • hunger / sanitation
  •  
  • 2. Identify one reform that was proposed by
  • Progressives to improve this situation.
  • child labor laws

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document G
  • 1. State two ways reformers tried to stop the sale
  • of intoxicating liquors in the United States.
  • > prohibition (18th amendment)
  • > temperance reformers
  •  
  • 2. Analyze the two maps. What can be concluded
  • regarding prohibition?
  • under the 18th amendment, many states became “dry” and followed prohibition laws

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document H
  •  
  • 1. What is “the ballot”? refers to the right to vote
  •  
  • 2. Why does Jane Addams say that it is
  • necessary for women to get the ballot?
  • women’s votes were necessary to elect people who would support social reforms. Addams apparently thought women were more interested in social issues like health and education than men were

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document H
  • In the photo the sign being displayed reads, “Mr.
  • President, How Long Must Women Wait For
  • Liberty?” The protesters were standing in front of
  • the White House. Was this a good way for women
  • to fight for the vote? Why or why not?
  • many would say that it is a very American way to get one’s opinion across. Peaceful protests that draw attention have been used by reformers to move Presidents and leaders into action. At the time, however many felt it was not proper for women to protest so boldly. But these brave women did so anyway even though many made fun of them.

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document I
  • 1. What detail from Upton Sinclair’s book is the
  • most disgusting to you? Opinion Question
  •  
  • 2. If you were alive in 1906, and had just read
  • this book, what might you decide to do to
  • change the situation? Opinion Question
  •  
  • 3. How does the photo support Sinclair’s claims
  • about the meat-packing industry?
  • the photo shows men working in a slaughterhouse that is dirty, bloody, and not sterile. They are not wearing protective gloves

DBQ Progressivism – Questions and Answers

  • Document J
  • 1. What was the purpose of fostering efficiency?
  • making society and the workplace more efficient
  •  
  • 2. Define Taylorism.
  • scientific management where efficiency is improved by breaking down tasks into simpler parts
  •  
  • 3. How does the photograph promote fostering
  • efficiency?
  • each assembly line worker has a specific task to do; hence, it speeds up production

Chapters in Brief Overview

  • In the first two decades of the 1900s, Americans embrace the Progressive movement and many of its reforms.

Progressivism Objective

  • Explain how the progressive
  • movement increased
  • government regulations of
  • business and protected
  • society from the injustices of
  • big business

THE ORIGINS OF PROGRESSIVISM CHAPTER 9 – SECTION 1

Chapters in Brief

  • As the 1900s opened, reformers pushed for a range of charges to society in a movement called Progressivism, which had four major goals:
  • Protecting social welfare by easing the ills of
  • urban society. The YMCA built libraries and
  • exercise facilities while the Salvation Army
  • offered the urban poor food and nursery car.
  • 2. Promoting moral improvement, especially by
  • working to ban alcoholic beverages.
  • Prohibitionists – many of whom were members of
  • the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
  • – often came into conflict with immigrant groups.
  • The saloons reformers served vital functions such
  • as offering cheap meals in immigrant communities

Chapters in Brief

  • 3. Reforming the economy. Some criticized the vast wealth
  • amassed by industrialist and the treatment of workers
  • Journalists called “muckrakers” published stories about
  • business corruption and unfair practices.
  • Making businesses more efficient and profitable.
  • Scientific management and the adoption of goods
  • enabled factories to increase production.
  • Progressives also reformed politics at the local and state levels. Reform mayors routed corruption out of Detroit and Cleveland, among other cities. Wisconsin Governor Robert M. LaFollette took steps to regulate businesses in his state. Reformers managed to pass laws in almost every state to ban child labor and limited the number of hours women could work. Reformers passed laws requiring the use of secret ballots in elections and allowing voters to remove elected officials from office. The Seventeenth Amendment allowed for voters to elect senators directly.
  • Muckrackers
  • Temperance
  • Suffragettes
  • Popul
  • ists
  • Labor
  • Unions
  • Civi l Rights

The Origins of Progressivism

  • Overview of Progressivism Video
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uFlOLyMwnjU

The Origins of Progressivism

  • Reformers struggled to make government more responsive to the people
  • they sought to restore economic opportunities to ALL Americans
  • they wanted to correct injustices in American life
  • these ideas fueled progressivism
  • Progressivism: a local and
  • national
  • movement by
  • reformers in
  • America to make
  • the government
  • respond to the
  • needs of the
  • people.

