As previously mentioned “Burghers, town residents whose entrepreneurial activity made possible the economic dynamism of medieval Europe, despite their increasing importance,” were no respecters of the Great Chain & its three orders in society. Monarchs encouraged, taxed, and chartered their mini-constitutions.
Increasing value of peasant labor lead to an end to serfdom. A liberation movement which monarchs strongly supported (why? Merriman p.13)
Aristocrats increasingly engaged in commercial agriculture collecting rent and even beginning the process of enclosure– how does this shift shift political power to the monarch?
Gunpowder de-castles and changes the scale of military operations before the aristocracy has an opportunity adopt. By the time they do the fortification technology has been moved to what are essentially the national boundries of European states to this day.
Continuity & Change ca. 1450
Discuss (consider various points of view; write about; examine)
Discuss social, political, and economic themes of continuity and change in late Medieval Europe ca. 1450.
Take your term cards and divide them into two stacks: forces of continuity and change