The American Revolution: Sacrifices American Colonists Made to the New Nation



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The American Revolution:

Sacrifices American Colonists Made to the New Nation












Information Sheet for Opinion Module




Module title:

The American Revolution: Sacrifices American Colonists Made to be a New Nation

Module description (overview):

Students will read a preselected novel relating to the American Revolution. Novel selections are based on his/her Lexile:

Level I: George Washington’s Socks- Elvira Woodruff

Level II: The Winter of Red Snow- Kristiana Gregory

Level III: Paul Revere and I- Robert Lawson and The Journal of William Thomas Emerson- Barry Denenberg

Module also contains additional primary and secondary sources.


Template task (include number, type, level):

Task 5: After researching ________ (informational texts) on________ (content), write a/an ________ (essay or substitute) that discusses ________ (content) and evaluates ________ (content). Be sure to support your position with evidence from your research. (Opinion/Evaluation)

Teaching task:

Task 5: After researching a novel and primary and secondary sources on the American Revolution, write an opinion essay that discusses sacrifices American colonists made to become a new nation and evaluates whether or not their independence was worth their struggle. Be sure to support your position with evidence from your research.

Grade(s)/Level:

5th Grade

Discipline: (e.g., ELA, science, history, other?)

ELA, Social Studies

Course:

5th Grade ELA/Social Studies

Author(s):

Blust, Jessica

Dern, Lisa

Dillion, Ashley

Flesch, Ann

Fry, Mindy

Hicks, Joanne

Kuhlman, Olivia

Meacham, Angel

Milar, Ashley

Murray, Ally

Lohmoeller, Becky

Phillips, David

Reynolds, Lisa

Schmidlin, Kristen

Stenger, Becky

Thompson, Emily



Contact information:

jessica.blust@kenton.kyschools.us

lisa.dern@kenton.kyschools.us

ashley.dillion@kenton.kyschools.us

ann.flesch@kenton.kyschools.us

mindy.fry@kenton.kyschools.us

kristen.schmidlin@kenton.kyschools.us

ashley.milar@kenton.kyschools.us

olivia.kuhlman@kenton.kyschools.us

david.phillips@kenton.kyschools.us

lisa.reynolds@kenton.kyschools.us

angel.meacham@kenton.kyschools.us

rebecca..stenger@kenton.kyschools.us

joanne.hicks@kenton.kyschools.us

rebecca.lohmoeller@kenton.kyschools.us

allyson.murray@kenton.kyschools.us

emily.thompson@kenton.kyschools.us





Section 1: What Task?


Teaching Task

Background to share with students:




Teaching task:

Task 5: After researching a novel and primary and secondary sources on the American Revolution, write an opinion essay that discusses sacrifices American colonists made to become a new nation and evaluates whether or not their independence was worth their struggle. Be sure to support your position with evidence from your research.

Reading texts:

Level 1: George Washington’s Socks

Level II: The Winter of Red Snow

Level III: Paul Revere and I and The Journal of William Thomas Emerson


Extension (optional):

Johnny Tremaine video clip

Loyalists and Patriots play: https://emerson.digication.com/meganalexander/Patriots_vs._Loyalists_A_5th_Grade_debate

Molly Pitcher: http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0312848/mpitcher.htm

COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS



READING STANDARDS FOR OPINION

Built-in” Reading Standards

When Appropriate” Reading Standards

1- Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

3- Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

2- Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

5- Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.

4- Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

6- Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

10- Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

7- Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.




8- Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.




9- Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

WRITING STANDARDS FOR OPINION

Built-in” Writing Standards

When Appropriate” Writing Standards

1- Write Opinions to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

2- Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

4- Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

3- Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

5- Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

6- Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.

9- Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

7- Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

10- Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audience.

8- Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.


Teaching task Rubric (Opinion)

Scoring Elements

Not Yet

Approaches Expectations

Meets Expectations

Advanced

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

Focus

Attempts to address prompt, but lacks focus or is off-task.




Addresses prompt appropriately and establishes a position, but focus is uneven.




Addresses prompt appropriately and maintains a clear, steady focus. Provides a generally convincing position.




Addresses all aspects of prompt appropriately with a consistently strong focus and convincing position.

Controlling Idea

Attempts to establish a claim, but lacks a clear purpose. (L2) Makes no mention of counter claims.




Establishes a claim. (L2) Makes note of counter claims.




Establishes a credible claim. (L2) Develops claim and counter claims fairly.