Four Goals of Progressivism

  • the Progressive Era lasted from 1890 to 1920
  • at the dawn of the new century, middle class reformers addressed many of the problems that had contributed to the social upheavals of the 1890s by:
    • exposing unsafe factory conditions
    • questioning the dominant role of big business
    • struggling to make government more responsive to the people
  • together, these reform efforts formed the Progressive Movement
  • progressive movement: the aim to restore economic
  • opportunities and to correct
  • injustices in American life

Four Goals of Progressivism

  • 1. Protecting social welfare
  • 2. Promoting moral improvement
  • 3. Creating economic reform
  • 4. Fostering efficiency

Protecting Social Welfare

  • Reformers worked to soften harsh conditions and help the poor
  • the YMCA opened libraries, sponsored classes, and built swimming pools, and handball courts
  • the Salvation Army fed poor people (soup kitchens)
  • many women were inspired by the settlement houses
  • Florence Kelley
        • - advocate for improving the lives of women
        • and children
        • - she was appointed chief inspector of
        • factories for Illinois
        • - helped to win passage of the Illinois
        • Factory Act of 1893
        • Illinois Factory Act: prohibited child labor,
        • limited women’s working
        • hours, and became a
        • model for other states

Promoting Moral Improvement

  • other reformers felt morality was more important than the workplace; morality held the key to improving the lives of poor people
  • many of these reformers favored prohibition
  • Prohibition: the banning of
  • alcoholic beverages
  • prohibitionist groups feared that alcohol was undermining American morals
  • the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement (WCTM) led the crusade of prohibition
  • the prohibition movement caused tension with many of the immigrant groups over the closure of local saloons

Creating Economic Reform

  • the panic of 1893 caused many people to question capitalist system
  • Eugene V. Debs, a union leader, saw an uneven balance of wealth among big business, government, and ordinary people, and embraced socialism
  • most people did not favor socialism, but did believe in Deb’s criticisms
  • he criticized business for receiving favorable treatment from government
  • Muckrakers wrote about corrupt business and public life

Fostering Efficiency

  • many progressive leaders used scientific principles to make the workplace more efficient
  • Henry Ford created an assembly line to speed up production
      • people worked like machines.
      • there was high turnover due to injuries
  • Ford paid $5 a day for eight hours of work – great pay for the time

Assembly Line Activity

  • 1. Teacher will have students count off in
  • fives.
  • 2. Get in your designated group number.
  • 3. Teacher will hand out assembly line
  • worker sign-up sheet.
  • 4. Students, per group, will sign up for
  • job description.
  • 5. Teacher will hand out description of
  • assignment.

Assembly Line Activity

  • Note: There are people in your group that
  • are injured – figure out how to run
  • the assembly line
  • Window Person: lost right arm– can only complete the task with left hand (right hand needs to be behind your back)
  • Tire Person: lost left leg– has to stand the entire time on right leg only

Cleaning Up State Government

  • Reforming at the State Level
  • progressive governors passed state laws to regulate railroads, mines, mills, telephone companies, and large businesses.
  • protected working children- legislation passed to ban child labor
  • limits on working hours– no more than ten hours a day
  • provided workers’ compensation- help for families of workers killed or hurt on the job
  • reforming elections
    • Initiatives = a bill originated by the people rather than lawmakers
    • Referendums = vote on the initiative
    • Recall = enabled voters to remove public officials from elected positions by forcing them to face another election before the end of their term if enough voters asked for it
  • direct election of Senators (17th Amendment)- Senators no longer appointed by state legislature

Mueller v. Oregon

  • 1908 - Mueller v. Oregon
    • Louis D. Brandeis (assisted by Florence Kelley and Josephine Goldmark) argued poor working women were much more economically insecure than large corporations.
    • they asserted that women’s protection is required by the state against powerful employers.
    • Mueller v. Oregon confirmed that labor laws designed to protect women specifically are constitutional, even while ruling that similar laws for men are not.
    • Supreme Court rationale that was used to rule that the Oregon state law limiting women’s working hours was legal because women are the only gender able to have children (hence the state is justified in creating laws to protect them).
    • other states used this to limit women’s working hours to ten a day.

