The Charles Brockden Brown Electronic Archive and Scholarly Edition Editorial Principles and Procedures Manual

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The Charles Brockden Brown Electronic Archive
Scholarly Edition

Editorial Principles and Procedures Manual

Mark Kamrath and Philip Barnard

Table of Contents


I. Overview of Archive Content………………………………………………………….4

II. Guidelines for Producing a CSE-Approved

Print Volume

General Procedures……………………………………………………………….6

Specific Editorial Steps…………………………………………………………...7


Locating Texts and Accessing Texts—How?....………………………….9

Establishing Copy-Text…………………………………………………..11

Transcription Processes…………………………………………………..13

Historical Essay…………………………………………………………..14

Explanatory Notes………………………………………………………..15 Textual Essay…………………………………………….…………….…16


List of Substantive Variants………….………………….………………..19

Word Division……………………….………………….………………...19

Proofreading Procedures…………….……………………………………19

MLA CSE Guidelines and Submission….………………………………..20

Preparing the Manuscript for Publication….……………………………...20
III. Protocols for Developing the Electronic Edition……………………………………...21

Site Architecture and XML………………………………………………..21

TEI Markup and Tagging Specifications…………………………………..23

Hypertext and Images……………………………………………………...28


Proofreading Files………………………………………………………….29

Documentation—and Backup……..……………………………………….29
IV. Glossary………………………………………………………………………………...31

V. Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………..35

VI. Appendices………………………………………………………..……………………42

Guidelines for Determining Authorship……………………….……..……………..42

MLA CSE Vetter Guidelines for Print Editions……………….…..…..……………44

MLA CSE Vetter Guidelines for Electronic Editions………….……………………50


This manual of editorial principles and procedures is meant to describe editing processes for The Charles Brockden Brown Electronic Archive and Scholarly Edition and to assist editors at various stages of print manuscript and, in some cases, electronic preparation. Protocols are derived from several sources, including the Bicentennial Edition of The Novels and Related Works of Charles Brockden Brown (1977-1987), Mary Jo Kline’s A Guide to Documentary Editing, the Modern Language Association’s Committee on Scholarly Editions (MLA CSE), the Willa Cather Scholarly Edition, and Michael E. Stevens and Steven B. Burg’s Editing Historical Documents. Additional resources include Alfred Weber’s “The Uncollected Writings of Charles Brockden Brown: A Preliminary Critical Bibliography,” Kathryn Sutherland’s Electronic Text: Investigations in Method and Theory, and C. M. Sperberg-McQueen and Lou Burnard’s TEI P5 Guidelines for Text Encoding and Interchange.

Principles and procedures outlined here are organized in the following manner: (i) an overview of archive content; (ii) editorial guidelines for producing a CSE-approved print volume; and (iii) protocols for developing the electronic edition. Guidelines and protocols take into account genre and content differences in the volumes and the impact of print versus digital considerations while editing a text. This manual is also subject to revisions as the Editorial Board and volume editors work with Kent State University’s Institute for Bibliography and Editing (IBE), the University of Virginia’s Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH), and The Kent State University Press (KSUP) in contextualizing, editing, and publishing Brown’s uncollected works.

I. Overview of the Archive

The primary purpose of the archive is two-fold: first, to provide public access to, and make searchable, 1,115 unedited periodical texts and pamphlets believed to be Brown’s; second, to present a representative sampling of facsimile reproductions of Brown’s texts as either TIFF or JPEG images.

The archive’s texts are keyed to “A Comprehensive Bibliography of the Writings of Charles Brockden Brown, 1783-1822,” which will be periodically updated by the Textual Editor . The XTF (Extensible Text Framework) database, on which the 1,115 texts reside as XML files, will currently allow for keyword and phrase searching of Brown’s texts, e.g., “Jefferson.”

As the archive matures, there may be an interest in more fully identifying—in the form of a bibliography—authors, publishers, editors, contributors, and readers such as Benjamin Rush, Judith Sargent Murray, Thomas Jefferson, Jedediah Morse, Hannah Adams, Joseph Dennie, Benjamin Rush, and William Duane, who were part of the print culture in Philadelphia and the surrounding area during Brown’s day. Such a resource will be useful in generating further research into the lives and writings that were intertwined with Brown’s own and that of his era.

Currently, facsimile images included in the archive will be representative only (title page and preface of the novels, a selection of letters, a periodical essay or review, etc.) and selected on the basis of historical and textual appropriateness so that site users can identify manuscript, type, and related characteristics from the period as the documents relate to Brown’s composition and production processes. In the case of holograph letter manuscripts, facsimile reproductions of specific letters will aim at conveying both the substance and style of Brown’s correspondence as it pertains to his private life and issues of more public or cultural importance. His “Letter to Joseph Bringhurst, October, 24, 1795,” for instance, examines Christianity from a late- Enlightenment perspective and the extent “religious sanctions are friendly to morality.” Facsimile reproductions of Brown’s periodical publications, including his political pamphlets, will also be selective and aim toward illuminating elements of his day’s print culture and contestation of issues.

