The Illinois Open 2005: Spite, Death and the Devil

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The Illinois Open 2005: Spite, Death and the Devil

Tossups by Michigan (Adam Kemezis, Will Turner, Dave Rapaport)
1. It was effectively reversed about twelve years after its occurrence. Many of those involved were taken to a public house named “Hell” and were kept there for weeks. Another key figure connected to this event was held in captivity at Carisbrooke Castle. A regiment of horse led by Nathaniel Rich provided backup to the regiment of foot that took charge. Lord Grey assisted in the identification of members of Parliament and, after this event took place, the Rump Parliament was set in place. For ten points, name this 1648 event in which all those who did not support Cromwell were removed from Parliament, named for the man who spearheaded the operation.

Answer: Pride’s Purge

2. Books of his that are now rarely read include O Shepherd, Speak and A World to Win. Sinclair Lewis worked as a janitor in a commune established by this one-time writer of dime novels and comedic fiction. He established the EPIC platform to end poverty in California, for which state he twice ran for Governor while writing eleven novels about a man named Lanny Budd. Dragon’s Teeth won him a Pulitzer Prize and in 1906 a piece of legislation passed inspired by his most famous work. For ten points, name this socialist and author of The Jungle.

Answer: Upton Sinclair

3. His family were Walloon Protestant refugees who fled the Spanish Empire, hence his French name. The town where he was born, Wesel, is now in Germany, but his last job was working for Queen Christina of Sweden. He was hired by Samuel Blommaert in 1638 to establish a colony called New Sweden around what is now Wilmington, Delaware, but died in a hurricane on his way back to Sweden. This was six years after he was dismissed and succeeded by Woulter van Twiller in a post further north. A monument in Battery Park commemorates the most famous action of, for ten points, what governor of New Amsterdam who gave the Canarsie Indians trade goods in exchange for Manhattan Island?

Answer: Peter Minuit

4. Named for this person are a theorem stating that every positive integer is the sum of four squares; a theorem that states that, given a finite group G with a subgroup H, the cardinality of H divides the cardinality of G; and the stationary solutions of the circle-restricted three body problem. In his namesake formulation of mechanics, one calculates trajectories by minimizing the action, and the energy function central to that formulation is also named for him and is symbolized L. For ten points, all of these nifty things are named after what mathematician who also demonstrated the mean value theorem.

Answer: Joseph Louis Lagrange (or Giuseppe Luigi Lagrangia)

5. This body of water is named for a lieutenant, whose first name was Peter, who explored its southern end in 1792. It contains islands including Whidbey and Bainbridge, and smaller cities along its shores include Auburn, Port Orchard, and Bremerton, while the two largest cities are the county seats of Pierce and King counties. It is about ninety miles north to south, is bordered on the west by the Olympic Peninsula, and is entered from the north by the Juan de Fuca Strait. For ten points, name this extended estuary of the Columbia River on which lie the cities of Tacoma and Seattle.

Answer: Puget Sound

6. One of the title characters has a gold sash that he is fingering with his left hand: he is dressed in typical contemporary fashion in black with a white robe and black hat, and his expression is contemplative. The second title figure is at eye level with the first one’s chest and wears a Greek-style headband. His expression is blank because of a legend that, like a character he created named Demodocus, he was blind. For ten points, name this work of Rembrandt in which the founder of the Peripatetic school of philosophy strokes the head of a statue of the writer of the Iliad.

Answer: Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer

7. Some claim that his name, which literally means “black ink,” indicates that he was a marked criminal, but the Hanshu claims he was a daifu in the state of Song. He insisted that thinkers must always analyze the basis, verifiability, and applicability of any proposition, and laid out a fourfold standard for assessing beneficial applications. His religious positions were conservative and he considered the Hsia dynasty the pinnacle of history. His major tenets include identification with the superior, condemnation of offensive war, and the economy of expenditures. For ten points, name this Chinese thinker who made universal love the cornerstone of his philosophy, which was expounded in a self-titled work.

Answer: Moxi (or Mozi or Modi or Moti or Mo-Tzu)

8. The title character of this work has an archrival known as Marcel Dufarge, and he dies tragically after being deceived, tied to a tree, and shot a bunch of times. He has a hideously deformed face with a gaping hole where his mouth should be, but he can talk to animals. His story is told in weekly installments by a man known as “The Chief,” a New York City scout leader, law student, and the impregnator of a woman named Mary Hudson. The Chief is the leader of the Comanche Club and tells the story of the titular character to his eager and adoring troop. Originally published in the New Yorker in 1949, name this one of J.D. Salinger’s Nine Stories.

