The american people creating a nation and a society nash  jeffrey howe  frederick  davis  winkler  mires  pestana



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THE AMERICAN PEOPLE CREATING A NATION AND A SOCIETY NASH  JEFFREY HOWE  FREDERICK  DAVIS  WINKLER  MIRES  PESTANA

  • Pearson Education, Inc, publishing as Longman © 2006
  • 7th Edition
  • LAUNCHING THE NATIONAL REPUBLIC

On April 16, 1789, George Washington was unanimously elected president of the United States by the Electoral College

  • BEGINNING THE NEW GOVERNMENT
  • On April 16, 1789, George Washington was unanimously elected president of the United States by the Electoral College
  • Many thought his inaugural speech on April 30 was too reminiscent of the English monarchy
  • Congress had to decide how to formally address Washington: “His Most Benign Highness,” and other kingly titles fortunately gave way to “Mr. President”

Among Congress’s first tasks was debate over the constitutional amendments that several states had made a condition of ratification

  • THE BILL OF RIGHTS
  • Among Congress’s first tasks was debate over the constitutional amendments that several states had made a condition of ratification
  • Congress sent twelve perspective amendments to the states in September 1789, and ten were approved to become the national Bill of Rights in December 1791

By the mid-1790s, opposition groups had formed a coalition called the Jeffersonian Republicans

  • THE PEOPLE DIVIDE
  • By the mid-1790s, opposition groups had formed a coalition called the Jeffersonian Republicans
  • The administration’s supporters were known as Federalists
  • Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton caused the first disagreement when he submitted to Congress the first of several major policy statements in January 1790
    • Ardent proponent of U.S. economic development
    • Competitive self-interest was the surest guide to behavior
    • Hamilton’s politics were profoundly conservative

Hamilton recommended funding the remaining Revolutionary War debt by enabling the government’s creditors to exchange their badly depreciated securities at face value for new, interest-bearing government bonds

  • THE PEOPLE DIVIDE
  • Hamilton recommended funding the remaining Revolutionary War debt by enabling the government’s creditors to exchange their badly depreciated securities at face value for new, interest-bearing government bonds
    • Proposed U.S. government should assume the responsibility for the $21.5 million in remaining state war debts
    • Hoped this would stabilize government’s finances, establish its credit, build confidence in the new nation at home and abroad, and tie business and commercial interests firmly to the new administration

Consideration of these recommendations was delayed by a debate over slavery started by a Quaker call for the end of the slave trade and improvement of the condition of slavery

  • THE PEOPLE DIVIDE
  • Consideration of these recommendations was delayed by a debate over slavery started by a Quaker call for the end of the slave trade and improvement of the condition of slavery
    • Southerners warned that any congressional claims to authority in the matter would lead to civil war and defended the slave trade as rescuing blacks from savagery
    • Northerners agreed that Congress had no authority in the issue
    • Some felt that the Northern position was an attempt to ensure Southern support of Hamilton’s proposals

Funding securities at face value seemed to benefit speculators, predominantly northern businessmen

  • THE PEOPLE DIVIDE
  • Funding securities at face value seemed to benefit speculators, predominantly northern businessmen
  • Those states who had paid their debts, such as Pennsylvania and Virginia, were opposed to federal assumption of them
    • Critics said it would strengthen the federal government at the expense of the states since money people would look to them for a return on investment and it would spur federal use of taxation powers
  • Congress supported Hamilton’s measures in part because southerners swapped support for a federal capitol in the south on the Potomac

The second phase of Hamilton’s program was a national bank capable of handling the government’s financial affairs and pooling private investment capital

  • THE PEOPLE DIVIDE
  • The second phase of Hamilton’s program was a national bank capable of handling the government’s financial affairs and pooling private investment capital
    • Opposition came almost entirely from the South where critics said the Constitution did not support such an entity
    • February 1792, Congress approved the bank bill
  • Washington, following Hamilton’s arguments regarding the “implied powers” of the Constitution over Jefferson’s strict reading of it, signed the bill

December 1790, Hamilton proposed a series of excise taxes, including one on the manufacture of distilled liquor