Effects of Mueller v. Oregon

  • Positive Results
  • Women empowered to organize into unions
    • increased job training for women
    • gave legal focus and direction (renewed women’s liberation movement)

Essential Question

  • How did Prohibition fit into the reformation movement?
  • Answer the question in three complete sentences in your summary section

WOMEN IN PUBLIC LIFE CHAPTER 9 – SECTION 2

Chapters in Brief

  • On the nation’s farms, women continued to play the vital roles they had filled earlier. They helped with the farm’s crops and animals as well as cooking, cleaning, sewing, and child rearing. Many urban women who lacked education joined the work force by becoming servants. African-Americans and unmarried immigrant women often used this route to employment. At the turn of the century, one in five American women held jobs outside the home; 25 percent worked in manufacturing. Half of them toiled in the garment industry. With the growth of business, more and more women worked in offices as stenographers and typists. As a result, more women sought high school educations to train for these jobs.

Chapters in Brief

  • Many middle- and upper-class women joined groups aiming to promote culture. The number of women’s colleges grew, and many who graduated from these colleges joined the reform movements. Major goals of these movements were making workplace and home safer. The National Association of Colored Women helped African Americans by creating nurseries, reading rooms, and kindergartens.
  • Many women joined in the efforts to seek the right to vote, or suffrage. Spearheading the effort was the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Wyoming in 1869, became the first state to grant this right to women. Some other western states followed suit. Another effort failed when the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution did not guaranteed women the right to vote. Women pushed for an amendment to the Constitution granting suffrage, but for the first two decades of the 1900s, it did not pass.

Women in the Work Force

  • Women’s Role in the Work Force
  • pre-Civil War many middle-class women stayed home (expectation to be mothers)
  • farm women took care of household duties and farm work
  • Industry Women
    • 20% of women worked in 1900
    • textile jobs (clothing production) were the most common factory jobs for women
    • most women who held these jobs were single
  • women also began to fill jobs that required a high school education (offices, classrooms, stores)
  • many women without education did domestic work, such as cleaning for other families.

Women Lead Reform

  • Dangerous conditions, low wages, and long hours led many female industrial workers to push for reform

Women and Reform

  • uneducated laborers started efforts to reform workplace health and safety
  • women were not allowed to vote or run for office - female reformers strove to improve conditions at work and home
  • Susan B. Anthony was one of the leading proponents of woman suffrage
  • Suffrage: the right to vote

Women and Reform

  • Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton founded the National Women Suffrage Associate (NWSA)
  • Women suffrage faced constant opposition:
    • liquor industry feared women would vote for prohibition
    • textile industry worried women would vote for stopping child labor
    • men feared the new roles of women

Three-Part Strategy for Suffrage

  • try to convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote
  • pursue court cases to test the 14th Amendment
    • tried to vote over 150
    • times in ten states
  • push for a national constitutional amendment to grant women the vote
    • constantly introduced and voted down

Essential Question

  • How did Susan B. Anthony help the cause of women?
  • Answer the question in three complete sentences in your summary section

TEDDY ROOSEVELT’S SQUARE DEAL CHAPTER 9 – SECTION 3

Chapters in Brief

  • When President William McKinley was killed in 1901, Theodore Roosevelt became president. He showed great energy and bold decision making and won publicity. He launched a program of reforms called the “Square Deal.” With his vigorous leadership, he changed the presidency. Roosevelt thought that a more complex American society needed a powerful federal government. He intervened in a bitter 1902 coal strike to lead both sides to an agreement. He had the government sue business trusts to improve competition. He pushed through laws increasing government’s power to regulate railroads. His actions during a Pennsylvania coal strike set a precedent of government intervention when a strike threatened public welfare. After reading a book, The Jungle, that exposed poor sanitary practices in the meatpacking industry, Roosevelt gained passage of the Meat Inspection Act. The Pure Food and Drug Act banned food processors from adding dangerous chemicals to food or from making false claims regarding medicines. Roosevelt also took steps to

Chapters in Brief

  • preserve the nation’s wild natural areas. Roosevelt, though, did not back civil rights for African Americans. So black leaders, plus some white reformers, formed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909 to push for full racial equality.