Answer: “The Laughing Man

9. He is the supreme source of ashe, the spiritual energy of which all things are composed. His pity for the immortal, aged first humans led him to give the gift of death to mankind, but in general he works through intermediaries like Ogun and Yemaya. He sent his daughter Oduduwa to create the earth, and then breathed life into the people created by his son, Obatala; the latter is associated with Our Lady of Mercy. For ten points, name this supreme deity of the Yoruba mythology who is associated with Jehovah and Jesus Christ in Santeria.

Answer: Olorun (or Olodumare)

10. This city’s impressive cathedral has free-standing walls leading off of it that were originally meant as the walls of a new and larger cathedral, the building of which was halted by the Black Death. The city never recovered from the plague and lost prominence to a rival that it had beaten in 1260 at Montaperti. The head of its most famous resident is enshrined in this city, but the remainder is in Rome, the city to which she was instrumental in returning the Papacy. For ten points, name this city in Tuscany whose Piazza del Campo is the site of the Palazzo Publico and an annual horse race called the palio, and whose patron is St. Catherine.

Answer: Siena

11. Maria Jerzita became famous for singing this works most famous soprano aria while lying flat on her back. In the 1990’s, Placido Domingo, Caterina Malfitano and Ruggiero Raimondi starred in a production set in the actual locations and times specified in the libretto, those being the Church of St. Andrew in the Valley, the Farnese Palace, and the Mausoleum of Hadrian. The Battle of Marengo is a key plot event, and famous arias include “Vissi d’Arte” and “Recondita Armonia,” sung respectively by the title heroine and her lover, Cavaradossi. For ten points, name this opera by Puccini whose heroine stabs Scarpio to death before throwing herself off the Castel Sant’Angelo.

Answer: Tosca

12. This figure’s 1839 victory at Nezid against Sultan Mahmud confirmed the territorial gains he’d made six years earlier; the Convention of London later took away that territory, but made his title of Viceroy hereditary. He had earlier acted on behalf of Mahmud in clearing the Wahhabis out of the Hejaz and conquering Sudan. His most significant power grab occurred in 1811 when he invited 300 Mameluke leaders to a banquet, and as they returned, killed them in the streets of Cairo. For ten points, name this Egyptian leader who almost took Greece back for Islam before his fleet was drubbed by the British in 1827 at Navarino.

Answer: Muhammad Ali (or Mehmet Ali; prompt on partial name)

13. Petey misses the titular event because of his chess game, and Meg declares herself the belle of the ball. McCann won’t drink Scotch, only Irish whiskey, and peppers his conversation with allusions to the Black and Tans, and Drogheda. Goldberg’s first name seems to be Nat, but his wife called him Simey and his father called him Ben. The focus though is on Stanley Webber, an ex-pianist in the middle of a nervous breakdown. For ten points, name this absurdist play, the second work of Harold Pinter.

Answer: The Birthday Party

14. This malady proceeds in two stages, and can rarely be triggered by warfarin poisoning. Advanced stage II symptoms of this disease include personality changes, disorientation, delirium, and convulsions. The namesake of this disease performed most his research alongside Dr. George Johnson, and together they found that though jaundice is not usually present in afflicted persons, the liver swells, the kidneys change appearance, and there is severe encephalopathy of the brain. A strong link has been discovered between this disease and the use of aspirin and other salicylates to treat viral infections. For ten points, name this incurable disease generally seen in children.

Answer: Reye’s syndrome

15. Henry II housed his mistress Rosamund Clifford in the original manor, and Elizabeth I was imprisoned here in 1554. Construction was completed by Nicolas Hawksmoor after the first architect was banned from the site, though funding was as fitful as Queen Anne’s favor. Notable features include a bust of the vanquished Louis XIV and a room dedicated to notable scion Winston Churchill. For ten points, name this English baroque manor designed by John Vanbrugh and named after a military triumph of its first owner, the first Duke of Marlborough.