  • THE PEOPLE DIVIDE
  • December 1790, Hamilton proposed a series of excise taxes, including one on the manufacture of distilled liquor
    • Signaled government desire to use taxing power to increase revenue
    • Whiskey Tax became law in March 1791
  • December 1791, Hamilton called for tariffs on imported European goods in order to protect American industries, bounties to encourage the expansion of commercial agriculture, and a network of federally sponsored internal improvements which were intended to stimulate commerce and bind the nation together
    • Congress did not approve this report

October 1791: Opponents of Hamilton in Congress establish a newspaper that vigorously attacked the administration’s policies

  • THE PEOPLE DIVIDE
  • October 1791: Opponents of Hamilton in Congress establish a newspaper that vigorously attacked the administration’s policies
    • Hamilton responded with a bunch of anonymous articles attacking Jefferson
    • Washington pleaded for restraint

The farmers of western Pennsylvania vented their anger at the federal government through an armed demonstration against the hated Whiskey Tax

  • THE WHISKEY REBELLION
  • The farmers of western Pennsylvania vented their anger at the federal government through an armed demonstration against the hated Whiskey Tax
  • Their livelihood depended on the transport of surplus grain in the form of distilled alcohol, which was easier to ship
    • Sensed control of local affairs slipping away as backcountry was increasingly absorbed into the market economy and system of politics dominated by more populous, commercialized areas to the east

In 1792, angry citizens gathered at mass meetings across western Pennsylvania

  • THE WHISKEY REBELLION
  • In 1792, angry citizens gathered at mass meetings across western Pennsylvania
    • August: convention in Pittsburgh denounced the tax and vowed to prevent its collection
    • Washington issued a proclamation warning against such “unlawful” gatherings
  • July 1794: when a federal marshal and a local excise inspector attempted to collect the tax, 500 armed men cornered a dozen federal soldiers at the inspector’s home
    • Soldiers surrendered after an exchange of fire and the home was burned
    • Similar incidents occurred across the state

Washington called federal troops to restore order

  • THE WHISKEY REBELLION
  • Washington called federal troops to restore order
    • Late August, a federal force of 13,000 marched into western Pennsylvania
    • As troops approached, “Whiskey Rebels” disappeared
    • Twenty were captured and two sentenced to death though they were later pardoned

Foreign policy generated extraordinary excitement during the 1790s

  • THE REPUBLIC IN A THREATENING WORLD
  • Foreign policy generated extraordinary excitement during the 1790s
    • French Revolution and European war that accompanied it threatened to draw the U.S. in
  • Age of democratic revolution

France’s revolution began in 1789 as an effort to reform the injustices of a weakened monarchy and soon exploded into a radical rebellion with the beheading of Louis XVI in 1793

  • THE PROMISE AND PERIL OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • France’s revolution began in 1789 as an effort to reform the injustices of a weakened monarchy and soon exploded into a radical rebellion with the beheading of Louis XVI in 1793
  • For more than a decade the revolution dominated the stage in European politics

By mid-1790s, American merchants were earning handsome profits from neutral trade with both England and France

  • THE PROMISE AND PERIL OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • By mid-1790s, American merchants were earning handsome profits from neutral trade with both England and France
    • American shipbuilding was booming
    • In 1800, American ships carried 92 percent of all commerce between U.S. and Europe
  • England and France wanted American goods but also wanted to prevent goods from reaching the other
    • Stopped American ships and confiscated their cargoes.
    • Royal Navy also practiced impressment
    • French Treaty of 1778 seemed to obligate U.S. to side with France

The American public initially viewed French Revolution as an extension of their own struggle for liberty, but by the mid-1790s many Americans pulled back in alarm

  • THE PROMISE AND PERIL OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • The American public initially viewed French Revolution as an extension of their own struggle for liberty, but by the mid-1790s many Americans pulled back in alarm
    • Federalists saw France as symbolizing anarchy and threatening European order, often seeking a way to bind the U.S. more closely to England
    • Others, including Jefferson, condemned the excesses of the revolution but not the revolution itself and often saw England as a bastion of political privilege and oppression
  • Heavy participation of women in the French Revolution challenged American notions of the gendered nature of politics

Supported by invading armies from France and inspired by the doctrine of natural rights, rebellions against long-entrenched privilege erupted from the Netherlands to the Italian Peninsula

  • DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTIONS IN EUROPE AND THE ATLANTIC WORLD
  • Supported by invading armies from France and inspired by the doctrine of natural rights, rebellions against long-entrenched privilege erupted from the Netherlands to the Italian Peninsula
  • In 1791 a multi racial coalition rebelled against French rule in Saint-Dominque
    • Conflict developed between white landowners seeking to preserve their privileges while eliminating the colonial yoke, poor whites demanding access to land, mixed-race mulattoes chafing under years of discrimination and black slaves angered by brutal repression
    • Led to a decade of warfare against 30,000 French and British troops, 100,000 casualties and the devastation of the Haitian economy
  • The Outbreak of Democratic Insurgencies

1798: black majority, led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, seized control of the revolt

  • DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTIONS IN EUROPE AND THE ATLANTIC WORLD
  • 1798: black majority, led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, seized control of the revolt
    • Made abolition of slavery the primary goal
    • Six years later established Haiti as the first black nation-state in the Americas
  • For Americans, Haitian revolt demonstrated the universal relevance of U.S. struggle for liberty and struck a blow against European colonialism in the New World.
    • However, feared the effect of the rebellion on American slaves
    • Also cast doubt on racial assumptions that blacks could not comprehend the true meaning of liberty
    • U.S. did not recognize Haiti until the American Civil War
  • The Haitian Revolution

Political clubs served as tools of democratic reform, providing safe havens for dissidents and intellectuals

  • THE DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN SOCIETIES
  • Political clubs served as tools of democratic reform, providing safe havens for dissidents and intellectuals
    • The Jacobin clubs in France were the most famous, but similar organizations appeared in the United States
  • As early as 1792, constitutional societies were formed to oversee the rights of the people
  • The increase in these clubs was spurred in 1793 by the arrival of Citizen Edmund Genêt, French minister to the United States
    • Genêt had instructions to court popular support and negotiate a commercial treaty but began commissioning American privateers to attack British shipping in the Caribbean and enlisting Americans for attacks against Spanish Florida

When Genêt urged Congress to reject Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation, Washington demanded he be recalled

  • THE DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN SOCIETIES
  • When Genêt urged Congress to reject Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation, Washington demanded he be recalled
    • Genêt succeeded in fanning popular enthusiasm for France
  • Forty popular societies sprang up in the next few years
    • Working people made up bulk of membership
    • Included Irish fleeing from British repression at home
    • Leaders were often doctors, tradesmen and lawyers
    • Organized public celebrations, issued addresses and sent petitions critical of the administration

West of Appalachians, societies agitated against English control of frontier forts and against Spain for closing the Mississippi

  • THE DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN SOCIETIES
  • West of Appalachians, societies agitated against English control of frontier forts and against Spain for closing the Mississippi
    • Everywhere protested Excise Tax, opposed overtures to England, and called for a press free of Federalist control
  • Tensions were increased by a heat wave in the summer of 1793 followed by a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia
    • 4000 black and white Philadelphians died, more than 10% of the population

Alarmed by sinking relations with England, President Washington dispatched Chief Justice John Jay to London in 1794 to negotiate a number of disagreements left over from the Revolutionary War

  • JAY’S CONTROVERSIAL TREATY
  • Alarmed by sinking relations with England, President Washington dispatched Chief Justice John Jay to London in 1794 to negotiate a number of disagreements left over from the Revolutionary War
  • Jay returned with a treaty in 1795
    • British promised to withdraw from western posts and provide selective access to British West Indian ports
    • Totally ignored other problems

Public was incensed despite administration claims that this was the only way to avoid war with England

  • JAY’S CONTROVERSIAL TREATY
  • Public was incensed despite administration claims that this was the only way to avoid war with England
    • Southerners were upset there was no compensation for their lost slaves
    • Westerners complained British were not evacuating posts fast enough
    • Merchants and sailors disliked Jay’s failure to stop impressment or open West Indian trade
  • Senate ratified treaty by a narrow margin

In the Treaty of San Lorenzo, negotiated by Thomas Pinckney in 1795, Spain recognized the U.S. boundaries under the peace treaty 1783 and gave up all claims to U.S. territory