Establishes and maintains a substantive and credible claim or proposal. (L2) Develops claims and counter claims fairly and thoroughly.

Reading/ Research

Attempts to reference reading materials to develop response, but lacks connections or relevance to the purpose of the prompt.




Presents information from reading materials relevant to the purpose of the prompt with minor lapses in accuracy or completeness.




Accurately presents details from reading materials relevant to the purpose of the prompt to develop argument or claim.




Accurately and effectively presents important details from reading materials to develop argument or claim.

Development

Attempts to provide details in response to the prompt, but lacks sufficient development or relevance to the purpose of the prompt. (L3) Makes no connections or a connection that is irrelevant to argument or claim.




Presents appropriate details to support and develop the focus, controlling idea, or claim, with minor lapses in the reasoning, examples, or explanations. (L3) Makes a connection with a weak or unclear relationship to argument or claim.




Presents appropriate and sufficient details to support and develop the focus, controlling idea, or claim. (L3) Makes a relevant connection to clarify argument or claim.




Presents thorough and detailed information to effectively support and develop the focus, controlling idea, or claim. (L3) Makes a clarifying connection(s) that illuminates argument and adds depth to reasoning.

Organization

Attempts to organize ideas, but lacks control of structure.




Uses an appropriate organizational structure for development of reasoning and logic, with minor lapses in structure and/or coherence.




Maintains an appropriate organizational structure to address specific requirements of the prompt. Structure reveals the reasoning and logic of the argument.




Maintains an organizational structure that intentionally and effectively enhances the presentation of information as required by the specific prompt. Structure enhances development of the reasoning and logic of the argument.

Conventions

Attempts to demonstrate standard English conventions, but lacks cohesion and control of grammar, usage, and mechanics. Sources are used without citation.




Demonstrates an uneven command of standard English conventions and cohesion.

Uses language and tone with some inaccurate, inappropriate, or uneven features. Inconsistently cites sources.






Demonstrates a command of standard English conventions and cohesion, with few errors. Response includes language and tone appropriate to the audience, purpose, and specific requirements of the prompt. Cites sources using appropriate format with only minor errors.




Demonstrates and maintains a well-developed command of standard English conventions and cohesion, with few errors. Response includes language and tone consistently appropriate to the audience, purpose, and specific requirements of the prompt. Consistently cites sources using appropriate format.

Content Understanding

Attempts to include disciplinary content in argument, but understanding of content is weak; content is irrelevant, inappropriate, or inaccurate.




Briefly notes disciplinary content relevant to the prompt; shows basic or uneven understanding of content; minor errors in explanation.




Accurately presents disciplinary content relevant to the prompt with sufficient explanations that demonstrate understanding.




Integrates relevant and accurate disciplinary content with thorough explanations that demonstrate in-depth understanding.

Section 2: What Skills?




Skill

Definition

Skills Cluster 1: Preparing for the Task

1. Task engagement

Ability to connect the task and new content to existing knowledge, skills, experiences, interests, and concerns.

2. Task analysis

Ability to understand and explain the task’s prompt and rubric.

Skills Cluster 2: Reading Process

1. Text selection

Ability to identify appropriate texts.

2. Active reading

Ability to identify the central point and main supporting elements of a text.

L2 Ability to identify and analyze competing opinions.

L3 Ability to make clarifying connections and/or provide examples.

3. Essential vocabulary

Ability to identify and master terms essential to understanding a text.

4. Academic integrity

Ability to use and credit sources appropriately.

5. Note-taking

Ability to select important facts and passages for use in one’s own writing.

Skills Cluster 3: Transition to Writing

1. Bridging

Ability to begin linking reading results to writing task.

Skills Cluster 4: Writing Process

1. Claim

Ability to establish a claim and consolidate information relevant to task.

2. Planning

Ability to develop a line of thought and text structure appropriate to an opinion task.

3. Development

Ability to construct an initial draft with an emerging line of thought and structure.

L2 Ability to analyze competing opinions.

L3 Ability to make clarifying connections and/or provide examples.

4. Revision

Ability to refine text, including line of thought, language usage, and tone as appropriate to audience and purpose.

5. Editing

Ability to proofread and format a piece to make it more effective.

6. Completion

Ability to submit final piece that meets expectations.





Section 3: What Instruction?