Answer: Blenheim Palace (accept Palace of Woodstock before Hawksmoor)

16. It was immediately preceded by the Battle of Messines, which straightened out the British lines for an offensive meant to capture German submarine bases on the Flemish coast. It was also meant to take pressure off the French army, which was in a state of mutiny after Verdun. In the end, British casualties were so high that the French had to start an offensive to take pressure off them. By the time the Canadians captured the village for which the battle is named, they and the British had lost about 400,000 men, and Haig had repeated his performance from the Somme the previous year. For ten points, name this battle of July 31st to November 10th, 1917, that is also called the Third Battle of Ypres [EE-pruh].

Answer: Passchendaele (accept Third Battle of Ypres and prompt on Ypres before it’s mentioned)

17. A man known only as “the editor with a big chin” befriends the main character’s son, Simon. In part six, known as “the grand march,” the narrator tells of the death of Stalin’s son, who threw himself against an electric fence. Another main character is attacked by muggers in Cambodia and wakes up to find Marie-Claude, his wife, by his bedside. This character, Franz, dies immediately thereafter, leaving behind a lover named Sabina. The novel’s two main characters, Tomas and Tereza, are killed together in a car accident, and much of the novel takes place during the Prague Spring. For ten points, name this famous novel of Milan Kundera.

Answer: The Unbearable Lightness of Being

18. Quaoar may have exhibited it in the past, and it is probably the main cause of Enceladas’s high albedo. Indirect evidence suggests its activity on Ganymede and Europa, but the only direct observation was on Triton by Voyager 2. A methane-spewing example is probably the source of that gas in the atmosphere of Titan. For ten points, name this extraterrestrial process in which internal heating forces methane, water, or ammonia onto the surface in liquid or vapor form, but low temperatures quickly freeze them into icy flows.

Answer: cryovolcanism (or icy volcanism prompt on “volcanism” or “volcanoes”)

19. This figure was the major force behind the Mount Pelerin society and preferred to refer to himself as an “Old Whig.” He did work on neurophysiology and, in 1952, published The Sensory Order. His essay “Why I am not a Conservative” serves as an appendix to The Constitution of Liberty, which preceded such works as 1988’s The Fatal Conceit. The author of The Use of Knowledge in Society, The Pure Theory of Capital, and Prices and Production, he is probably best known for a 1944 work that details the tradeoff between socialism and freedom. For ten points, name this author of The Road to Serfdom and winner of the 1974 Nobel Prize for Economics.

Answer: Friedrich Hayek

20. Feynman demonstrated that this type of ratchet will slip as often as it moves forward, so the second law of thermodynamics isn’t violated by it. The Fokker-Planck [fow-KAY PLANCK] equation can be used to model the motor of this type, and Monte Carlo methods also help one to describe the events that move it forward. Jan Ingenhousz observed a phenomenon of this type in carbon dust in 1795, but its namesake was investigating particles within the vacuoles of pollen grains when he observed it. For ten points, what is this type of motion explained by Albert Einstein in 1905, the random motion of minute particles immersed in a fluid.

Answer: Brownian motion

Overtime. Pilia-Borza is a pimp who aids in the theft of some gold from the main character, and his prostitute is subsequently murdered with the use of a poisoned flower. Katherine displays frequent racial prejudice towards the protagonist and Martin Del Bosco tries to provide military protection for the titular locale, but is instead overcome by Calymath. Machevill is the narrator of the prologue and Don Lodowick is the son of Ferneze, the play’s antagonist. Ithamore is a slave who will inherit the estate of the title figure after Abigail converts to Christianity. All of these characters appear in what 1633 play whose title character is Barrabas, a great work of Christopher Marlowe?

Answer: The Jew of Malta

Extra 1. The Old Testament character of this name settled with an Adulamite named Hirah, married Shuah, and had the sons Er, Onan and Shelah. His widowed daughter-in-law Tamar dressed up as a prostitute and got him to impregnate her. His own mother, Leah, had named him in praise of Jehovah. His tribe marched under the standard of a lion cub and were the only tribe to be settled on lands they had conquered themselves. After an incident at Shechem, this tribe and that of Benjamin stayed loyal to David’s line. Rehoboam was the first, Zedekiah the last and Hezekiah and Josiah significant intermediate kings of, for ten points, what southern kingdom that lasted about 150 years longer than the northern kindom of Israel?