  • JAY’S CONTROVERSIAL TREATY
  • In the Treaty of San Lorenzo, negotiated by Thomas Pinckney in 1795, Spain recognized the U.S. boundaries under the peace treaty 1783 and gave up all claims to U.S. territory
    • Gave free navigation of Mississippi and right to unload goods for transshipment at New Orleans for three years
  • By 1796 Jefferson quit as secretary of state and went into open opposition
  • Washington, in his Farewell Address, deplored deepening political divisions, warned against entangling alliances with foreign nations, and announced he would not accept a third term
  • THE POLITICAL CRISIS DEEPENS

With Washington out of the picture, the presidential election of 1796 narrowed to Thomas Jefferson or John Adams, two very different men who had a great deal of shared experiences in the Revolution and the creation of the government

  • THE ELECTION OF 1796
  • With Washington out of the picture, the presidential election of 1796 narrowed to Thomas Jefferson or John Adams, two very different men who had a great deal of shared experiences in the Revolution and the creation of the government
    • Adams was a committed Federalist who believed in a vigorous national government, was appalled by the French Revolution and feared “excessive democracy”
    • Jefferson, while supporting the Constitution, was alarmed by Hamilton’s financial program, viewed France’s revolution as a logical extension of America’s struggle for freedom, and hoped to expand democracy at home
  • Adams won the election by only three votes, with Jefferson to serve as his Vice President

Adam’s first trial as president was caused by French interference with American shipping in the Caribbean

  • THE WAR CRISIS WITH FRANCE
  • Adam’s first trial as president was caused by French interference with American shipping in the Caribbean
  • An American delegation was dispatched to Paris where arrogant administrators (termed X, Y, Z) demanded bribes and promises of huge loans before they would allow them to see the French foreign minister, Talleyrand
    • Two of the commissioners sailed for home
    • When Adams reported the “XYZ Affair” to Congress, Federalist congressmen thundered against the insult to American honor and Secretary of State Pickering urged a declaration of war
    • Emotions were further enflamed by the Quasi-War, a series of encounters between American and French ships on the high seas

May 1798: Congress called for a naval force capable of defending the American coast against French attack

  • THE ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS
  • May 1798: Congress called for a naval force capable of defending the American coast against French attack
    • July it repealed the treaty of 1778 and called for the formation of 10,000 man army
    • Jeffersonians worried the army would be used against them
    • Adams was also worried when Hamilton was placed in charge of the army so he issued few officer commissions thereby preventing the army’s mobilization

Congress sought to curb the flow of aliens into the country

  • THE ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS
  • Congress sought to curb the flow of aliens into the country
    • The Naturalization Act 1798– raised residency requirement for citizenship from 5 to 14 years
    • The Alien Act – authorized the president to expel aliens whom he judged dangerous
    • The Alien Enemies Act –empowered the president in time of war to arrest, imprison or banish the subjects of any hostile nation without specifying charges against them or providing opportunity for appeal

The Sedition Act – passed in mid-July, this act made it punishable by fine and imprisonment for anyone to conspire in opposition to the government; aid insurrections, etc; or write, print, utter or publish statements that brought the government, Congress or the president into disrepute

  • THE ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS
  • The Sedition Act – passed in mid-July, this act made it punishable by fine and imprisonment for anyone to conspire in opposition to the government; aid insurrections, etc; or write, print, utter or publish statements that brought the government, Congress or the president into disrepute
  • Under the Alien Act, investigations were launched that were intended to force foreigners to register with the government
    • Large numbers of foreigners left the country
  • Under the Sedition Act, 25 people were arrested and 15 were indicted

When Luther Baldwin, a little in his cups, remarked that he did not care if the cannons in Newark firing to celebrate Adams presence, “fired thro’ his a—,” he was charged with sedition

  • LOCAL REVERBERATIONS
  • When Luther Baldwin, a little in his cups, remarked that he did not care if the cannons in Newark firing to celebrate Adams presence, “fired thro’ his a—,” he was charged with sedition
    • Convicted he was fined and sent to jail until both fines and court fees were paid
    • Jeffersonian Republicans made a field day of the Baldwin trial

Jeffersonians turned to the states for redress.