Access to Brown’s letters and other original manuscripts or print publications is largely restricted to depositories such as Bowdoin College, the Library Company of Philadelphia, and other preservation libraries. When possible, we will request that images be scanned in at 600 dpi, using 24-bit color, and produced as a TIFF file. Lower resolution JPEG files will be used for computer display. The creation of TIFF files (uncompressed format) at the scanner for off-line (CD-ROM) archiving will also help ensure long-term project maintenance As the project progresses, we plan to upload a representative selection of images per volume, a number that may increase as we gain experience and funding.

Finally, since the electronic edition will contain only those writings of Brown’s that have been irrefutably identified as his, the archive will serve as a digital repository for texts that may be Brown’s or may have had a direct influence on his writing. Using criteria established for attributing Brown’s works, editors will place in the archive texts that lack convincing external and internal evidence of Brown’s authorship. Publications, for instance, such as "[A Review of] Transactions of the American Philosophical Society,” published in February 1800 in the Monthly Magazine, and American Review, which comments on Brown’s interests or style, will be placed here. Likewise, if material is determined not to have been authored by Brown but may in fact have been appropriated by him in part or as a whole in various rhetorical ways, it will be included as an illustration of the discourses and publications that directly influenced his writings. With time we will not only identify these writings but also present basic, unedited, transcribed versions of these texts. These texts can serve as the basis for research and further discussion about Brown’s writing. This part of the archive is currently under construction.
II. Guidelines for Producing an MLA CSE–Approved Print Volume
General Procedures

Editing a scholarly edition takes years and is subject to a variety of detours at any stage of preparation. Authorship of a text needs to be established, texts need to be transcribed accurately and efficiently, textual emendations need to be made, textual apparatus needs to be prepared, and several rounds of proofing are needed to ensure the integrity of the text and its apparatus. It can take up to a year, for instance, to vet an edited text with the MLA’s Committee on Scholarly Editions. As with many such endeavors, careful planning and, when appropriate, procedural revisions can help ensure that the quality of editing that takes place meets the profession’s highest standards. The CSE’s Review Process is located at the following url:>

The scholarly edition's basic task is to present a reliable text. Editors aim for explicitness and consistency with respect to rationale and methods, accuracy with respect to texts, and adequacy and appropriateness with respect to documenting editorial principles and practice. The means by which these qualities are established will depend, to a considerable extent, on the materials being edited and one’s methodological orientation as an editor, but certain generalizations can be made about editorial quality and consistency.  

  • Scholarly editions achieve reliability by including a general introduction that is largely historical or interpretive. The historical essay provides essential information about the genesis, form, and transmission of a text, and it supplies its biographical, historical, cultural, and intellectual contexts.

  • Explanatory notes or annotations related to the text assist the reader in understanding persons, places, dates, historical events, literary allusions, and specialized terminology not readily available in a standard reference work such as a dictionary.


  • Scholarly editions generally include a statement, or series of statements, in the form of a textual essay setting forth the history of the text and its physical forms; explaining how the edition has been constructed in regard to selection of copy-text or basic texts; describing or reporting the authoritative or significant texts; addressing unique textual problems, giving the rationale for decisions concerning construction and emendation; and discussing the verbal composition of the text, patterns of variants, its punctuation, capitalization, and spelling as well as, where appropriate, the layout, graphical elements, and physical appearance of the source material.

  • A scholarly edition commonly includes appropriate textual apparatus or notes documenting alterations and variant readings of the text, including alterations by the author, intervening editors, or the editor of the current edition. As such, the textual essay is accompanied by apparatus, such as a list of variants, emendations or corrections, explanations of emendations, and end-of-line hyphenations.


  • Scholarly editions find it necessary to establish and follow a proofreading plan that is adequate to ensure the accuracy of the materials presented.

Specific Editorial Steps

The following is a set of steps each team of volume editors should take in preparing an edited print volume that can be submitted for approval to (a) the General Editor and Textual Editor; (b) the MLA–CSE; (c) Kent State University Press. It is followed by a more specific explanation of these processes.

1. Identify and collect Brown’s texts.

2. Verify texts—copy-text—to be included in the volume.

3. Collate texts if more than one edition or printing

is available.

4. If not transcribed, accurately transcribe text or texts and note possible emendations

5. Produce a historical essay.

6. Develop explanatory notes.

7. Write a textual essay.

8. Produce a list of emendations that records changes (both substantive and

accidental) introduced into the copy-text (document changes with notes).