Pacing

Skill and Definition

MINI-TASK

Instructional Strategies

Product and Prompt

Scoring (Product “meets expectations” if it…)

Skills Cluster 1: Preparing for the Task

Activity 1

1. Task engagement

Ability to connect the task and new content to existing knowledge, skills, experiences, interests, and concerns.



KWL Chart on American Revolution


Visually review charts to monitor completion.

  • Post teaching task

  • Link this task to earlier class content.

  • Discuss student responses.

  • Clarify timetable and support plans for the task.

  • Introduce the novel and assign first section of text.

Activity 1

2. Task analysis

Ability to understand and explain the task’s prompt and rubric.



Bullets

In your own words, what are the important features of a good response to this prompt?



No scoring

  • Pair students to share and improve their individual bullets.

  • Create a classroom list of features: Choose one student to share a few ideas on the board, and ask others to add to it.




Skills Cluster 2: Reading Process

Ongoing

3. Essential vocabulary

Ability to identify and master terms essential to understanding a text.



Vocabulary list

In your notebook, list words and phrases essential to the texts. Add definitions, and with PREP +, add notes on connotation in context.



  • Lists appropriate words/ phrases.

  • Provides accurate definitions.

  • Connotation for Prep +

  • After scoring, ask some students to share definitions of terms that others overlooked or misunderstood.

  • After scoring, be willing to provide direct instruction or guide a close reading, if needed, to work through a key phrase most students missed.




Activity 2

Active Reading
Mission US

http://www.mission-us.org/pages/landing-mission-1
Complete Mission 1:

‘For Crown or Colony’




Complete online activity

Students actively participate in interactive online reading activity.


Activity 3 (Ongoing)

1. Text selection

Liberty Song


Notes

Highlight sacrifices/gains you see in Liberty Song as you read.





Completed Highlighting Activity

  • Highlighting Activity (Color Coding the text)-See notes. Sacrifices will be in one color and gains will be in another.

  • Begin Sacrifice/Gain T-Chart (T-Chart will be revisited as unit progresses.)

  • List the sacrifice on one side with corresponding textual evidence and bibliographic information on the other.

  • List the gains on one side with corresponding textual evidence and bibliographic information on the other.




Activity 4

Literature Circle-

Section 1

Students will meet for 5 days to discuss novels in the following roles:

  • Discussion Leader: Student develops a list of questions that discuss the assigned section of the book.

  • Diction Detective: Student carefully examines the diction (word choice) in assigned sections.

  • Bridge Builder: Student builds bridges between the events of the book and other people, places, or events in school, the community, or group’s life.

  • Reporter: Student identifies and reports the key points of the reading assignment.

  • Artist: Student creates an illustration related to the reading.







  • Students actively participate in literature circle.

  • Completes activities affiliated with role.







  • Conduct literature circles using established roles.

  • Circulate and score using rubric. (See Wiki.)

Activities 5 and 6

2. Active reading

  • Article “On the Murder of Christopher Seider”

  • Thomas Hutchinson’s Diary on the Seider Murder, 1770



Short reflective entry for each text

  • Read articles

  • Complete questions

  • Debate-Which viewpoint do you agree with and why?

Prep + Ability to identify and analyze competing arguments.



Prep + Ability to make clarifying connections or provide examples.

  • Answers questions with credible response.

  • Actively participates in debate.

  • Supports position with credible reasoning.




  • Answer questions related to viewpoint from Mission U (Questions on Wiki).

  • Students choose whether they support the Loyalist or Patriot viewpoint.

  • Class Debate on viewpoints from articles using persuasive techniques while identifying competing arguments.

  • Have students pick a side and support position.

  • Allow students to switch sides based on others’ viewpoints/persuasion.

  • Complete Points of View scenerios




Activity 7

Literature Circle-

Section 2

Students will meet for 5 days to discuss novels in the following roles:

  • Discussion Leader: Student develops a list of questions that discuss the assigned section of the book.

  • Diction Detective: Student carefully examines the diction (word choice) in assigned sections.

  • Bridge Builder: Student builds bridges between the events of the book and other people, places, or events in school, the community, or group’s life.

  • Reporter: Student identifies and reports the key points of the reading assignment.

  • Artist: Student creates an illustration related to the reading.




  • Students actively participate in literature circle.

  • Completes activities affiliated with role.







  • Conduct literature circles using established roles.

  • Circulate and score using rubric. (See Wiki.)

Activity 8

Literature Circle-

Section 3

Students will meet for 5 days to discuss novels in the following roles:

  • Discussion Leader: Student develops a list of questions that discuss the assigned section of the book.