  • THE VIRGINIA AND KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS
  • Jeffersonians turned to the states for redress.
  • November 16, 1798, Kentucky Assembly passed a resolution declaring the federal government had violated the Bill of Rights and that each state had the right to judge infractions and decide on the appropriate redress
    • Nullification was the remedy for unconstitutional laws
  • The Virginia Resolutions, written by Madison, asserted that when the central government threatened the people’s liberties, states were bound to prevent it

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions received little support

  • THE VIRGINIA AND KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS
  • Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions received little support
  • Alien and Sedition Acts were not enforced in the South
    • By 1799 country seemed on the brink of war
  • Word from France came that Talleyrand was willing to negotiate and Adams sent new peace commissioners
    • Adams cabinet was enraged because it undercut the Federalist war program
    • When Pickering refused to send the commissioners, Adams dismissed him and sent them anyway
    • Envoys reached an agreement releasing the U.S. from the 1778 alliance and restoring peaceful relations

As presidential election approached, the Federalists were in disarray

  • THE “REVOLUTION OF 1800”
  • As presidential election approached, the Federalists were in disarray
    • Plotted Adams defeat when he announced effort to be re-elected
  • Jefferson and Aaron Burr each had 75 votes and Adams had only 65
    • The election was thrown into the House of Representatives where Jefferson was elected 10 states to 4 states on the 36th ballot
    • Twelfth amendment provided for separate ballots for president and vice president

Federalists dominated New England because of regional loyalty to Adams, area’s commercial ties with England, and fears that their opponents intended to import social revolution from France

  • THE “REVOLUTION OF 1800”
  • Federalists dominated New England because of regional loyalty to Adams, area’s commercial ties with England, and fears that their opponents intended to import social revolution from France
  • From Maryland south the Jeffersonians dominated
  • The election was more evenly contested in the middle states

Federalist support was strongest among merchants, manufacturers and commercial farmers situated within easy reach of the coast

  • THE “REVOLUTION OF 1800”
  • Federalist support was strongest among merchants, manufacturers and commercial farmers situated within easy reach of the coast
  • Jeffersonian coalition included most of the old Anti-Federalists though Jeffersonians were ardent supporters of the Constitution who insisted it be implemented in ways consistent with political liberty and a strong dependence on the states

Jeffersonians took office in 1801 determined to

  • RESTORING AMERICAN LIBERTY
  • Jeffersonians took office in 1801 determined to
    • Calm the political storms
    • Consolidate their recent electoral victory
    • Rescue the government from Federalist mismanagement and set it on a proper republican course

In November 1800 the government moved from Philadelphia to the District of Columbia

  • THE JEFFERSONIANS TAKE CONTROL
  • In November 1800 the government moved from Philadelphia to the District of Columbia
    • New capital was little more than a swampy village of 5000 inhabitants
    • Little of Pierre L’Enfant’s vision had been built
  • Jefferson planned a simple inauguration
    • Announced the basic principles that would guide his administration
    • Spoke of political reconciliation though actually removed most Federalist officeholders and replaced them with Jeffersonians

In the last months of the Adams administration, the Federalist-controlled Congress passed a new Judiciary Act increasing the number of circuit courts, complete with judges, marshals and clerks

  • POLITICS AND THE FEDERAL COURTS
  • In the last months of the Adams administration, the Federalist-controlled Congress passed a new Judiciary Act increasing the number of circuit courts, complete with judges, marshals and clerks
    • Adams filled these with staunch Federalists
    • January 1802 the now Jeffersonian-dominated Congress repealed the act and Jefferson prepared to purge several highly partisan judges

March1803 House of Representatives impeached district judge John Pickering for Federalist diatribes

  • POLITICS AND THE FEDERAL COURTS
  • March1803 House of Representatives impeached district judge John Pickering for Federalist diatribes
  • Next impeachment charges were brought against Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase accusing him of political harangues
    • Trial showed he had committed no impeachable offenses so he was acquitted
  • Fortunately, a constitutional crisis was averted to allow time and attrition cleanse the courts of the opposition

Jefferson ended prosecution of newspaper editors under the Sedition Act, freed its victim and let it lapse in 1802