9. Provide a list of all substantive and quasi-substantive variants between the copy-text

and the texts of other authorial editions (rare with Brown).

10. Record compounds or possible compounds hyphenated at the ends of lines in the copy-

text and resolved by editors as one word or as hyphenated compounds; separately list end-line hyphenations that are to be retained as hyphenations in quotations from the current edition.

11. Proofread ms. at various stages in production.
During all steps of the process, editors should aim for clarity and consistency in their editing. All editors should be mindful of CSE criteria while preparing their volume(s). The MLA CSE Vetter Guidelines for Print Editions are reprinted at the end of this manual in the Appendices.

The Willa Cather Scholarly Edition provides an excellent example of the kind of editorial volume we seek to produce, especially in terms of its Historical Apparatus and Textual Apparatus. A link to Cather’s O Pioneers! follows:

The following explanation of processes attempts to standardize editing procedures for this present edition from one volume to the next and to ensure the integrity of the text and related apparatus in terms of accuracy. They are subject to expansion and revision as the edition moves through various stages of production.

* * *


When it comes to Brown’s authorship, “A Comprehensive Bibliography of the Writings of Charles Brockden Brown, 1783-1822”provides the starting point from which this edition identifies and collects Brown’s writings. Volume editors should work with the General Editor and Textual Editor, who will, in turn, consult with the Editorial Board, to develop volume contents and identify an initial selection of texts. Using established criteria for indentifying Brown’s pseudonymous or anonymous writings (see Appendices), the General Editor and Textual Editor will work with volume editors to verify authorship and volume content. When appropriate, software stylistics programs will be explored and, possibly, used to help identify Brown’s writing. The Editorial Board will confirm all volume content and selection.

Locating and Accessing Texts—How?

How does one locate and access texts for clarifying authorship, establishing copy-text, doing transcription verification, and editing? What will happen at the print production level, and how will editors get access to the volume texts? Can we use MS Word with this process? If is the ideal tool for electronic editing, not for the print version (as it has no language for pages and page formats as we humanists traditionally conceive them) who will be responsible for XML conversion or editing the electronic edition? What role will the volume editors play as opposed to the General Editor and Textual Editor?

As June 10, 2008, we have two plans for providing volume editors with textual access: Plan A involves accessing an XTF (Extensible Text Framework) database and identifying which specific texts will be contained in the volume’s Table of Contents. Volume editors will share their Table of Contents with the General Editor and Textual Editor, who will in turn convert needed files or texts from their XML format to MS Word document format using MS Word Office Pro Plus 2007 and provide them to editorial teams. In the case of Brown’s letters and his historical sketches, both have been transcribed and exist in MS Word document format. This approach is dependent on the amount of available technical support over the summer of 2008.

Plan B, which has been used with the political pamphlets volume, involves the General Editor and Textual Editor manually identifying XML document files from the Master or Comprehensive Bibliography and then converting them to MS Word files that do not contain tagging. In this case, the texts will not be completely stripped of tagging, but instead be saved as “WordML” documents that are “well formed XML” and can be opened later by XML editing software. If Plan B is implemented for all periodical volumes, we expect to be able to provide texts in MS Word format by August 1, 2008, so that editors may begin the process of identifying a Table of Contents, verifying transcription, and editing. In the case of Plan A or Plan B, editors should be able to complete the editing process per MLA-CSE standards and guidelines in this manual.

What happens once a print text has been established and undergone MLA-CSE vetting and is ready for print publication? Once a volume’s text has been prepared in MS Word, approved by the MLA-CSE, and is in press, we plan to use Oxygen’s Subversion (SVN) client system and XML editor to complete the next stage of textual production—the creation of a searchable, digital edition compatible with the marked up novels at the Institute for Bibliography and Editing at Kent State University. SVN client interface allows for (a) access to the primary texts themselves and (b) for updating and sharing XML files that are frequently changed. It’s the project’s central repository, in other words, a place for storing edited text. It is also is the part of that allows for version tracking of XML documents and allows everyone to make changes that do not overwrite other changes.1 While it may change, using ’s XML editor to convert and tag edited texts will, at this time, primarily be the responsibility of the General Editor and the Textual Editor, along with trained graduate and undergraduate students. However, volume editors will be invited to participate in the Procedures for use of are being developed.

For editing particular print volumes, the following specific steps may be taken to convert XML files to MS Word and editing documents:

Step 1. Access, as needed, the XTF database After establishing a Table of Contents, use the “Bibliography of the Writings of Charles Brockden Brown, 1783-1822” to develop a list of the text files needed for XML to MS Word conversion and relay that list to the General Editor and Textual Editor.

