The Berlin Wall and the Cold War The history and politics of the Berlin Wall



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The Berlin Wall and the Cold War

The history and politics of the Berlin Wall



Worksheets-----Data Based Questions (F.4F.5)

Contents


Introduction P.2

Part I. Post WWII World

---worksheets P. 3-6
Part II. The Split of Germany

---worksheets P. 7-8
Part III. Two Sides, One Story? Two Stories?

---Part A (worksheets P. 9-13)

---Part B (worksheets P. 14-16)

Part IV. The Fall of the Berlin Wall


---worksheets P. 17-19
Part V. The Berlin Wall in the Cold War

---worksheets P. 20



Part VI. References P. 21

Introduction



Design of Data-Based Questions:
The topic of this project is “The history and politics of the Berlin Wall.” Instead of presenting the general introduction of the Cold War history, this project attempts to design a set of Data Based Questions by putting the focus on the Berlin Wall. By studying the Cold War history through the Berlin Wall, it is hoped that students can grasp a clear picture about the Cold War history instead of the facts of many different events.
Besides, in order to show the uniqueness of the unusual situation of Berlin and the Berlin Wall as a result of the Cold War, a part of the Data Based Questions were designed to reflect the will of the germans towards the Berlin Wall.
Different kinds of primary and secondary source materials are used in this project. It is hoped that both teachers and students will find these materials to a certain extent useful and interesting in both teaching and learning.

The history and politics of the Berlin Wall


I. Post-WWII World




S
ource A Source B


Poster in the post-WWII period.

Protest in 1953.


Source C: The Truman Doctrine

In February 1947, President Harry S Truman delivered the speech excerpted below to a joint session of Congress. In it, he spelled out his administration's case for sending economic and military aid to the governments of Greece and Turkey. The Greek government was being challenged by a Communist-led and Soviet-supplied guerrilla movement, and Turkey was being pressured by the Soviets to grant increased access for their navy and merchant ships to the Mediterranean through the Dardanelles.


I believe it must be our policy to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation [conquest] by armed minorities or by outside pressures. . . . I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes. . . . It is necessary only to glance at a map to realize that the survival and integrity of the Greek nation are of grave importance in a much wider situation. If Greece should fall under the control of an armed minority, the effect upon its neighbor, Turkey, would be immediate and serious. Confusion and disorder might well spread throughout the entire Middle East. Moreover, the disappearance of Greece as an independent state would have a profound effect upon those countries in Europe whose people are struggling against great difficulties to maintain their freedoms and independence while they repair the damages of war. . . . Collapse of free institutions and loss of independence would be disastrous not only for them but for the rest of the world. . . . Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this fateful hour, the effect will be far-reaching to the West as well as the East.”

Source D



Caption: A quotation from Stalin: "The fundamental principles of modern capitalism can be put this way: Guaranteeing maximum profits through the exploitation, ruination and enslaving of the majority of the population of the given country, through the systematic plundering of the people in other countries, in particular the undeveloped nations, and finally through war and economic militarization. All these contribute to high profits."

  1. In source A, which country does the octopus represent? Suggest TWO clues from the source to support your answer.




  1. Why are the octopus and the word “communism” colored in red? What is the ideology of the country represented by the octopus?




  1. With the help of source C, explain why the octopus was moving with its legs stretching all around the world? What is the message behind?



  1. In source B,




  1. You can see the words “Burn all Reds”, who are the Reds?



  1. Which country do you think is the one who wrote the Truman Doctrine and wanted

to “Burn all Reds”? What is the attitude of this country towards the country

represented by the octopus?




  1. In source D, which country does the cockroach represent? Suggest ONE clue from the source to support your answer.




  1. In source D, what attitude was expressed towards modern capitalism? Find evidence

from the source to support your answer.


  1. With the help of source A, B, C, D,

  1. Do you think the Communist countries and the Capitalist countries could co-exist peacefully after the WWII? Explain your answer.

  2. What term did historian use to describe the situation created by these two ideological camps?

Source E
Winston Churchill was British prime minister from 1940-1945. In 1946, speaking at Westminster College in Fulton, Churchill said:

"An Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all of the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Europe . . . all these famous cities and the populations around lie in the Soviet sphere and all are subject . . . to a very high and increasing measure of control from Moscow."



Source F

Joseph Stalin, Soviet Communist Party leader from 1929-1953, responded to Churchill in a speech the same year:

"The Soviet Union's loss of life [during World War II] has been several times greater than that of Britain and the United States of America put together. . . And so what can be so surprising about the fact that the Soviet Union, anxious for its future safety, is trying to see to it that governments loyal in their attitude to the Soviet Union should exist in these countries?"


  1. How did Churchill speak about the people behind the Iron Curtain? Suggest ONE

clue in source E to support your answer.


  1. If you were a citizen of a neighboring Western European country,

  1. Would you agree with Winston Churchill’s saying that “all these famous cities and

the populations are subject . . . to a very high and increasing measure of control from

Moscow.” Why?



  1. What kind of control was Churchill talking about, political or economic?




  1. How did Stalin speak about the people under the influence of Soviet Union? Suggest ONE clue in source F to support your answer.




  1. If you were a resident of Eastern Europe in the late 1940s, would you fear future

world wars? Would you feel more secure behind the Iron Curtain? Why?
5. Obviously, there are two slants or viewpoints on the same situation. What make the

difference?


II. The Split of Germany



Source A Source B


The shared sky
The "Big Three" heads of government

at Potsdam, Germany, circa A map showing Germany after the



28 July -- 1 August 1945. Second World War.

Source C Source D


Germany split for a generation...


...between the end of WWII and A barrier now separated east and

Unification. West.



Source E
Winston S. Churchill, "Iron Curtain" Speech, 5 March 1946, at Fulton, Missouri.
From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow. . . . If now the Soviet Government tries, by separate action, to build up a pro-Communist Germany in their areas, this will cause new serious difficulties in the British and American zones,…….. Whatever conclusions may be drawn from these facts -- and facts they are - this is certainly not the liberated Europe we fought to build up. . . .


  1. Name the conference as shown in source A. According to the conference, what was

done on Germany’s territory after the WWII? Suggest ONE clue from source B to

support your answer.




  1. With the help of source C and D and E,

  1. What are the impact and results of such an unusual geopolitical situation (as shown in source B) on Germany and the world?

  2. Is the result on Germany a will of the people in Germany? Why?

3a.) What were the formal names of the two governments as shown in source C?


b.) Who set up the two governments?
c.) Behind the two governments, they were under the influence of two rivalry blocks

led by two superpowers during the cold war. In correspond to the two governments,



Name the two superpowers behind respectively.
d.) Is the setting up of the two governments a will of the people in Germany?
III. Two sides, One story? Two sides, Two stories?

Source A

Looking over the Wall


For decades, tourists in West Berlin looked

over the Wall at a wooden stand near the

Reichstag (July 1989)




  1. Why did the the tourists in West Berlin have to looked over the Wall to take a look

of East Berlin in such a way?
2. What is separating between the East and West Berlin? When was the Wall erected?




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