Answer: Judah (accept Yehudah or Judas)

Extra 2. In large quantities it is poisonous, and it has been implicated in several cases of infanticide in India. This phenol probably evolved as a deterrent against herbivores, though birds are immune to it. It can be used as a topical anesthetic, but is also the active ingredient in riot control pepper spray. It is highly lipophilic, so some people recommend using butter to counteract its irritant properties. For ten points name this organic compound whose concentration is measured by the Scoville scale, which gives chile peppers their kick.

Answer: capsaicin

Extra 3. One of the first thorough studies of it was performed by William Labov in 1965, who found among other things that the copula is often dropped, the usage of the genitive relies on adjacency rather than a possessive ending, and present tense verbs are uninflected for person. Many diphthongs are reduced to monophthongs and there is notable transposition of adjacent consonants. Robert L. Williams created the official term as it is used today in 1973, and in the late 1990’s it caused a controversy in Oakland, California school districts. Name this dialect of American English often spoken by Jay-Z, Chris Tucker, Leo Wolpert, and Missy Elliott.

Answer: ebonics (accept black English vernacular, African American vernacular English, or really anything that sounds right)

Extra 4. His stage debut came in “Bach Babies” at age four, and many years later he bought Marilyn Manson his first pack of cigarettes. He studied ballet for several years and in 1989 received rave reviews for his part in See You in the Morning. According to IMDB he was considered for the male lead in Titanic. Wilmer Valderamma played his gay lover in a decent 2003 movie, but that movie, Party Monster, had nothing on 1994’s The Pagemaster. Once married to Rachel Miner and currently dating Mila Kunis, he has also recently appeared in Saved. Name this amazing actor best known for playing Kevin McCallister in the Home Alone series.

Answer: Macauley Culkin

The Illinois Open 2005: Spite, Death and the Devil

Bonuses by Michigan (Adam Kemezis, Will Turner, Dave Rapaport)
1. So about that Hanseatic League… For ten points each…

1. The foundation of the League is generally considered to coincide with the foundation of this German city on the Trave in Schleswieg-Holstein, the birthplace of Thomas Mann.

Answer: Lubeck

2. For some reason Hanseatic cities sent representatives to Lubeck for these irregularly held assemblies whose decisions were not binding. The first was held in 1356.

Answer: Hansetag

3. The Hansa managed trade in foreign cities from these walled enclaves. The major ones were located in London, Bruges, Copenhagen, Novgorod, and Bergen.

Answer: kontores
2. Name these famous museums for ten points each.

1. This converted railway station in Paris was opened in 1947 to display Impressionist works moved from the Louvre.

Answer; Musee D’Orsay

2. This museum at 70th Street and Fifth Avenue in Manhattan houses what was once the private collection of Andrew Carnegie’s hatchet man.

Answer: Frick Collection

3. Last month saw the re-opening of this principal fine arts museum of San Francisco designed by Herzog and de Meuron, located in Golden Gate Park.

Answer: The De Young Museum
3. Name the following things pertaining to voting systems for ten points each.

1. This excellent law asserts that a first-past-the-post election system naturally leads to a two-party system.

Answer: Duverger’s law

2. This slightly better known theorem states that no voting system can possibly be unrestricted, non-imposed, non-dictatorial, monotonic, and relevant if more than two options exist.

Answer: Arrow’s impossibility theorem (accept Arrow’s paradox)

3. A corollary to Arrow’s theorem, it states that, for three or more candidates, for every voting rule either the rule is dictatorial, or there is some candidate who cannot win in any circumstances, or the rule is manipulable.

Answer: Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem
4. Donatello does machines. Also sculpture. For ten points each…

1. Also known as this sculpture, probably of Habakkuk, adorns the campanile in Florence.

Answer: Lo Zuccone (or The Pumpkin-Head)

2. This statue of the saint who supposedly founded the School of Alexandria was at first rejected by its sponsors for looking monstrous and disproportionate. When placed in its niche at the Orsanmichele, however, it looked just right.

Answer: St. Mark

3. The first freestanding nude statue since antiquity is this bronze located at the Bargello in Florence, depicting the beloved of Jonathan with one foot on the head of his vanquished foe.

Answer: David
5. Name some things about particles for ten points each.

1. This subatomic particle, a flavor-neutral meson, was simultaneously discovered by two different research groups on November 11, 1974.