Step 2. As of this date, the General Editor, in consultation with volume editors and the Textual Editor, will convert identified or needed XML files to MS Word document files and provide them to volume editors electronically and in hard copy (disc). The procedures are as follows for manual conversion:

  1. Once an XML file has been saved from the Aptara batch to the desktop, left click on the file—and a tagged, XML file will appear.

  1. Use Control A to mark tags, and then right click so a menu comes up with the option to “remove the XML tagging.”

  1. Then Save the file—and keep as “Word ML” or “well formed XML text.”

  1. Next, say “yes” to overwriting the file.

  1. At this point, one may begin compilation of volume primary texts, and begin the editing process in terms of text sequence, transcription verification, and related processes.

Step 3. As editing progresses, each team of volume editors will then be responsible for volume contents and MS Word document files, and providing, as a backup measure, the General Editor and Textual Editor with regularly updated copy of the edited text. Further discussion will take place, and procedures put in place, about the extent to which MS Word’s “Tracked Changes” feature can facilitate this process.

As we gain experience with software and other processes, these protocols may need to be adjusted. We encourage your suggestions for improvement at any stage of this process.

Lastly, if needed, the process for converting text edited using to MS Word or similar format for press publication is not simple, but it is manageable and may have applications for later editing. The General Editor and Textual Editor will be responsible for this phase of editing. According to John Unsworth, one can access Oxygen's transformation tools (under Document and Transformation) to export TEI edited material or files to HTML, and then, read the HTML into MS Word format and save as a MS Word document.

Establishing Copy-Text

As a general procedure, the selection of copy-text for the scholarly edition, both in its print and electronic versions, follows the principle of W. W. Greg, giving preference to the text “closest to the author’s hand” as being the one freest of editorial and compositorial changes and errors, especially in respect to its accidentals.2 It is the basis for the clear text editors will produce. In the case of Brown’s manuscript letters, sole authority resides in the authorial (holograph) manuscript that was sent (Brown’s final intentions for a given letter, if different from what he sent, would not be incorporated in our transcription but reported in apparatus).

With Brown’s periodical writings, there is usually only a single version of the text available, volume editors should typically identify that text (usually a printing set from Brown’s lost manuscript printer’s copy) as copy-text. With reprinted material in periodicals, which is rare, volume editors should consider, whenever possible, the initial printing as copy-text. Depending on the situation, all significant or potentially significant forms of the text(s) should be collated and, if necessary, conflated to help make decisions about substantive variants and any accidental variants affecting meaning. Thus, in as much as is practicable, editors should seek to incorporate editorial principles and procedures used by the editors of the Bicentennial Edition, protocols that seek, as Sidney J. Krause and Sid Reid articulated in “The Bicentennial Texts: A Note” (1977), to provide accurate, “unmodernized critical texts” that are as “close as the extant documents permit to Brown’s own final intentions.” In the case of the Historical Sketches, which present a special problem because of their fragmentary nature and publication in different places, volume editors will reconstruct a copy-text or critical text from extant documents.

Although we are following the lead of the Bicentennial Edition in seeking to provide accurate texts of the works that are as close to Brown’s own final intentions as possible, one of the difficulties we face is the classification by genre. Unlike the editors of the Bicentennial Edition, this editorial team must address textual issues for a range of materials, including letters in manuscript or print, pseudonymous writing, serialized articles in periodicals, literary fragments, political pamphlets, material in translation, and authorial commentary in footnotes. Procedures for transcription, emendation, and regularization may vary. For example, editing Brown’s “Annals of Europe and America” in the American Register, or General Repository of History, Politics, and Science (1807) or editorial notes in the margins of his magazines will be different from the manuscript letters, where one must decide between publishing the Text an sich—with blots, undecipherable words, puzzling repetitions, omissions, and misspellings—or a corrected text. With these manuscripts one is dealing with a greater range of orthographic mistakes, omissions, etc. Still, a conservative emendation policy would apply here as well, and the transcriptions would include as much of that problematic detail as possible.

Transcription Processes

Transcription, according to Michael E. Stevens and Steven B. Burg, “is the process of converting textual and nontextual elements of original documents into readable, publishable,

typescript form” (71). All editorial decisions about consistency and accuracy begin here.

Depending on the manuscript in question, Brown’s texts will be transcribed in one of two ways. Holograph letters, for instance, have already been transcribed by hand, and we have a transcription of the texts in MS Word. Transcriptions of print texts, either in pamphlet or periodical format, have been obtained from ProQuest (American Periodical Series Online) and Readex (Shaw-Shoemaker), keyboarded with a 99.95% accuracy rating by Aptara (1 error in 10,000 characters), and coded using XML. A selection of the texts was checked for accuracy, and the XML coding validated. The periodical texts and political pamphlets will be available in the public XTF database as well as the Oxygen SVN client server.