A Rough-Riding President

  • Getting To Know “Teddy”
  • image is on Mt. Rushmore
  • became famous at the Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba
  • signed treaty to build the Panama Canal
  • 1st American to receive the Nobel Peace Prize
  • shot in 1912 while campaigning (saved by a book in his pocket)
  • 1st President to visit a foreign country while in office
  • wrote several books

A Rough-Riding President

    • leader in New York politics
    • New York City Police Commissioner
    • Assistant Secretary of the Navy
    • Rough Rider = volunteer cavalry brigade acclaimed for his role in the battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba
    • Governor of New York
    • Vice President of the United States
    • became president after President McKinley was assassinated in Buffalo

A Rough-Riding President

  • some biographical facts about
  • Teddy Roosevelt
    • at the time of his election, Roosevelt was the youngest President of the United States
    • he was 42 at the time of his inauguration
    • he was an active President, and enjoyed boxing (blinded in left eye), and horseback riding (galloped 100 miles just to show he could)
    • he thought that the federal government was responsible for the national welfare
    • he though the common people should get a “Square Deal”

Election of 1904

Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal

  • Teddy Roosevelt’s “Square Deal” was his program of progressive reforms designed to protect the common people against big business

Using Federal Power

  • Roosevelt was convinced that modern America required a powerful federal government
  • Roosevelt had a renewed focus on trust-busting
  • Roosevelt did not see all trusts as bad
  • many trusts lowered their prices to drive competitors out of the market and then took advantage of the lack of competition to jack prices higher
  • Roosevelt wanted to stop trust actions that hurt the people

Using Federal Power

  • 1. What do the lions stand for?
  • Answer: the lions represent the powerful business men who run the trusts.
  • 2. Why are all the lions coming out of
  • a door labeled “Wall Street”?
  • Answer: Wall Street stands for the location of the New York Stock Exchange and the power of big corporations.
  • 3. What do you think the cartoonist
  • thinks about trust-busting?
  • Answer: The positive image of Roosevelt suggests that the cartoonist admires Roosevelt’s efforts at trust-busting. Roosevelt is not afraid and welcomes the chance to bring over and curb the power of big business.

Using Federal Power

  • 1902 Coal Strike
    • 140,000 coal miners in PA went on strike– demanded 20% pay raise, nine hour work day, and the right to organize a union
    • the mine operators refused to bargain
    • five months into the strike, coal reserves ran low, and Roosevelt was forced to intervene and called both sides to the White House to negotiate
    • Roosevelt’s actions demonstrated a new principle that government could intervene if a strike hurt the public interest
  • Railroad Regulations
    • Roosevelt’s real goal was federal regulation
    • there were new federal regulations to limited railroads (rates, limited distribution of free railroad passes. etc.)

Health and the Environment

  • the Jungle, by Upton Sinclair, led to the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food & Drug Act
  • the Meat Inspection Act was a law enacted in 1906 that established strict cleanliness requirements for meatpackers and created a meat-inspection program
  • Pure Food & Drug Act
      • - if people had accurate
      • information about products
      • they would make good
      • choices
      • - many children’s products
      • contained opium, cocaine,
      • and/or alcohol
      • - products made ridiculous and
      • untrue claims
      • it halted the sale of
      • contaminated foods and
      • medicine and called for
      • truth in labeling

Upton Sinclair – “The Jungle”

  • After reading this, what do you think the public would be the most upset about?
  • Give at least three examples of the terrible working conditions?
  • Infer what some of the sights, sounds, and smells that one might hear in this meat packing plant?
  • Predict what might happen once the public reads about the meat packing industry?

Welcome to the Jungle Have an Appetite for Destruction?

  • Upton Sinclair’s “The Jungle”
  • (5:54)
  • http://www.schooltube.com/video/31d956fd9ef6737cd887/Upton-Sinclairs-The-Jungle
  • Sir Paul McCartney / Michael Jackson,
  • “Say Say Say”
  • (5:19)
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uVpnng-rK1U

Health and the Environment

  • Conservation Natural Resources
  • many Americans were exploiting natural resources
  • Progressives believed in using experts to solve problems
  • Gifford Pinchot headed the U.S. Forest Service
  • he believed some areas should be exempt from sale in order to keep them natural
  • other areas would be developed for the common good

Roosevelt and Civil Rights

  • Progressives were mostly concerned with middle-class whites
  • W. E. Du Bois and others were upset by this indifference to racial injustice
  • Roosevelt did work with some African-Americans (appointed an African American as head of the South Carolina Customhouse, Booker T. Washington was invited to the White House, etc.)
  • In response to the indifference of the Progressives, the NAACP was formed in 1909

“Extra, Extra…Read All About It

  • 1. Create five problem-solution diagrams to show how
  • the following problems were addressed during
  • Roosevelt’s presidency:
  • a. 1902 coal strike b. unsafe meat processing
  • c. racial injustices d. exploitation of environment
  • e. Northern Securities Company Monopoly
  • 2. Create newspaper headings announcing the solutions.
  • 3. Pick one heading and solution.
  • 4. Create a visual illustration to represent the solution.
  • 5. Write a “news article” about the solution. (3 – 5 sentences)
  • Problems
  • Solutions