Answer: j/psi meson

2. The j/psi meson is a bound state of this quark and its antiparticle.

Answer: charm quark (accept anti-charm quark)

3. Name either of the two men at the head of the respective research groups that discovered the j/psi particle. They both were awarded Nobel Prizes in Physics in 1976. One worked at Brookhaven and the other at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

Answer: Doctor Samuel Ting or Burton Richter
6. Name these European titles of nobility for ten points each.

1. This title was invented in the 1300’s by the Habsburgs to put them on a par with Electors. It was used by all male members of the dynasty until 1918.

Answer: archduke

2. In Carolingian times, this title meant a count who had control of a border military district of the Empire, such as Austria or Styria. It was used by rulers of Brandenburg from the 1100s on.

Answer: margrave (accept marquis or marquess or markgraf)

3. This English title is not a peerage, but amounts to a hereditary knighthood. It was granted frequently by James I as a revenue device, but only one has been granted since 1965.

Answer: baronet
7. Name some things about Clifford Odets for ten points each.

1. Though Waiting for Lefty was his first play to actually be produced, this excellent 1935 play about the Berger family and Marxism is the first he wrote and one of his finest.

Answer: Awake and Sing!

2. Odets’ life story, especially his struggles adapting to the writing of screenplays, provides the general basis for this 1991 John Turturro film.

Answer: Barton Fink

3. In 1953, Odets was forced to appear before this body because of themes present in many of his works. He denied communist connections and intentions and was not blacklisted.

Answer: House Un-American Activities Committee
8. Smelt much? Hope so. Metallurgy for ten points each:

1. This is a ferrous alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium. Harry Brearley discovered in while seeking an erosion resistant alloy for gun barrels.

Answer: stainless steel

2. Up to 6.7 wt% [“weight percent”] carbon and below 700oC, this α phase of the iron-carbon system dominates.

Answer: ferrite

3. This favorable steel is a quasi-equilibrium single-phase material resulting from a diffusionless eutectoid transition from austenite. Reaching it is the goal of quenching, and it competes with bainite and spheroidite.

Answer: martensite
9. Name these regions of Spain for ten points each.

1. This former kingdom is bordered on the east by Catalonia and on the west by Navarre and Castille-Leon.

Answer: Aragon

2. Santiago de Compostela is the capital of this region that occupies the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula.

Answer: Galicia

3. Several conquistadores came from this traditionally poor western region whose cities include Badajoz and Merida, and which borders a similarly named region of Portugal.

Answer: Extremadura
10. Name these things from 19th and 20th century Chinese history for ten points each.

1. This 1895 treaty ended the first Sino-Japanese War by giving Japan Taiwan and effective control over Korea.

Answer: Treaty of Shimonoseki

2. In 1898, this short-lived reform movement tried to do away with the Confucian civil service but was squelched by the Empress after little more than three months.

Answer: Hundred Days

3. After the Japanese captured Nanjing and nearly all of eastern China in the late 1930s, Chiang moved his capital to this city far up the Yangtze for the rest of the war.

Answer: Chongqing (or Chungking)
11. Name some Indian authors for ten points each.

1. This author of The Bachelor of Arts and The English Teacher, who set most of his works in the fictional town of Malgudi, had trouble getting his first novel, Swami and Friends, published until his buddy Graham Greene intervened.

Answer: R.K. Narayan

2. This Indian-American author won the 2000 Pulitzer for the short story collection Interpreter of Maladies, and her first novel, The Namesake, is being made into a feature film.

Answer: Jhumpa Lahiri

3. This Bengali author of Golpoguchchho and Gitanjali was the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Answer: Rabindranath Tagore
12. Name these things about the Civil War West of the Mississippi for ten points each.

1. The Confederates under Henry Sibley technically won this February 1862 battle in New Mexico, but had to retreat from Santa Fe four months later.

Answer: Battle of Val Verde

2. At this March, 1862 battle in northern Arkansas, Earl Van Dorn’s attack on Samuel Curtis’ Union troops failed, leaving the North in control of Missouri for the rest of the war.

Answer: Pea Ridge (or Elkhorn Tavern)

3. After Vicksburg, the Trans-Mississippi became virtually independent under this general, a native of Florida who was the last major Southern general to surrender.

Answer: Edmund Kirby Smith (prompt on “Smith”)
13. For ten points each, identify some stock characters of the commedia dell’arte.