Typically, transcription involves converting textual and non-textual elements of documents into readable, publishable, typescript form. All editorial decisions about consistency and accuracy begin here. In the case of Brown’s letters, which have already been transcribed from the originals but not verified, the following principles should be followed in regard to a checking original ms. textual features:

  • identify missing periods

  • identify capitalization;

  • identify misspellings;

  • identify abbreviations and contractions;

  • identify deletions, boldface, symbols, subscripts;

  • identify use of underlining and italics for emphasis, book titles, etc;.

  • record author’s use of hyphenated words;

  • identify author’s self-corrections;

  • identify interpolations;

  • identify damaged text;

Editors should maintain or establish a restored original copy of the transcription, minus any emendations, and then keep computer backups of subsequent emended transcriptions.

Historical Essay

The historical essay for each print volume should provide adequate biographical information; historical context for understanding the cultural climate and debates the text engages; and background for understanding the individual work. Essays will, of course, differ for different volumes and their contents, especially concerning the degree to which such background information is provided. The letters volume, for instance, should spend significant time detailing Brown’s biography and the belles letters tradition in the 1790s, while the volume concerning Brown’s “Annals of Europe and America” may focus more on historiographical issues as they relate to Brown’s insertion of, say, congressional documents and papers into his own text. In all cases, though, the historical essay should articulate how Brown’s writing is pertinent to his era.

Explanatory Notes

Unlike the Bicentennial Edition, and because of the wide-ranging cultural references Brown makes in his letters and the edition’s interest in providing the common reader with accessible text, our edition will also contain a set of explanatory notes aimed at clarifying the more esoteric aspects of the text. These notes aim at helping the reader understand the text by providing information on “persons, places, historical events, literary allusions, and specialized terminology” not readily available in standard reference works.

Examples of such explanations might include clarification about historical persons such as William Godwin, Hannah Adams, Francisco de Miranda, and “Poplicola”; historical places and incidents such as the slave uprising in St. Domingo, New Holland, the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson’s embargo; and references to “unequal marriage,” Dennie’s Portfolio, “Miltonic measure,” and “the American Nile.” In Brown’s Letter to Samuel Miller, dated June 20, 1803, the following note pertains to “Pontifex Maximus”:

“Pontifex Maximus”: originally, under the Republic and Empire, the presiding member of the Roman

Collegium Pontificum or College of Pontiffs, the governing body composed of the highest-ranking priests of the Roman polytheistic state religion. The authority of the office under the Republic and Empire was transferred to the Roman Catholic Bishop of Rome (the Pope) around 440 C.E. by Pope Leo I. Brown’s secularist argument sets aside conventional distinctions between state and religious institutions in order to emphasize the ways that Roman Catholicism perpetuated the administrative power and state bureaucracy of the Roman Empire until the fifteenth century. His argument draws on enlightened genealogies of religion, notably Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776-88) and Scottish-school histories of civil society, e.g. Adam Ferguson’s An Essay on the History of Civil Society (1767) and The History of the Progress and Termination of the Roman Republic (1783).
In the electronic edition, all such references will be connected and available as hypertext.
Textual Essay

Each print volume will contain a textual essay that provides clear and concise explanation of how the volume’s critical text was established, including a rationale for choosing copy-text, the composition of the text, and, as appropriate, its publishing history. In addition to identifying special problems related to publication of the text or to transcription, emendation, or other editing processes, the essay will also address patterns of variants and will make editorial procedures and decisions transparent to the reader. Volume editors should pay close attention to MLA-CSE Vetter Guidelines for Print Editions, specifically questions concerning the “Textual Essay.”

In terms of procedure, volume editors should (1) begin with a bibliographical survey of the text and its history and identify problems; (2) make, if appropriate, a genealogy of relevant texts, identifying those that are or may be authorial; (3) select copy-text; (4) collate, if extant, these forms against a base text and identify substantive and accidental variants; (5) conduct, if needed, a conflation of changes to track substantive changes in all relevant editions; (6) construct lists of emendations, substantive variants, and word division.

Specifically, the textual essay should contain the following components (from the Modern Language Association CSE’s “Guiding Questions for Vetters of Scholarly Editions,” revised September 25, 2007):

  • a statement of editorial principles and methods

  • a summary of all pertinent forms of the text

  • a history, as appropriate, of composition and revision

  • clear history of publication

  • adequate description of copies used for collation

  • physical description of manuscripts

  • convincing rationale for choice of copy-text or base-text

  • clear policy stating conditions under which emendations have been made

  • rationale for reproducing facsimile images of the text

To ensure accuracy of editing procedures and quality, the Editorial Board will consult with IBE when it has questions about textual procedures or resolution.

