The Ark of the Covenant

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Si.l., "The Ark of the Covenant,"in Clergy Review, 35(1951),
301-311; id., "The Assumption and the Jerusalem Liturgy,"
in TheolSt, 30(1969), 312-325. R. Laurentin, Marie l'Eglise
et le Sacerdoce, (Paris, 1953), II, 214; ibid., Structure et
Theologie de Luc I-II, (Paris, 1957), 159-161, 228. Y. M.
Cougar, O.P., The Mystery of the Temple, (London, 1963),
Appendix, 256-261; J. McHugh, The Mother, 56-63; R. E.
Brown, The Birth, 327-328, 344-345. 2R. Laurentin,
Structure et Theologie de Luc I-ll, (Paris, 1957), 70-71.
3J. McHugh, The Mother, 62-63. +Fragment 8, ed. W. W.
Harvey, (1857). sIn t». 23(22), apud Theodoret. "Dial I,"
in GCS I, 2, 147 (tr. adjusted by 1. H. Crehan). Cf. In
Daniel 4, in GCS I, 1,246; SC 14, 188,. "Coptic sermon, ed.
L. Lefort, in Mus, 71(1958), 216. 7De S. Maria Deip.,
in PG, 93, 1464. Bin S. Mariam Deip : in PO, 19, 338.
"Hom. VI, in PG, 65, 720C (authenticity of this passage
confirmed by R. Caro, in La Homitdtica, II, 339. IOHymns,
in se, 110, 122-3. "PG, 92, 1345D. 12A. Wenger,
L 'Assomption, 282. "Homilies, in PG, 97, 869C. 14Hom-
ilics, in PG, 96, 724.15A. Wenger, L'Assomption, 32, 386;
also 67, 412. 16PL, 96, 250A. 17Pius XII, in OL, 311.

ARNOLD OF BONNEVAL (d. after 1156)

A Benedictine abbot, of Bonneval in the diocese
of Chartres. A. deals with Marian themes in two
works: in the third part of his treatise on the
seven words of the Lord on the Cross'; and in
the short essay On the praises of the Blessed
Virgin Mary.? Though St. Bernard, whosefriend
he was, had written of Mary offering her Son to
the Father in the moment of the Presentation
(qv), A. seems to have been the first in the West
to enuntiaie a theory of her part in the redemp-
tion, of coredemption (qv), some would say.
He was mindful of the view of St. Ambrose (qv)
that "Jesus had no need of a helper for the
redemption of all." Though he begins then with
a reference to the two altars, "one in the heart
of Mary, the other in the body of Christ," and
says that Mary immolated her soul, but desired
to add "the blood of her flesh to the blood of
her spirit," and "with the Lord Jesus to achieve
the mystery of our redemption by [her] bodily
death," he has to point out that this was the
privilege of the high priest alone, with whom
none could share dignity or authority.t

Ambrose had said that the Lord "received
the affection" of the mother, so Arnold uses this
as the basis of his theory. "Nevertheless that
mother's affection cooperated very much ac-
cording to its manner in propitiating God since
the charity of Christ bore his own and his
mother's offerings to the Father in such wise
that the mother begged, the Son approved, and
the Father granted. "4

In his other work Arnold says "there was one
single will of Christ and Mary, both together
offered one holocaust to God; she in the blood
of her heart, he in the blood of his flesh."> Thus
the important step was taken, Mary was shown
to have a role in the very moment of Calvary.
John the Geometer (qv) had in the East, a
century-and-a-half previously, seen the truth.
Within another hundred years it would, in the
West, be amply developed.

IDe verbo ilia Domini: Mulier, eccefilius tuus, in PL, 189,
1693-1698; R. Struve Haker, "Arnalda de Bonavalle.
Primero teol6go de la Coredenci6n mariana," in Regina
Mundi (Bogota), 7(1963), 48-75. 20n the praises of the
Blessed Virgin Mary. in PL, 189, 1725-1734. 30p. cit., in PL,
189, 1694B. 40p. cit., in PL, 189, 1694C. sop. cit., in PL,
189, 1727A.


History: Artistic representation of Our Lady is
very abundant and begins early in Christian
history." Besides symbolic use oflines and letters,
the Roman Catacombs (see ARCHAEOLOGY)
contain some very striking representations of the
Mother and Child: several of the Magi scenes,
one from the second century; and the very
remarkable and much discussed group com-
posed of a mother and child, a figure with a roll
in his left hand while his right points to a star
above the woman's head. The group, which is in
the Catacombs of St. Priscilla, dates from the
second century. Not all scholars identify the
standing figure as Isaiah; it has been suggested
that he could be St. John. But there can be no
reasonable doubt on the identity of the woman.
There is also little doubt either in regard to the
Orantes depicted in frescoes in the Catacombs,
notably that in the Cemeterium majus on the
Via N omentana.

Ephesus (qv) was a landmark in artistic
creation as in other domains. Pope Xystus
ordered, in the year following the Council, the
splendid mosaics in St. Mary Major's-the
inscription Xystus episcopus plebi Dei is taken
to indicate a kind of catechetical purpose. But
cult must also have been implied, for here, as
in the earlier images, faith was confessed in
persons linked with salvation. From the end of
the sixth century, royalty was a strong theme in
Marian iconography. From the seventh to the
twelfth centuries the idea of Mary as Empress
had followed from a first instance in Santa
Maria Antiqua. The Popes liked this conception


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