Si.l., "The Ark of the Covenant,"in Clergy Review, 35(1951), 301-311; id., "The Assumption and the Jerusalem Liturgy," in TheolSt, 30(1969), 312-325. R. Laurentin, Marie l'Eglise et le Sacerdoce, (Paris, 1953), II, 214; ibid., Structure et Theologie de Luc I-II, (Paris, 1957), 159-161, 228. Y. M. Cougar, O.P., The Mystery of the Temple, (London, 1963), Appendix, 256-261; J. McHugh, The Mother, 56-63; R. E. Brown, The Birth, 327-328, 344-345. 2R. Laurentin, Structure et Theologie de Luc I-ll, (Paris, 1957), 70-71. 3J. McHugh, The Mother, 62-63. +Fragment 8, ed. W. W. Harvey, (1857). sIn t». 23(22), apud Theodoret. "Dial I," in GCS I, 2, 147 (tr. adjusted by 1. H. Crehan). Cf. In Daniel 4, in GCS I, 1,246; SC 14, 188,. "Coptic sermon, ed. L. Lefort, in Mus, 71(1958), 216. 7De S. Maria Deip., in PG, 93, 1464. Bin S. Mariam Deip : in PO, 19, 338. "Hom. VI, in PG, 65, 720C (authenticity of this passage confirmed by R. Caro, in La Homitdtica, II, 339. IOHymns, in se, 110, 122-3. "PG, 92, 1345D. 12A. Wenger, L 'Assomption, 282. "Homilies, in PG, 97, 869C. 14Hom- ilics, in PG, 96, 724.15A. Wenger, L'Assomption, 32, 386; also 67, 412. 16PL, 96, 250A. 17Pius XII, in OL, 311.
ARNOLD OF BONNEVAL (d. after 1156)
A Benedictine abbot, of Bonneval in the diocese of Chartres. A. deals with Marian themes in two works: in the third part of his treatise on the seven words of the Lord on the Cross'; and in the short essay On the praises of the Blessed Virgin Mary.? Though St. Bernard, whosefriend he was, had written of Mary offering her Son to the Father in the moment of the Presentation (qv), A. seems to have been the first in the West to enuntiaie a theory of her part in the redemp- tion, of coredemption (qv), some would say. He was mindful of the view of St. Ambrose (qv) that "Jesus had no need of a helper for the redemption of all." Though he begins then with a reference to the two altars, "one in the heart of Mary, the other in the body of Christ," and says that Mary immolated her soul, but desired to add "the blood of her flesh to the blood of her spirit," and "with the Lord Jesus to achieve the mystery of our redemption by [her] bodily death," he has to point out that this was the privilege of the high priest alone, with whom none could share dignity or authority.t
Ambrose had said that the Lord "received the affection" of the mother, so Arnold uses this as the basis of his theory. "Nevertheless that mother's affection cooperated very much ac- cording to its manner in propitiating God since the charity of Christ bore his own and his mother's offerings to the Father in such wise that the mother begged, the Son approved, and the Father granted. "4 ARNOLD - ART
In his other work Arnold says "there was one single will of Christ and Mary, both together offered one holocaust to God; she in the blood of her heart, he in the blood of his flesh."> Thus the important step was taken, Mary was shown to have a role in the very moment of Calvary. John the Geometer (qv) had in the East, a century-and-a-half previously, seen the truth. Within another hundred years it would, in the West, be amply developed.
IDe verbo ilia Domini: Mulier, eccefilius tuus, in PL, 189, 1693-1698; R. Struve Haker, "Arnalda de Bonavalle. Primero teol6go de la Coredenci6n mariana," in Regina Mundi (Bogota), 7(1963), 48-75. 20n the praises of the Blessed Virgin Mary. in PL, 189, 1725-1734. 30p. cit., in PL, 189, 1694B. 40p. cit., in PL, 189, 1694C. sop. cit., in PL, 189, 1727A.
History: Artistic representation of Our Lady is very abundant and begins early in Christian history." Besides symbolic use oflines and letters, the Roman Catacombs (see ARCHAEOLOGY) contain some very striking representations of the Mother and Child: several of the Magi scenes, one from the second century; and the very remarkable and much discussed group com- posed of a mother and child, a figure with a roll in his left hand while his right points to a star above the woman's head. The group, which is in the Catacombs of St. Priscilla, dates from the second century. Not all scholars identify the standing figure as Isaiah; it has been suggested that he could be St. John. But there can be no reasonable doubt on the identity of the woman. There is also little doubt either in regard to the Orantes depicted in frescoes in the Catacombs, notably that in the Cemeterium majus on the Via N omentana.
Ephesus (qv) was a landmark in artistic creation as in other domains. Pope Xystus ordered, in the year following the Council, the splendid mosaics in St. Mary Major's-the inscription Xystus episcopus plebi Dei is taken to indicate a kind of catechetical purpose. But cult must also have been implied, for here, as in the earlier images, faith was confessed in persons linked with salvation. From the end of the sixth century, royalty was a strong theme in Marian iconography. From the seventh to the twelfth centuries the idea of Mary as Empress had followed from a first instance in Santa Maria Antiqua. The Popes liked this conception