  • Diction Detective: Student carefully examines the diction (word choice) in assigned sections.

  • Bridge Builder: Student builds bridges between the events of the book and other people, places, or events in school, the community, or group’s life.

  • Reporter: Student identifies and reports the key points of the reading assignment.

  • Artist: Student creates an illustration related to the reading.




  • Students actively participate in literature circle.

  • Completes activities affiliated with role.




  • Conduct literature circles using established roles.

  • Circulate and score using rubric.

Activity 9& 10

5. Academic integrity
Literacy Centers


Literacy Centers

  • Disease-Valley Forge and Data for American Revolution Casualties

  • Phillis Wheatley poem

  • Patriot, Loyalist, or Neutral? You Decide!

  • Sacrifices of Women and Women at War

  • The Effect of Quartering-The Keeping Room

  • Revolutionary War Chain of Events Activity




Center Prompts/Activities:

  • Disease-Valley Forge/Data for American Revolution Casualties writing prompt and comparison bar graph (on WIKI—Writing Prompts)

  • Phillis Wheatley poem timeline questions and text-dependent questions

  • Patriot, Loyalist, or Neutral? You Decide! Build an Army activity

  • Sacrifices of Women and Women at War writing prompt (on WIKI—Writing Prompts)

  • The Effect of Quartering-The Keeping Room writing prompt (on WIKI—Writing Prompts) and/or text dependent questions

  • Revolutionary War Chain of Events Activity

  • Have students bring Social Studies notebook to centers and complete each prompt through rotations.




Activity 11

Literature Circle-

Section 4

Students will meet for 5 days to discuss novels in the following roles:

  • Discussion Leader: Student develops a list of questions that discuss the assigned section of the book.

  • Diction Detective: Student carefully examines the diction (word choice) in assigned sections.

  • Bridge Builder: Student builds bridges between the events of the book and other people, places, or events in school, the community, or group’s life.

  • Reporter: Student identifies and reports the key points of the reading assignment.

  • Artist: Student creates an illustration related to the reading.




  • Students actively participate in literature circle.

  • Completes activities affiliated with role.







  • Conduct literature circles using established roles.

  • Circulate and score using rubric.

Activity 12

Active Reading
Katie’s Trunk


Houghton Mifflin Reading Series

Katie’s Trunk audio

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25CFhJkf8CA




Answers questions with credible responses

  • Have students read/listen to Katie’s Trunk

  • Provide questions for students to answer about the story.

Activity 13

Literature Circle-

Section 5

Students will meet for 5 days to discuss novels in the following roles:

  • Discussion Leader: Student develops a list of questions that discuss the assigned section of the book.

  • Diction Detective: Student carefully examines the diction (word choice) in assigned sections.

  • Bridge Builder: Student builds bridges between the events of the book and other people, places, or events in school, the community, or group’s life.

  • Reporter: Student identifies and reports the key points of the reading assignment.

  • Artist: Student creates an illustration related to the reading.




  • Students actively participate in literature circle.

  • Completes activities affiliated with role.







  • Conduct literature circles using established roles.

  • Circulate and score using rubric.




SKILLS CLUSTER 3: TRANSITION TO WRITING

Activity 14

Bridging

Ability to begin linking reading results to writing task.



Bullets

In a quick write, note what you know now that you’ve read about the sacrifices and gains of the American Revolution.



Visually scan for completion of task.

  • Small group discussion using prompt from quick write.

SKILLS CLUSTER 4: WRITING PROCESS

Activity 15

  1. Claim

Ability to establish a controlling idea and consolidate information relevant to task.

Opening Paragraph

Write an opening paragraph that includes a controlling idea and sequences the key points you plan to make in your essay.






  • Write a concise summary statement or draft opening.

  • Provides direct answer to main prompt requirements.

  • Establishes a controlling idea.

  • Identifies key points that support development of argument.







  • Use CATS strategy

  • Model an example (off topic) of an introductory paragraph with students.

Activity 16

2. Planning

Ability to develop a line of thought and text structure appropriate to an Opinion task.



Outline/organizer

Create an outline based on your notes and reading in which you state your claim, sequence your points, and note your supporting evidence.



  • Prep + Include competing argument(s).







  • Creates an outline or organizer.

  • Supports opening claim.

  • Uses evidence from texts read earlier.

  • Prep + Identifies competing argument(s).