  • DISMANTLING THE FEDERALIST WAR PROGRAM
  • Jefferson ended prosecution of newspaper editors under the Sedition Act, freed its victim and let it lapse in 1802
    • Freedom of press was reaffirmed
  • Jefferson dismantled the inspection system used to enforce the Alien Acts
    • Congress restored the requirement of 5 rather than 14 years residency
  • Federalists’ provisional army was disbanded

Jefferson was concerned about the size of the federal government

  • DISMANTLING THE FEDERALIST WAR PROGRAM
  • Jefferson was concerned about the size of the federal government
    • Had only 3000 employees, only 300 in Washington
    • Felt Federal government should only oversee foreign policy, deliver the mail, deal with Native Americans on federal land and administer the public domain

Jeffersonian vision of an expanding agrarian nation

  • BUILDING AN AGRARIAN NATION
  • Jeffersonian vision of an expanding agrarian nation
    • Southern planters were determined to maintain a slavery based agrarian order
    • Lower- and middle-class southerners were committed to black servitude but proponents of political equality among whites
    • Northern artisans harbored an aversion to slavery though rarely a commitment to racial equality
    • Western farmers were devoted to self-sufficiency on the land. Northern intellectuals were committed to political democracy

Political liberty could survive only under the specific conditions of broad-based social and economic equality

  • THE JEFFERSONIAN VISION
  • Political liberty could survive only under the specific conditions of broad-based social and economic equality
    • Strategy centered on independent yeoman farmer.
    • Problem was industriousness generated wealth which generated inequality that threatened to undermine democratic society
  • The path to equality in a world valuing the pursuit of wealth was territorial expansionism

Thomas Malthus’ argument that population would outrun subsistence abilities spurred desire for expansion

  • THE JEFFERSONIAN VISION
  • Thomas Malthus’ argument that population would outrun subsistence abilities spurred desire for expansion
  • Occupation of the West would secure the nation’s borders against lingering threats from Britain, France and Spain
  • Newly created western states would strengthen Jeffersonian control

In 1800 Spain ceded Louisiana to France

  • THE WINDFALL LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • In 1800 Spain ceded Louisiana to France
  • October 1802: the Spanish commander at New Orleans, Spain had not yet ceded control to France, closed the Mississippi to American commerce
  • Jefferson instructing Robert Livingston to acquire a tract of land on the lower Mississippi that might act as a port and sent James Monroe to help with the negotiations
  • By the time Monroe arrived in April 1803, Napoleon had decided to sell all of Louisiana which the ministers bought for $15 million, thereby adding 830,000 acres to American territory

Federalists were concerned that the new states would be Jeffersonian and that the expanding frontier would “decivilize” the nation

  • THE WINDFALL LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • Federalists were concerned that the new states would be Jeffersonian and that the expanding frontier would “decivilize” the nation
  • In 1810, American adventurers fomented a rebellion in Spanish West Florida and proclaimed an independent republic
    • Congress annexed the region two years later
  • In the Adams-Onís (Transcontinental) Treaty of 1819, Spain ceded East Florida
  • Exploring the Trans-Mississippi West, 1804–1807

In the summer of 1803, Jefferson sent an expedition under Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the new purchase

  • OPENING THE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI WEST
  • In the summer of 1803, Jefferson sent an expedition under Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the new purchase
    • Asked to contact Native Americans, open the fur trade and bring back scientific information
    • Shoshone woman Sacagawea assisted them on their two and a half year exploration to the Pacific coast and back.
    • Returned to St. Louis in September 1806
  • In 1805 and 1806, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike explored the sources of the Mississippi River in northern Minnesota, then explored the Rocky Mountains
  • In the following decade, the government established a string of military posts from Minnesota to Arkansas
    • Intended to secure the frontier, promote the fur trade and encourage white settlement

Jefferson’s second term in office was dominated by foreign affairs

  • Jefferson’s second term in office was dominated by foreign affairs

Several goals guided Jefferson’s foreign policy efforts: protecting American interests on the high seas, clearing the Great Lakes region of British troops and breaking free of country’s dependence on Europe

  • JEFFERSONIAN PRINCIPLES
  • Several goals guided Jefferson’s foreign policy efforts: protecting American interests on the high seas, clearing the Great Lakes region of British troops and breaking free of country’s dependence on Europe
    • Policy based on principle of no entangling alliances
    • Emphasized importance of overseas commerce
    • Wanted peace
  • Between 1801 and 1805, Jefferson sent naval ships to defend U.S. commerce against the Barbary States