The emendation policy of the Brown edition is very “conservative,” then, in that we neither modernize punctuation and spelling according to present usage nor emend to impose consistency on the text. Like the Bicentennial Edition, we plan to leave Brown’s use of archaic words and phrases alone; however, when there are word spellings that seem “inadvertent” or are slips of the pen on Brown’s part, they will be corrected and noted in the apparatus of the text, not in the text itself. Similarly, there is no attempt to change grammatical constructions of sentences that are wrong by modern standards. Substantive variants introduced into the copy-text and altered in our edition will be recorded and the sources of the emendations appropriately noted. Accidental variants, except when they occur within cited substantive variants, will not be reported.

“Silent” emendation or alterations will also follow policies established by the Bicentennial Edition editors. Typographical inconsistencies, for instance, in apostrophes and dashes will be regularized, and other “mechanical details of the original documents,” such as pagination, lineation, punctuation and capitalization in running-titles, and terminal punctuation (e.g., supplying a period in brackets where Brown left one off), will be normalized. The use of repeated words will also be corrected silently. However, what may be identified as Brown’s own and sometimes deliberate use of typographical inconsistency (e.g., introducing, as a gesture of editorial intervention, a question mark where a period would normally signify the end of a sentence) will be retained and noted.

The emendation policy of the Brown edition is, then, very “conservative” in that we neither modernize punctuation and spelling according to present usage nor emend to impose consistency on the text. However, for readability we do emend certain classes of variants, and for scholarly purposes we record those emendations in the textual apparatus. Like the Bicentennial Edition, we plan to render the copy-text as follows:

  • when a sentence is not closed with a period, insert a [.] so readers aren’t confused;

  • capitalization, or lack of, is retained as written, except when Brown does not use capitalization to begin a sentence, e.g., “but”; we emend for readability;

  • retain misspelling, and note proper misspelling in the apparatus;

  • leave Brown’s use of archaic words and phrases alone;

  • silently emend use of repeated words such as “river river,” and note correction in the apparatus;

  • retain grammatical constructions of sentences, e.g. wrong tense, that are wrong by modern standards, and note in apparatus;

  • other punctuation, including use of semicolons for commas, and colons for terminal punctuation, is retained as written

  • paragraphing is retained as written and not regularized;

  • slips of the pen are retained, and commented on in the apparatus;

  • Brown’s self corrections are recorded in the apparatus

  • contractions, abbreviations, superscript letters, and ampersands are retained as written

Emendations of accidentals and substantives will be reported in the textual apparatus using standard page and line number references, and will include, to the left of the bracket, the edition’s present reading. To the right will be an alternative reading. For example:

13.6 and evening] an evening in MS.

A list of emendations and notes on emendation decisions will be part of each volume’s textual apparatus and become part of the electronic textual apparatus for the entire edition.

List of Substantive Variants

The substantive variants list records all substantive variation among editions of Brown’s writings. Because Brown’s uncollected writings did not go into second editions or printings, reported variants in each volume will be minimal.

Word Division

Word division concerns compounds and how they appear in both the original, established text and how they appear as a result of editorial processes. List A records compounds or possible compound words that are hyphenated at the ends of lines in the copy-text and then resolved by the editors as either one word (e.g., “barefoot”) or as an hyphenated compound (e.g., “India-ink”) in Brown’s day. The authority for such decisions is Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language (1783) and Noah Webster’s A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language (1806), among other texts. List B identifies the end-line hyphenations that were intended to be hyphenated in the copy-text and will, because of page and print format, remain so as part of the current edition. Hyphenated words that clearly resolve as one word, such as “de-/composition,” are not included in either list.

Proofreading Procedures

Proofreading ensures textual accuracy and reliability and ensures that the critical text has not been compromised during any stage of the editing process. Beyond transcription processes and verification, proofing will take place at three separate and different stages of editorial production: (1) preparation for MLA CSE vetting procedures (both by the volume editors and the General Editor and Textual Editor); (2) preparation for submission of the manuscript to the KSUP for copyediting (again, by both volume editors and the Editorial Board); (3) and during the final proof and publication stage by volume editors, the General Editor, and KSUP editors. At a minimum, then, the each volume will be proofed six times.

MLA CSE Guidelines and Submission

Once volume editors have determined, in consultation with the General Editor and the Textual Editor, that their volume is ready for submission to the MLA CSE, the volume editors should work in consultation with the General Editor, Textual Editor, and MLA CSE chair to prepare materials for vetting. Such materials will include, but are not limited to, the following: critical (emended) text, facsimile copy of the copy-text, copy of the historical essay, explanatory notes, copy of the textual essay, list of emendations, list of substantive variants, and list of end-line hyphenation. Editors should consult the most recent “Guidelines for Editors of Scholarly Editions” and “Guiding Questions for Vetters of Scholarly Editions before submitting materials.