1. This role began as a variation on Capitano, the braggart soldier. He wears a black velvet mask and black clothing.

Answer: Scaramouche (or Scaramuccia)

2. This cunning yet gullible Venetian merchant with a gray goatee and long hooked nose usually wears a tight red vest and red breeches, but later versions wore long trousers.

Answer: Pantalone (or Pantaloon)

3. This cowardly and superstitious zanni was often the rival of Pierrot for the love of Columbine. He traditionally dons a black half mask with arched eyebrows and a colorful, geometrically patched shirt.

Answer: Harlequin (or Arlecchino)
14. Name some Japanese demons from methods for pacifying them for ten points each.

1. Trick one of these aquatic anal vampires into bowing, and he’ll spill the water he carries around in the depression on the top of his head, weakening him to the point of death. They’re also fond of cucumbers.

Answer: kappa

2. Woodsmen offer these mountain demons rice cakes. They are notoriously arrogant, and possess the powers of telepathy and teleportation.

Answer: tengu

3. Monkey statues and L-shaped passages on the northeast side of buildings serve to ward off these sadistic, ogre-like demons. They have two long horns and a penchant for wearing tiger skins.

Answer: oni
15. Name some equations of classical mechanics for ten points each.

1. This fundamental principle of classical mechanics states that the sum of the difference between forces acting on a system and the time derivative of momentum along a virtual displacement is zero.

Answer: D’Alembert-Lagrange principle

2. This equation for a static electric field states that the Laplacian of the electric potential equals negative four pi times the charge density

Answer: Poisson’s equation

3. This partial differential equation states that the Laplacian operating on an unknown function is equal to a constant times the function. It arises in many problems concerning steady state oscillations.

Answer: Helmholtz equation
16. Name the name or nickname shared by the following musical compositions for ten points each.

1. A mass in C by Mozart, as well as his Piano Concerto No. 26 and a series of anthems by Handel.

Answer: coronation

2. Schumann’s first symphony and Beethoven’s fifth violin sonata.

Answer: spring

3. Mahler’s sixth symphony, Schubert’s fourth symphony and an overture by Brahms.

Answer: tragic
17. Name some types of topologies for ten points each.

1. This is the finest topology in the land, because every subset is open. It corresponds to a metric in which the distance between distinct points is always one.

Answer: discrete topology

2. If we have a topology defined on X, and Y is contained in X, we’ll probably give Y this topology, in which a set is open provided that it is the intersection of Y and an open set of X.

Answer: subspace topology

3. The typical open set in this topology is a collection of equivalence classes on a set X whose union is an open set of X.

Answer: quotient topology
18. How about that Montaigne? Name some works of his for ten points each.

1. This well-known collection of most of his notable writings was, not unlike this packet, edited and republished several times.

Answer: Essays

2. This really long essay that is not usually published with the rest of his essays concerns a Spanish monk, contains the famous inquiry “What do I know,” and is a key tract of the Catholic Counter-Reformation.

Answer: An Apology for Raymond Sebond (or Apologie de Raimond Sebond)

3. In this essay, Montaigne discusses the marvelous power of the title entity and how “in the absence of an outside witness, it brings us forward against ourselves.”

Answer: “Of Conscience
19. Stuff about education for ten points each.

1. Helen Parkhurst came up with this educational plan now practiced at a private high school in New York. It involved a three-part plan: the house, the assignment, and the laboratory.

Answer: Dalton Plan

2. Though he is not actually the inventor of sign language, this “father of the deaf” did great work for the deaf in 18th century France, founding both shelters and educational facilities for them that he supported with his own money.

Answer: Abbé Charles-Michel de l’Êpée

3. This famous American educational reformer also contributed to the founding of Pragmatism, wrote Experience and Nature, and placed heavy emphasis on developing problem-solving and critical thinking skills instead of just memorizing lessons.

Answer: John Dewey
20. Distinguish some dead white geologists for ten points each.

1. In “Theory of the Earth with Proofs and Illustrations” this Scot propounded the theory of uniformitarianism. He was known as a plutonist following his proposal that the interior of the earth was hot.

Answer: James Hutton

2. This foremost popularizer of uniformitarianism and author of “The Antiquity of Man” was also a close friend of Charles Darwin, and helped to settle the dispute with Alfred Russell Wallace.

Answer: Charles Lyell

3. This man undertook the first American expedition solely intended to examine geological phenomena and reported on his research in “Manual of Geology” and “System of Mineralogy”.

Answer: James Dwight Dana

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