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Discovering the Humanities
By
Henry Sayre

Second Edition

by
Nathan Poage

Houston Community College






© 2013 by PEARSON EDUCATION, INC.

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

All rights reserved
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 0-205-21965-9


Printed in the United States of America

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 4

Chapter 2 14

Chapter 3 25

Chapter 4 31

Chapter 5 40

Chapter 6 48

Chapter 7 55

Chapter 8 65

Chapter 9 71

Chapter 10 79

Chapter 11 87

Chapter 12 97

Chapter 13 104

Chapter 14 111

Chapter 15 118

Chapter 1: The Prehistoric Past and the Earliest Civilizations: The River Cultures of the Ancient World



Multiple Choice Questions
1. Which of the following is NOT the location of a cave in which ancient paintings have been discovered?

a. Chauvet, France

b. Lascaux, France

c. Altamira, Spain

d. Pitlochry, Scotland

Answer: d page 2


2. How does culture manifest itself?

a. in the biology of a people

b. in the geography of a place

c. in the laws, customs, ritual behavior, and artistic productions of a group

d. only in architecture

Answer: c page 2


3. Which of the following cave paintings depicts a human figure wearing a birds-head mask?

a. Cosquer, France

b. Lascaux, France

c. Chauvet, France

d. Altamira, Spain

Answer: b page 3


4. What are the paintings in Chauvet known especially for?

a. their location

b. their colors

c. their attention to detail

d. their naturalism

Answer: d page 3


5. Where was evidence of the earliest hominids found?

a. Iran


b. France

c. Spain


d. Ethiopia

Answer d. page 4


6. In which of the following nations was the Willendorf Venus discovered?

a. Spain


b. Ukraine

c. France

d. Austria

Answer: d page 4


7. What color was the Willendorf Venus originally painted?

a. black


b. white

c. burnt umber

d. red ochre

Answer: d page 4


8. Which feature on the Willendorf Venus was NOT carved, but instead a natural indentation in the stone?

a. the nose

b. the navel

c. the hair

d. the chin

Answer: b page 5


9. In which of the following regions did an agricultural society LAST develop?

a. southern France

b. the Indus River valley

c. England

d. the Nile River valley

Answer: c page 6


10. Which of the following nations is mentioned as a source for painted pottery that featured highly stylized animals, including the ibex?

a. France

b. Iran

c. Austria



d. Japan

Answer: b page 6


11. In which area were Neolithic ceramics discovered in Africa?

a. South Africa

b. Tanzania

c. Ivory Coast

d. Nigeria

Answer: d page 6


12. Which of the following terms refers to one of the “big stones” used in the construction of a site such as Stonehenge?

a. megalith

b. menhir

c. cairn


d. cromlech

Answer: a page 7


13. Which of the following terms refers to the category of megalithic structure that includes Stonehenge?

a. dolmen

b. menhir

c. cairn


d. cromlech

Answer: d page 8


14. What is likely to be the purpose of Stonehenge?

a. a crop circle

b. an astronomical chart

c. a burial ground

d. a temple

Answer: c page 8


15. Which area is considered to be a pairing with Stonehenge?

a. Durrington Wells

b. Wells

c. Salisbury

d. Bath

Answer: a page 9


16. Which of the following best defines myth?

a. a religious parable

b. a factual recounting of origin

c. an intentional fabrication

d. a story that a culture assumes is true

Answer: d page 9


17. Which of the following ancient cultures lived in cliff dwellings and considered the kiva, a partly underground ceremonial enclosure with a hole in the floor that symbolizes the emergence of the people from the underworld?

a. the Jomon

b. the Anasazi

c. the Olmec

d. the Woodlands peoples

Answer: b page 10


18. Which of the following terms refers to what the Zuni Pueblo people consider deified spirits who manifest themselves in performance and dance?

a. kachinas

b. kivas

c. menhirs

d. cairns

Answer: a page 11


19. Which of the following rivers is associated with ancient India?

a. the Nile

b. the Euphrates

c. the Indus

d. the Yellow

Answer: c page 2


20. Which of the following rivers is associated with ancient China?

a. the Nile

b. the Euphrates

c. the Indus

d. the Yellow

Answer: d page 2


21. On which of the following continents did the Anasazi build their cliff dwellings?

a. Africa

b. South America

c. North America

d. Europe

Answer: c page 9


22. Which of the following rivers is associated with ancient Mesopotamia?

a. the Yellow

b. the Nile

c. the Indus

d. the Tigris

Answer: d page 14


23. Which of the following was the resident god at Ur?

a. Abu, god of vegetation

b. Belitili, goddess of fertility

c. Anu, the father of the gods

d. Sin, the god of the moon

Answer: d page 14


24. Which of the following terms refers to a religion that includes many gods and goddesses often associated with natural forces and realms?

a. monotheism

b. theocracy

c. henotheism

d. polytheism

Answer: d page 16


25. Among the following residents of Mesopotamia, which was the only monotheistic group?

a. the Akkadians

b. the Assyrians

c. the Hebrews

d. the Babylonians

Answer: c page 16


26. Which of the following pairs correctly identifies the subjects illustrated in the two main panels of the rectangular box known as the Standard of Ur?