The edition is mindful that the average length of time for the CSE to review and approve a volume is “6 to 9 months,” and sometimes longer.
Preparing the Manuscript for Publication

Although the General Editor and Textual Editor will be responsible for actual submission of clear and accurate texts to KSUP for print publication, volume editors should closely implement KSUP guidelines as they currently pertain to the preparation of final copy, documentation, proofreading for the print edition before submitting materials to the General Editor and Textual Editor. The General Editor will consult with KSUP editors at various stages of editing and preparation for publication, understanding that the average length of time from copyediting to shipment of completed books is “10–12 months.” During this time editors expect to follow house style (Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed.) and submit materials for copyediting and review; complete requested revisions; proofread as requested; meet editorial deadlines; work with design and composition; provide black and white glossies for illustrations; obtain and pay for permissions; provide an index; and complete final review.

III. Protocols for Preparing the Electronic Edition

The construction of a reliable and accurate electronic edition of Brown’s uncollected writings, based on the print volumes and apparatus, will be one of the most valuable components of The Charles Brockden Brown Electronic Archive and Scholarly Edition. To ensure the highest quality interface and usability, we plan to implement the infrastructure and protocols for the electronic edition early on and to consult with Kent State’s IBE and, if funded, IATH at the University of Virginia. As with the print edition, we have made provisions for proofreading electronic files and content against the originals. For the purposes of both short-term and long-term institutional maintenance, we also plan to stay abreast of developments with the Library of Congress and organizations such as TEI (Text Encoding Consortium)

In what follows are the technical components of the edition, and steps we have taken in building the electronic edition. Principles and procedures here are subject to modification and revision, especially in light of available resources and emerging technologies.
Site Architecture and XML
The Charles Brockden Brown Electronic Archive and Scholarly Edition resides on a Dell PowerEdge 2900 Linux server, which has 230 gigabytes of storage space and 512 megabytes of RAM, and operates at 1.5 megahertz. After identifying additional texts to be included in each electronic volume, assigning all electronic texts with a unique ID consistent with print accession numbers, and after verifying transcription of the expanded materials, the General Editor and Textual Editor, in consultation with Daniel Pitti (IATH) and Ray Craig (IBE) will begin construction of the edition so it can be integrated with the novels and related works of Brown at Kent State University.

For reasons of preservation, XML (Extensible Markup Language) will be used to designate structural divisions of the edition. In addition to rendering manuscript and print transcriptions in a readable format, it will also help structure text so that it is searchable, and it will lend itself to the building of graphic, pictorial, and other images. XML is widely regarded as the “defacto international standard for sophisticated electronic scholarly editions.” Its ability, as a comprehensive descriptive markup system that is independent yet “extensible” enables users to tailor its application to specific document and syntactical needs. The use of XML, in regard to site architecture component, will be crucial in this respect.

Within the structural elements of XML, a DTD (Document Type Description) code will be developed that indicates specific elements and attributes to be used, special character entities, protocols for external files (e.g., images, and the general hierarchical structure of site data). The default DTD for texts and markup is currently TEI LITE. The Brown DTD that we develop will specifically address editorial issues—Brown’s use of footnotes within texts, for instance—that his holograph and print manuscripts present. And it will distinguish, as needed, between hierarchical data structures for Brown’s prose and poetry and the order in which tags must appear.

TEI Markup and Tagging Specifications
We plan to encode as much of Brown’s texts and editorial apparatus as possible in the electronic edition. And, as editors, we aim to assign and produce metadata that are reliable and accurate and that conform to the most recent document type tagging standards—currently, TEI P5—used for identifying all structural, semantic, and bibliographical features of a text so that sophisticated searching can take place.

, an XML editor, will be the primary tool for marking up text and coding according to specifications. As with creation of the print edition, it will allow editors involved in this phase of the edition to develop tags appropriate for content searching and access. provides a WYSIWYG-like editing mode that is based in CSS stylesheets and thus looks more like a web page than a printed document. We expect that interested volume editors and graduate students in UCF’s Texts and Technology Ph.D. program will be more involved in this stage of the edition’s development.

