The analysis of illocutionary acts



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THE ANALYSIS OF ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS

IN THE PRESIDENT JOKO WIDODO’S

Anin Listya K.

Dian Maya Kurnia, M.Pd.

Abstract : In this research, researcher was discussed the used of Illocutionary acts in utterance of President

Joko Widodo’sthefirstspeechwhenpresidencyin inauguration (2014) and second in 9th KTT East Asia,

in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar (2014). In this research, researcher found out the types and functions of

illocutionary acts used in President speech.The descriptive qualitative method was used to

analyze the data in this study. The data are presented descriptively because it was described and explain illocutionary acts used by President Joko Widodo such as described the types and the functions of the illocutionary acts found in his speech. Researcher

used Searle’s theory for the t and used Leech’s theory for illocutionary acts. Spradley’s finding the data for this research. The finding showed

that there are five types of illocutionary acts found in this study: assertive, directive, commissive, expressive, and declarative. The type of illocutionary acts found most in this speech was assertive. This study also found four functions of illocutionary acts such as competitive, convivial, collaborative, and conflictive. The function of illocutionary acts found most in this category was collaborative.

Keywords : speech acts, illocutionary acts, interference, speech

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Volume 6 issue 1st December 2015

INTRODUCTION

Speech acts have been found in the language of communication. Speech act is product of an utterance under certain conditions and the smallest of the communication language that determines the meaning of the sentence. Speech act is a pragmatic element that involves a speaker, listener or reader. In its application, speech acts used by several disciplines.

The terms of speech act appears because the speakers utter something not merely stating speech, but also have the intent behind utterance. On any occasion, the action performed by producing an utterance will consist of three related acts, first locutionary act, which is the basic act of utterance, or producing of meaningful linguistic expression. Second is illocutionary act, the intended meaning of the utterance by the speaker. Third is perlocution act the action that results from the locution.

In communicated with other people can be done in various ways which one of them is done by speech. Speech is an activity of public speaking or giving speeches to express their opinions, or give an idea about something. Speech is usually performed by a person who gives speeches and statements about some things / events that are important and should be discussed. A speech produce by the speaker must have purpose and function, which is addressed to the listener to convey information to the listener. In the speech acts are the type of speech act that has the intent and function to inform something, that illocutionary speech acts. In illocutionary speech act is subdivided into five types of speech acts in illocutionary is assertive, commissive, directive, expressive and declarative.

Research Question

What are the illocution type used in President Jo speech?

Anin Listya K. : Student of Abdurachman Saleh University

Dian Maya Kurnia, M.Pd. : Lecturer of Abdurachman Saleh University





Journal of Illocutionary Acts

2. What are the functions of illocution used in President Jo speech ?

Objective of Study

More especially, the objective of this study was to describe

and investigate what types of Mr. Jokowi’s.Another speech explore was to explain the function of Mr. Jokowi’sused spee the types of illocutionary acts theory by Searle and function of

illocutionary acts theory by Leech.

Scope of the Study

In this thesis was discussed limited scope of speech acts illocutionary in speech. Source of data, speech referred to in this study, the researcher only limit in two speeches, the first Mr. Jokowi’s thespeechfirst inofMr. Jokowi when presidency inauguration (2014) and second in 9th KTT East Asia, in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar (2014).



REVIEW OF LITERATURE Pragmatic

Pragmatics was concerned with the used of languages in meaningful communication. Pragmatics was about the interaction of semantic knowledged with our knowledged of the world, took into account contexts of used. Pragmatics was another branch of linguistics that was concerned with meaning. Pragmatics and semantics could be viewed as different parts, or different aspects, of the same general study.

While semantics was mainly con competenced to used the language system in producing

meaningful utterances and processing (comprehending) utterances produced by others, the chief foc ability to derive meanings from specific kinds of speech

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Volume 6 issue 1st December 2015

situations—to recognize what the speaker was referring to, to relate new information to what had gone, to interpreted what it was said from background knowledged about the speaker and the topic of discourse.

Speech Acts

According to J. L. Austin in Charles F. Meyer Introducing English Linguistics (2009:50) , when speaking (or writing, for that

matter), we perform various “acts”: locu acts, and perlocutionary acts. The difference between locutionary

and illocutionary acts was sometimes referred to as, respectively,

the difference between “saying” a

A. Locutionary acts

Locutionary act was the basic act of utterance, or producing a meaningful linguistic expression. Performing an act of saying something one sentence could be used to perform illocutionary acts of various types or with various contents.



B. Illocutionary acts

According to Searle (1969:25), the illocutionary act was an act performed in saying something. On other words, illocutionary act could be defined as used a sentence to perform a function. Illocutionary act was the real actions which were performed by the utterance. The first is first type of lexical interference is how the speaker fails considering the polysemous character of a word and their choice from all the possible meanings is inappropriate. Searle's classifying illocutionary act into five types :



Assertive: an illocutionary act that represents a state of affairs.

E.g. stating, claiming, hypothesizing, describing, telling.