  • Provide or teach one or more examples of outline organizer.




Activities 17 and 18

3. Development

Ability to construct an initial draft with an emerging line of thought and structure.

Prep + Ability to analyze competing arguments.

.


Initial draft

Write an initial draft complete with opening, development, and closing; insert and cite textual evidence.



  • Prep + Identify competing argument(s).







  • Provides complete draft with all parts.

  • Supports the opening in the later sections with evidence and citations within text.




  • Encourage students to re-read prompt partway through writing, to check that they are on track.







Activities 19 and 20

4. Revision

Ability to refine text, including line of thought, language usage, and tone as appropriate to audience and purpose.



Multiple drafts

Refine composition’s analysis, logic, and organization of ideas/points. Use textual evidence carefully, with accurate citations within text. Decide what to include and what not to include.



  • Provides complete draft with all parts.

  • Supports the opening in the later sections with evidence and citations within text.

  • Improves earlier edition.

  • Sample useful feedback that balances support for strengths and clarity about weaknesses.

  • Assign students to provide each other with feedback on those issues.

  • Use checklist provided on Wiki.

Activity 21

5. Editing

Ability to proofread and format a piece to make it more effective.



Correct Draft

Revise draft to have sound spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and grammar.






  • Provides draft free from distracting surface errors.







  • Briefly review selected skills that many students need to improve.

  • Teach a short list of proofreading marks. (See Wiki).

  • Assign students to proofread each other’s texts a second time.

  • Using “Meets Expectations” column from Opinion rubric. (See Wiki for kid friendly rubric.)

Activity 22

6. Completion

Ability to submit final piece that meets expectations.




Final Piece

Turn in your complete set of drafts, plus the final version of your piece.






  • Fits the “Meets Expectations” category in the rubric for the teaching task.



Materials, references, and supports



For Teachers

For Students

Articles:

Murder of Christopher Seider

Thomas Hutchinson’s Diary on the Seider Murder 1770

Liberty Song

Phyllis Wheatly poems

Books:


Valley Forge

The Keeping Room

Katie’s Trunk

George Washington’s Socks

The Winter of Red Snow

Paul Revere and I

The Journal of William Thomas Emerson

Rubric Design and Task Chart:

Literacy Design Collaborative, November 2011

Websites:

www.americanrevolution.org (Letters home from a soldier in Valley Forge)

www.animatedatlas.com/revwar/washington1.html

www.historycentral.com/Revolt/index.html

http://www.mission-us.org

Other:

Houghton Mifflin Grade 5 Reading Practice Book, Vol. 1




Social Studies Notebook

Individual novels to be provided by teacher


Section 4: What Results?


Student work samples

[Include at least two samples of student work at each scoring level.]



Classroom Assessment Task (Optional: May be used as Pre-Test or Post-Test)

Background to share with students (optional):




Classroom assessment task:




Reading texts:




Opinion Classroom Assessment Rubric

LDC Opinion Classroom Assessment Rubric

MEETS EXPECTATIONS

Focus

Addresses the prompt and stays on task; provides a generally convincing response.

Reading/Research

Demonstrates generally effective use of reading material to develop an argument.

Controlling Idea

Establishes a credible claim and supports an argument that is logical and generally convincing. (L2) Acknowledges competing Opinions while defending the claim.

Development

Develops reasoning to support claim; provides evidence from text(s) in the form of examples or explanations relevant to the argument (L3) Makes a relevant connection(s) that supports argument.

Organization

Applies an appropriate text structure to address specific requirements of the prompt.

Conventions

Demonstrates a command of standard English conventions and cohesion; employs language and tone appropriate to audience and purpose.

NOT YET

Focus

Attempts to address prompt but lacks focus or is off-task.

Reading/Research

Demonstrates weak use of reading material to develop argument.

Controlling Idea

Establishes a claim and attempts to support an argument but is not convincing;

(L2) Attempts to acknowledge competing Opinions.



Development

Reasoning is not clear; examples or explanations are weak or irrelevant. (L3) Connection is weak or not relevant.

Organization

Provides an ineffective structure; composition does not address requirements of the prompt.

Conventions

Demonstrates a weak command of standard English conventions; lacks cohesion; language and tone are not appropriate to audience and purpose.

Teacher Work Section


Here are added thoughts about teaching this module.

Appendix


The attached materials support teaching this module.

LDC Opinion Module Template – version 2 | © Literacy Design Collaborative, 2011




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