Essential Question

  • What scandalous practices did Upton Sinclair expose in his novel “The Jungle”? How did the American public and President Roosevelt respond?
  • Answer the question in three complete sentences in your summary section

PROGRESSIVISM UNDER TAFT CHAPTER 9 – SECTION 4

Chapters in Brief

  • William Howard Taft became president in 1909. He pursued many Progressive policies but more cautiously – and with less publicity – than Roosevelt. And he divided his own party. One issue was the tariff. Taft wished to lower the tariffs. When conservatives in the Senate passed a weakened version of the measure, Taft signed it anyway and Progressives complained. He also angered conservationists by appointing officials who favored development of wild lands rather than preservation of them.
  • With the Republican Party split between reformers and conservatives, Democrats won control of the House for the first time in almost two decades. In 1912, Roosevelt tried to regain the Republican nomination for president. Failing that, Roosevelt formed a third party – the Bull Moose party – and ran on a platform of reform. The Democrats nominated reformer Woodrow Wilson, the governor of New Jersey. As Taft and Roosevelt bitterly denounced each other, Wilson won the election – and a Democratic majority in Congress. About three-quarters of the vote went to candidates in favor of economic reform.

WILSON’S NEW FREEDOM CHAPTER 9 – SECTION 5

Chapters in Brief

  • A religious and scholarly man, Wilson stayed independent of party bosses and pursued his policies of reform called the “New Freedom.” With the Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914, the government strengthened laws against business trusts and workers’ rights. The Federal Trade Act created the Federal Trade Commission to investigate unfair business practices. Another law lowered tariffs. With decreased tariff revenues, the government began collecting taxes on workers’ income. Wilson also secured passage of a law creating the Federal Reserve System to improve the nation’s banking practices. Meanwhile, women continued in their drive to win the right to vote. As of 1910, women’s suffrage was approved in five states. Defeats in other states, though, led some women to try more militant tactics. Alice Paul organized a group that picketed the White House and the Democratic Party. Finally, the Nineteenth Amendment, ratified 1920, gave women the right to vote.
  • Wilson did not push social reform ideas. He did Wilson little to support women’s suffrage, nor did he help African Americans. In fact, he appointed southerners who took steps to extend segregation. Blacks who had voted for Wilson felt betrayed, and a meeting between Wilson and African American leaders ended in anger.

Wilson’s Background

  • he spent his youth in the South during the Civil War and Reconstruction
  • he had strict upbringing from his minister father
  • before entering politics, he was lawyer, history professor, and president of Princeton University
  • elected Governor of New Jersey 1910– supported progressive legislative programs
  • - direct primary
  • - worker’s compensation
  • - regulation of public utilities and
  • railroads

Wilson’s Wins Financial Reform

  • like Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson claimed progressive ideals, but he had a different idea for federal government
  • Wilson believed in attacking large concentrations of powers to give greater freedom to average citizens
  • Wilson focused on his “New Freedom,” which was an attack on triple wall of privilege (trusts, tariffs, and high finance)

Two Key Antitrust Measures

  • Clayton Antitrust Act: prohibited corporations from acquiring the stock of another company if doing so would create a monopoly
  • Federal Trade Commission (FTC): investigated possible violations of regulatory statutes, required periodic reports from corporations, and put an end to a number of unfair business practices

Wilson’s and the Financial System

  • New Tax System: lowered tariffs to curb the
  • power of big business
  • 2. Federal Income Tax: larger incomes were
  • charged a higher tax
  • rate than smaller
  • incomes (graduated tax)
  • 3. Federal Reserve System:
  • > established in 1913
  • > a national banking system that
  • controls the United States’ money
  • supply and the availability of credit in
  • the country

Women Win Suffrage!!!

  • Suffrage movement was given new strength by growing numbers of college-educated women
  • Susan B. Anthony’s successor as president of NAWSA was Carrie Chapman Catt
  • initial failures cause the women’s movement to try more radical tactics
  • The 19th Amendment
    • granted women the right to vote
    • passed in 1919, ratified in August 1920
    • took 72 years from initial push
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CGHGDO_b_q0

Essential Question

  • What was the Nineteenth Amendment? How did women finally win the vote?
  • Answer the question in three complete sentences in your summary section

Progressivism Objective

  • Explain how the progressive
  • movement increased
  • government regulations of
  • business and protected
  • society from the injustices of
  • big business


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page