This process assumes the construction of major structural markers and smaller ones and that both will follow a hierarchy of order. In the case of The Letters and Selected Poetry, for instance, divisions will be drawn between genres, the text of the letters and the poetry

. In the case of a letter, we would code it so it has an and a and so that deletions and additions can be identified in the text. In the case of tagging Brown’s poem Monody On the Death of George Washington Delivered at the New-York Theatre on Monday Evening, December 30, 1799, the standard tagging would be as follows with a (a) header and (b) tagged text or body:

Monody On the Death of George Washington Delivered at the New-York Theatre on Monday Evening, December 30, 1799

Charles Brockden Brown



The Monthly Magazine, and American Review (1799-1800). New

York: Sep-Dec 1799. Vol. 1, Iss. 6; pg. 478, 2 pgs

Last edited on May 2, 2007

Monody On the Death of George Washington Delivered at the

New-York Theatre on Monday Evening, date value=”1799-12-30>December 30,


No mimic accents now shall touch your ears,

And now no fabled woe demand your tears;

No hero of a visionary age,

No child of poet's phrenzy walks the stage;

5 'Tis no phantastic spate of Queens or Kings,

That bids your sympathy onlock its springs;

This woe is yours, it falls on every head;

This woe is yours, for WASHINGTON IS DEAD!

No passing grief it is, no private woe,

10 That bids the universal sorrow flow.

You are not call’d to view, bereft of life,

By dread compulsion seized, your child or wife,

To view a parent's feeble lamp expire;

But WASHINGTON IS DEAD, his country’s fire!

15 Not for your children’s friend your tears must fall,

For WASHINGTON IS DEAD, the friend of all!

Not singly we, who haunt this western shore,

Our parent, guardian, guide, and friend deplore;

Nor those alone who breathe this ambient air,

20 Are call’d to weep at this illustrious bier:

Each wat’ry bourne of this great globe afar,

Was brighten’d by this tutelary Star!

Each future age, through wide-extended earth,

Like us, may triumph in his hour of birth;

25 Each age to him, its grateful dues may pay,

And join with us to mourn his fun’ral day.

But why lament the close of his career?

There is no cause--no cause that asks a tear;

Fate gives to mortal life a narrow span,

30 And he, our guide and friend, was still a man.

Triumphal wreaths far rather ought to wave,

And laureate honors bloom around his grave;

Far rather should ascend our hymns of praise

To Heaven, who gave him health and length of days;

35 Whose arm was seen amidst the deadly fray,

To open for his sword victorious way;

Who turn’d aside from him the fateful ball,

And bade the steel on meaner crests to fall;

Who gave him for our guide, with steadfast eye,

40 O’er stormy waves, beneath a troublous sky;

And life dispens’d, till War’s loud tempest o’er,

He safely steer’d our barque to peaceful shore.

‘Twas vain that rescued from a tyrant’s hand,

Sweet Liberty, consol’d his natal land;

45 For brief her stay where discord breathes her spell

And not on hostile bounds she deigns to dwell.

In wide-dissevered realms new factions grow,

And call from far, or procreate the foe.

War springs afresh—rekindled flames arise,

50 And back the ghastly train of thraldom hies;

No liberty, no life, no blest repose,

No self-preserving acts his country knows.

Till join’d in vassalage to sacred laws,

Our oracle directs, one centre draws;

55 Till all-embracing policy imparts

Her harmony to distant, motley parts;

Till every scatter’d tribe, from end to end,

Be taught in peaceful unity to blend.

Thus, after foes subdued and battles done,

60 The harder task was his, to make us one;

The seeds to crush with his pacific hand,

By home-bred discord scattered thro the land,

‘Twas he, the darling child of bounteous fate,

That rear’d aloft the pillar of our state:

65 That he that fix’d upon eternal base,

The freedom, peace, and glory of his race;

O! let no change thy glorious work befall,

Nor death betide, till death betide us all:

Firm may it stand, though compass’d by alarms,

70 Tho’ broils intestine shake, and hostile arms:

Tho’ the four corners of the world combine,

Against thy sons, the victory be thine!

Not to such frail and mouldering forms we trust,

As monumental stone, and ivory bust,

75 Not to thy worshipp’d name shall altars burn,

Nor rest thy bones in consecrated urn.

No sacrificial scents perfume the air,

No pilgrimage be made, no hymn nor prayer.

Thee in our country’s bliss, our eyes shall trace;

80 Thee in the growing good of all our race:

Be taught by thee, when hostile bands are nigh,

To live for our dear country and to die.

A fane, thy God and thee befitting best,

Not built with hands, be raised in every breast;

85 The rites be thine, that virtue gives and claims,

That left thee far above all former names;

A place below, but next to deity,

Our hearts, O! WASHINGTON, assigns to thee.

Then let us mourn, let every voice deplore

90 Our country’s guardian, parent, now no more!

But let us more exult that bounteous fate

Gave to his vital breath so long a date;

That born upon that eve of social strife,

He lived to give us liberty and life.

95 Rise all our praise, and all our joys awake,

That distant lands th’auspicious boon partake;

That freedom’s banner was by him unfurl’d,

To bless each future age, and either world.

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