Anin Listya K. : Student of Abdurachman Saleh University

Dian Maya Kurnia, M.Pd. : Lecturer of Abdurachman Saleh University





Journal of Illocutionary Acts

Directive: an illocutionary act for getting the addressee to do something. E.g. ordering, commanding, daring, defying, challenging.

Commissive: an illocutionary act for getting the speaker (i.e.

the one performing the speech act) to do something.

E.g. promising, threatening, intending.



Expressive: an illocutionary act that expresses the mental state of the speaker about an event presumed to be true. E.g. congratulating, thanking, deploring, condoling, welcoming, apologizing.

Declaration: an illocutionary act that brings into existence the state of affairs to which it refers. E.g. blessing, firing, baptizing, bidding, passing sentence, excommunicating.

Perlocutionary Acts

According to Austin in Handbook of Pragmatic (2007:2), perlocutionary acts consist in the production of effects upon the thoughts, feelings, or actions of the addressee(s), speaker, or other parties. Austin added that saying something would often, or even normally, produce certain consequential effects upon the feelings, thoughts, or actions of the audience, or of the speaker, or of other persons: and it was may be done with the design, intention, or purpose of producing them; and we were may then say, thinking of this, that was the speaker had performed an act in the nomenclature of which reference was made either, only obliquely, or even, not at all, to the performance of the locutionary or illocutionary act. We shall call the performance of an act of this kind the performance of a perlocutionary act or perlocution

FUNCTIONS OF ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS

Based on Leech (1983:104) function of illocutionary acts is divided into four types.

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Volume 6 issue 1st December 2015

The first type is competitive. Competitive was the function that the illocutionary goal competed with the social goal. In this function politeness had negative nature and aims to reduce disharmony, for instance: ordering, asking, and demanding.

The second type is convivial. convivial was the function that were the illocutionary goal coincides with the social goal. Convivial function was more positive politeness and aims to find opportunities for social time.

The third type is collaborative. Collaborative was the function that the illocutionary goal was indifferent to the social goal. Collaborative illocutionary function dis not contain politeness, for which politeness was irrelevant.

The last type is conflictive. Conflictive was the function that the illocutionary goal conflicts with the social goal. In this function did not contain elements of politeness at all, because the function was basically aimed at caused anger.

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

In this study, the researcher used descriptive qualitative approach. Qualitative research was especially effective in obtaining culturally specific information about the values, opinions, behaviors, and social contexts of particular populations (Mack, 2005: 1).

Data Sources

The researcher used two data in this study, first data from Mr. Jokowi’sthe firstspeechofMr. inJokowi when presidency inauguration (2014) and second data from Mr. Jokowi’s th speechKTTEastAsia, ininNay Pyi9 Taw, Myanmar

Anin Listya K. : Student of Abdurachman Saleh University

Dian Maya Kurnia, M.Pd. : Lecturer of Abdurachman Saleh University



Journal of Illocutionary Acts

(2014). This research data was taken from the utterance pronounced by Mr. Jokowi on the data obtained from his speech.

In this study the source data was speech script from http://setkab.go.id/

Data Collection Method

This research had procedure of collecting is as follows:

The researcher read the Mr. Jo

The researcher identified each type of illocutionary acts and the function of illocutionary acts spoken by Mr. Jokowi from his speech.

Classified the utteranced foun based on types and function of illocutionary acts.

The researcher analyzed the result of the classifying.

The researcher discussing the result of classified and explain the analysis descriptively.

The researcher was made a conclusion based on the result of the analysis.

Data Analysis

The researcher used Spradley’ study. Spradley said that was analyzed content by four steps, they

are domain analysis, taxonomi and componential analysis and finding cultural value.



1. Domain analysis

Domain analysis was obtain a comprehensive and general overview of the object / research or social situations and domain was very important for researchers, because as the basis for further research. In this domain analysis the researcher identify

which speech that was contains illoc speech as the data research and collected them.

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2. Taxonomic Analysis

After the researcher obtain the domain, and then taxonomic analysis selecting domains that had been subsequently translated into more details, and to determine the internal structure.



3. Componential Analysis

Componential analysis was the systematic search for the attributed (component of meaning) associated with cultural

categories. A “component”thereforewas ano componential analysis was looked for the units of meaning that

was assigned to cultural categories. Here, the researcher tried to analyze the specific terms of the data in this study in each element types and function of illocutionary act.



4. Cultural Analysis

Cultural value was the last st step aimed to find the relationship between the data was found in

the form of types and functions of illocutionary acts. The relationship could be investigated through the suitability and accuracy of the type and function illocutionary acts. The information obtained after the analysis was used to draw the conclusions.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1. Assertive

4/01S04 “Saya yakin tugas sejarah yang berat itu akan bisa kita pikul bersama dengan persatuan, gotong royong dan kerja keras.”

Anin Listya K. : Student of Abdurachman Saleh University

Dian Maya Kurnia, M.Pd. : Lecturer of Abdurachman Saleh University



Journal of Illocutionary Acts

Analysis

This utterance included into assertive because it was says about something true. Mr. Jokowi wanted claim us as Indonesian nation that we could continue the struggle of our heroes together with unity and hard work of all of us as Indonesian nation. That true if by working together and with hard work we could did anything, we could accomplish anything easily, and it was Mr. Jokowi wanted to say to all Indonesian. In this context, Mr. Jokowi utterance classified as stating means Mr. Jokowi old the truth and this utterance has collaborative function.