European war started again in 1803 and Britain and France resumed seizing American shipping

  • STRUGGLING FOR NEUTRAL RIGHTS
  • European war started again in 1803 and Britain and France resumed seizing American shipping
    • Britain continued to refuse to stop impressment, vacate its posts south of the Great Lakes and re-open the West Indies to American trade
  • April 1806: Congress passed the Non-Importation Act in response to British seizures
    • Banned British imports that could be produced domestically or acquired elsewhere

In May 1806 the British blockaded the European coast and Napoleon retaliated by banning all trade with the British Isles

  • STRUGGLING FOR NEUTRAL RIGHTS
  • In May 1806 the British blockaded the European coast and Napoleon retaliated by banning all trade with the British Isles
  • June 1807: HMS Leopard stopped the USS Chesapeake off the Virginia coast and demanded four crew members be handed over
    • Leopard fired when request was refused, killed 3 men and wounded 18
    • Americans were outraged

December 1807: Congress passed the Embargo Act

  • STRUGGLING FOR NEUTRAL RIGHTS
  • December 1807: Congress passed the Embargo Act
    • Forbid American vessels from sailing for foreign ports
    • Had little effect on Britain since British shipping actually profited from withdrawal of American competition and British merchants found new agricultural sources in Latin America
    • U.S. exports plummeted 80% in a year while imports dropped by more than half
    • Depression hit New England

New England communities openly violated the Embargo Act

  • STRUGGLING FOR NEUTRAL RIGHTS
  • New England communities openly violated the Embargo Act
    • Federal officials declared martial law and sent in troops to upstate New York leading to encounters with local citizens
    • Connecticut’s Federalist governor declared that states were duty bound to protect their citizens from oppressive government legislation
    • Congress repealed the act in 1809

Birth of the Nation: The First Federal Congress 1789-1791

  • Birth of the Nation: The First Federal Congress 1789-1791
  • http://www.gwu.edu/~ffcp/
  • The Bradford House—Whiskey Rebellion—Whiskey Insurrection
  • http://www.bradfordhouse.org/
  • George Washington’s Mount Vernon Estate and Gardens
  • http://www.mountvernon.org/
  • The Papers of George Washington
  • http://gwpapers.virginia.edu/
  • The French Revolution
  • www.woodberry.org/acad/hist/FRWEB
  • John Adams
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/ja2.html

The Haitian Revolution of 1791-1803

  • DISCOVERING U.S. HISTORY ONLINE
  • The Haitian Revolution of 1791-1803
  • http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/revolution/revolution.htm
  • Benjamin Rush, Yellow Fever, and the Birth of Modern Medicine
  • http://www.geocities.com/bobarnebeck/fever1793.html
  • Learning about the Senate: Series of Historical Minues, 1790-1850
  • http://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/history/b_three_sections_with_teasers/essays.htm
  • The Alien and Sedition Acts
  • http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/alsedact.htm
  • Nullification Issues
  • http://www.jmu.edu/madison/center/main_pages/madison_archives/life/retirement/nullification/nullification.htm

Building the Capitol for a New Nation

  • DISCOVERING U.S. HISTORY ONLINE
  • Building the Capitol for a New Nation
  • http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/us.capitol/s0.html
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • http://www.ipl.org/div/potus/tjefferson.html
  • The Louisiana Purchase Exhibit
  • http://www.sec.state.la.us/purchase/purchase-index.htm
  • Thomas Jefferson Digital Archive
  • http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/jefferson/
  • Monticello: The Home of Thomas Jefferson
  • http://www.monticello.org/
  • Lewis and Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery
  • http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/

British American Diplomacy, 1782-1863

  • DISCOVERING U.S. HISTORY ONLINE
  • British American Diplomacy, 1782-1863
  • http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/britian/brtreaty.htm
  • Napoleonic War Series
  • http://wtj.com/wars/napoleonic/
  • Birth of the Navy, Prelude to the War of 1812
  • http://www.mariner.org/usnavy/08/08a.htm
  • War of 1812
  • http://www.city-net.com/~markd/roots/history/us_war_of_1812.htm


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