By the early 14th century, the Khilji army had large numbers of Hindu soldiers working for various emirs—Hindu and Muslim
Khusrau Khan, a recent convert, was the general and using his power base in the army killed Mubarak Shah in a coup in 1320.
Only the opposition of the Turkish emirs stopped Khusrau Khan from ruling—the last of the important Sultanates, the Tughlaqs, would replace him.
To what extent were the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate
able to create stable political and social institutions
in South Asia?
In framing your answer analyze some of these (ex. the iqta system, administration, economy, religious patronage, etc) in detail to explain how they supported or undermined the rule of the Sultans.
Create Thesis, Organize evidence
After reviewing readings and notes, select the strongest evidence you have—factors creating stability or instability in the Sultanate.
Are any of these points related? Can you frame them more concisely?
Pick the 3 or so strongest points to discuss in paper and formulate thesis
Creating a good thesis
Do not state the very general points or merely repeat what the question asks: ex. of weak thesis: “Many factors created a stable (or unstable) administration during the Sultanate period in South Asia.”
Use specific and clear wording in your thesis:
Ex. “The (specific elements) helped foster stability during the Sultanate period because. . . .”
Offer an argument or identify a causal factor (how or why something happens)
Ex. some institutions can have mixed impacts, i.e. promote stability in some situations, instability in others (ex. Market reforms)
Do not have one long, run on sentence that offers a list of factors, but does not explain their interconnections, or offer a strong argument
Structure your paper around your thesis, make sure you transition well from one point to another.
For each point discussed, find specific evidence from the readings. Make sure you cite your evidence correctly. Without citations your paper will get an automatic “F”
Each paragraph should add a little bit more to your argument/thesis. This is a short paper—stay focused on your argument
Make sure your conclusion wraps all your evidence together
Proofread paper and CHECK CITATIONS before handing in the paper
You may use either endnotes or footnotes
Please use the “Insert” menu, (select references) in MS word, instead of doing it manually, this will save you time and re-number notes as you add and delete sections in your draft.
All bib. Information is in your syllabus.
You do not need a bibliography.
Example of Chicago citation
Ist mention of a text:
Joe Author, Title of book, (New York: Publishing Co, 2003), 7. or
Joe Author, “Title of Essay, “ in (rest same as the 1st example from book), or
Joe Author, “Article Title,” Journal Name, Issue no, date, 14.
2nd citation and after, use short form: Smith, 35.
For slides or Lecture notes
Use my last name and date of the lecture.
Slides on website are titled with the day they were used.
Keep in mind—
Primary sources (such as Beruni) are best
Secondary sources (such as Rizvi and other authors) are also good.
Slides and lecture notes are the weakest form of evidence. Use them sparingly.
Step 1—meet with me this week to explore bibliography and topic possibilities
Finalize bibliography and title with me by end of week 3 (this can be done on email, but leave lots of time—24+hrs for my response)
Start reading your strongest sources to formulates proposal—skim others for now
Framing a proposal
Don’t offer a vague idea you have not thought through: “my paper is about the court poet Amir Khusrau and his life.”
Your proposal should explain what specific issue about your topic you will explore and why it is important: “I will examine the writings of Amir Khusrau (1253-1325) to understand how the Turkish emirs of the Delhi Sultanate assimilated facets of Indian culture into their traditions. This research will help explain in what ways Sultanate culture became rooted in South Asia, etc.”
Explain how your sources relate to your topic, their possible strengths and weaknesses.
Create a strong bibliography that matches your proposal.