2. Directive

3/01S03 “Kini saatnya, bersama-sama melanjutkan ujian sejarah berikutnya yang maha berat, yakni mencapai dan mewujudkan Indonesia yang berdaulat di bidang politik, berdikari di bidang ekonomi dan berkepribadian dalam kebudayaan.”

Analysis

In this sentence Mr. Jokowi invited all people of Indonesian nation to work together in promoting Indonesia in all things that would make Indonesia more powerful. This utterance could be included into directive because this utterance told the listener to do something and classified as commanding. It was classified as commanding because in this utterance Mr. Jokowi commanded the Indonesian nation to work together for Indonesia and this utterance had competitive function.



3. Expressive

57/02S57 “Terimakasih”

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Analysis

Thank you was uttered by Mr. Jokowi to the hearer for taking the time to hear Mr. Joko classified as thanking. This illocutionary act was included into



expressive because it convey about so feeling. It had convivial function because it was aims incompliant

with the social purposes. In this context, Mr. Jokowi said thanks to the hearer because taking the time for his speech.



4. Commisive

48/02S48 “Indonesia akan menjadi Por kekuatan yang mengarungi dua samudera, sebagai bangsa bahari yang sejahtera dan berwiba

Analysis

This utterance was included into commisive illocutionary acts. Mr. Jokowi promised that Indonesia would be Maritime World Pivot, this classified as promising. It had convivial function because this illocutionary act aims incompliant with the social purposes. In this context Mr. Jokowi promised that Indonesia would be Maritime World Pivot.



5. Declarative

24/01S24 “Pada kesempatan yang bersejarah ini, perkenankan saya, atas nama pribadi, atas nama Wakil Presiden Muhammad Jusuf Kalla dan atas nama bangsa Indonesia menyampaikan terima kasih dan penghargaan kepada Bapak Prof. Dr. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono dan Bapak Prof. Dr. Boediono yang telah memimpin penyelenggaraan pemerintahan selama lima tahun terakhir.”

Anin Listya K. : Student of Abdurachman Saleh University

Dian Maya Kurnia, M.Pd. : Lecturer of Abdurachman Saleh University



Journal of Illocutionary Acts

Analysis

This utterance included into declaration because this speech acts that changed the reality in accord with the preposition of the declaration and this utterance classified as naming because in this utterance Mr. Jokowi not only on behalf of himself as a president but also as the people of Indonesia. This utterance had conflictive function because conflictive is the function that the illocutionary goal conflicts with the social goal.



CULTURAL VALUES

After researcher analyzed the data, researcher found that were the most dominant type of illocutionary acts which used by the speaker was assertive which contains 29 data. The speaker used assertive illocutionary acts in the form of telling which has 12 data and in the form stating which had 12 data and in the form describing which had 4 data and in the form complaining which has 1 data. The second dominant type of illocutionary is directive which contains 16 data in the form of commanding which has 9 data in data 2 and in the form of inviting which has 4 data and in the form advising which has 2 data and in the form recommending which has 1 data. The third dominant type of illocutionary was commisive which contains 9 data in the form promising which has 9. The fourth dominant type of illocutionary was expressive which contains 2 data in the form of thanking. The fifth dominant type of illocutionary was declaration which contain 1 data.

The functions of illocutionary acts that could be found in this speech are competitive, convivial, conflictive and collaborative. The most dominant functions of illocutionary acts which used by the speaker was collaborative which contains 29 data. The second dominant function of illocutionary was competitive which contains 16 data. The third dominant was

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Volume 6 issue 1st December 2015

convivial which contains 11 data. The fourth dominant function of illocutionary acts was conflictive which contain 1 data.

From this discussion we knew that was the majority types of illocutionary acts used by the speaker was assertive so that the speaker often use utterances that was commits the speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition. Then majority the functions of illocutionary acts was collaborative.

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

Conclusion

Based on the discussion that had been done, it would be concluded that in Mr. Jokowi’s illocutionary speech acts most frequently used, it was quite

reasonable considering the purposed of this speech to informed and told the listeners about the vision and mission of Mr. Jokowi in promoting Indonesia as the largest maritime country.

Suggestion

Research on illocutionary speech acts in this speech was a continuing research, because this research there were various viewpoints or reviews that was need to be analyzed. The researcher suggests this research needed to be done next in understanding illocutionary acts in speech in order to generate a more perfect study. It was intended to provide information that was clear about the shape and purpose of illocutionary acts. It was recommended that further research needed to be done in stages so that were the results obtained broader and deeper by used one right approach, particularly in analyzing illocutionary acts in a speech.

Anin Listya K. : Student of Abdurachman Saleh University

Dian Maya Kurnia, M.Pd. : Lecturer of Abdurachman Saleh University





Journal of Illocutionary Acts

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