The argumentative / persuasive essay
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THE ARGUMENTATIVE / PERSUASIVE ESSAY There are 2 main methods of presenting an argument: The balanced view: argumentative essay The biased view: persuasive essay If the essay title begins Give the arguments for and against... Assess the importance of... Examine the arguments for and against... What are the advantages and disadvantages of...? Evaluate... Critically examine the statement that... To what extent is...true? or even just the word Discuss... THE ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY Then it is clear that... a balanced essay is required. That is to say, you should present both sides of an argument, without necessarily committing yourself to any opinions, which should always be based on evidence, until the final paragraph. THE ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY
INTRODUCTION Introduce the argument to the reader ―e.g. why it is a particularly relevant topic nowadays BODY PARAGRAPHS 1, 2... Reasons in favour of the argument CONCLUSION After summarising the two sides, state your own opinion, and explain why you think as you do THE PERSUASIVE ESSAY This second type of essay involves stating your own point of view immediately & trying to convince the reader by reasoned argument that you are right. Perhaps the essay title will begin with something like: Give your views on... What do you think about...? Do you agree that...? Consider whether... THE PERSUASIVE ESSAY
INTRODUCTION Introduce the topic briefly in general terms & then state your own opinion. Explain what you plan to prove in the essay. BODY PARAGRAPHS 1, 2... Reasons against the argument. Dispose briefly of the main objections to your case. BODY PARAGRAPHS 3, 4... Reasons for your argument; the arguments to support your own view, with evidence and examples. CONCLUSION Do not repeat your opinion again. End your essay with something memorable ―e.g. a quotation or a direct question. ARGUMENTATIVE OR PERSUASIVE? Now read the essay “Success in marriage” and 1. Decide: argumentative or persuasive? 2. Break it into parts that reflect its internal structure Now, let’s check its internal structure. 1. The best way to assess student progress and achievement is through course work, not with exams. Discuss. 2. It is absolutely necessary to ask all students to pass a standardized test at the end of their secondary education to make sure that they have met the standards and that they . are ready to enter university To what extent is this true? 3. ‘Cloning research should not be restricted by governmental laws.’ What are your views on this statement? 4. The traditional nuclear family is the only effective way to raise children. Do you agree? ARGUMENTATIVE / PERSUASIVE ESSAY TOPICS 5. Physician-assisted suicide should be a legal option . for terminally ill patients Evaluate. 6. Do that you agree Genetic testing will not improve our quality of life and may result in discrimination, ? invasion of privacy, and harmful gene therapy 7. The death penalty should be administered for particularly heinous crimes. Discuss. 8. Do you agree that animal testing is necessary to develop new medicines and advance scientific knowledge? ARGUMENTATIVE / PERSUASIVE ESSAY TOPICS 9. ASSISTED SUICIDE Some of the issues in this argument: Should terminally ill people have the right to control their own death? Would legalizing assisted suicide relieve families of the burdens of caring for a terminally ill relative? Would legalizing assisted suicide lead to euthanasia? Should doctors be prosecuted for assisting in the suicide of a terminally ill patient? ARGUMENTATIVE / PERSUASIVE ESSAY TOPICS 10. CLONING Some of the issues in this argument: What government policy should be enacted to control cloning? Will laws regulating cloning stifle the advancement of scientific discoveries? Is cloning safe to use with human cells? Are there valid reasons to apply cloning technology to humans? ARGUMENTATIVE / PERSUASIVE ESSAY TOPICS 11. GENETIC TESTING Some issues in this argument: Should genetic testing influence medical treatment, life style, and social decisions? Should prenatal and carrier testing be used influence reproductive decisions? Should children undergo genetic testing? Is genetic tesing reliable? Can genetic testing maintain confidentiality? Is discrimination an inevitable result of genetic testing? ARGUMENTATIVE / PERSUASIVE ESSAY TOPICS 12. THE DEATH PENALTY Some of the issues in this argument: Is the death penalty an effective deterrent for heinous crimes? What are the economic ramifications of the death penalty? Is the death penalty the best protection from a murderer? Are methods of execution reliable and practical? Is justice for the victim achieved through the death penalty? ARGUMENTATIVE / PERSUASIVE ESSAY TOPICS 13. ANIMAL RIGHTS Some of the issues in this argument: What rights do animals possess? What rights do humans have to use animals as they wish? Can new medicines and vaccines be safely developed without animal testing? Is it human nature to eat meat? Do humans exploit animals when they keep them as pets and/or in zoos? ARGUMENTATIVE / PERSUASIVE ESSAY TOPICS 14. CHANGING FAMILIES Some of the issues in this argument: Should society encourage traditional values and traditional forms of family life? Should we place more emphasis on family planning? Should parents be held accountable for their children's behavior and well-being? How much should the government provide in the way of publicly subsidized day care, health care, or financial assistance?
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