a. “Winter” and “Summer”

b. “Heaven” and “Earth”

c. “Planting” and “Harvest”

d. “War” and “Peace”

Answer: d page 16


27. Which of the following terms refers to the pictorial convention in which the most important figures are represented in a larger size than the others?

a. pictogram

b. hieratic of scale

c. double entendre

d. phonetic writing

Answer: b page 17


28. Which of the following leaders guided the Akkadians to conquer virtually all other cities in Mesopotamia and named himself “King of the Four Quarters of the World”?

a. Romulus

b. Remus

c. Sargon

d. Moses

Answer: c page 17


29. Which of the following is considered the first existing monumental work made through the lost-wax casting technique?

a. the dedicatory statues from the Abu Temple

b. the Cylinder Seal of Adda

c. the Standard of Ur

d. the Head of an Akkadian Man

Answer: d page 18


30. Who is considered responsible for having introduced the principle of talion to Mesopotamian culture?

a. Hammurabi

b. Sargon

c. Gudea


d. Naramsin

Answer: a page 18


31. What best defines the epic element an epithet?

a. a word or phrase that characterizes a person

b. a word that compares two unlike things

c. a word or phrase used to suggest a similarity between two things

d. a word that treats a part of a thing as the whole of the thing

Answer: a page 20


32. Who among the following is recognized as the original human author of the Hebrew Torah?

a. Noah


b. Moses

c. Abraham

d. Adam

Answer: b page 24


33. Which among the following is not a book of the Torah?

a. Genesis

b. Exodus

c. Judges

d. Deuteronomy

Answer: c page 24


34. Which of the following is the son of King David and is also the person who built the magnificent temple in Jerusalem?

a. Solomon

b. Saul

c. Samuel



d. Moses

Answer: a page 25


35. Which of the following armies captured Jerusalem, destroyed its temple, and deported many of the Hebrews?

a. the Assyrians

b. the Persians

c. the Babylonians

d. the Hittites

Answer: c page 25


36. Which of the following terms refers to a state ruled by a god or by the god’s representative?

a. monotheism

b. polytheism

c. henotheism

d. theocracy

Answer: d page 28


37. Which of the following terms refers to a religion that includes many gods and goddesses often associated with natural forces and realms?

a. monotheism

b. polytheism

c. henotheism

d. theocracy

Answer: b page 29


38. In ancient Egyptian religion, which of the following ruled the underworld and was god of the dead?

a. Osiris

b. Anubis

c. Horus


d. Seth

Answer: a page 29


39. In ancient Egyptian religion, which of the following was the child of Osiris and Isis?

a. Re


b. Anubis

c. Horus


d. Seth

Answer: c page 29


40. Which of the following ancient Egyptian leaders ruled circa 3,000 B.C.E. and is credited with unifying both Upper and Lower Egypt?

a. Djoser

b. Khafre

c. Khufu


d. Narmer

Answer: d page 32


41. In ancient Egyptian religion, which of the following was comparable to an enduring “soul” or “life force,” a concept shared by many other religions?

a. ba


b. ka

c. maat


d. cartouche

Answer: b page 30


42. Which of the following stone materials is NOT among those selected to create funerary images in ancient Egypt?

a. granite

b. schist

c. diorite

d. sandstone

Answer: d page 31


43. Which of the following is NOT among the changes imposed by Amenhotep IV because was

the king?

a. He changed his own name to Akhenaten.

b. He moved the capital of Egypt from Thebes to a new location.

c. He limited the priesthood to only twelve members.

d. He abolished the pantheon of Egyptian gods and established a monotheistic religion.

Answer: c page 31
44. By what name do we know the new style of art that developed during the rule of Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten?

a. the Hatshepsut style

b. the Karnak style

c. the Hyksos style

d. the Amarna style

Answer: d page 34


45. Which of the following is NOT among Tutankhamun’s accomplishments?

a. He ruled Egypt for 65 years.

b. He moved the royal family to Memphis.

c. He reaffirmed Thebes as the nation’s religious center.

d. He changed his name from Tutankhaten.

Answer: a page 34


46. If the deceased person’s heart did not balance with the ostrich feather in the ancient Egyptian “last judgment,” the dead person was condemned to nonexistence and to be eaten by Ammit. Which of the following animals is NOT part of this vile “Eater of the Dead”?

a. hippopotamus

b. crocodile

c. hawk


d. lion

Answer: c page 35



Essay Questions
47. Discuss some of the possible explanations for the roles that cave drawings played in the daily lives of the people who created them.
48. Discuss how the Chauvet drawings suggest that art does not necessarily evolve in a linear progression from awkward beginnings to more sophisticated representations.
49. Female figurines outnumber representations of males in the Paleolithic era. Explain what this situation suggests about the roles that women played in Paleolithic culture.
50. Explain how a consistent and predictable source of water allowed the people living along the great rivers of the Middle East and Asia to pursue activities beyond providing for their basic needs.
51. Identify what is referred to as “the first mechanical and technological breakthrough in history,” and then explain how this machine would have a dramatic impact on the lives of those who could use it well.
52. Discuss some of the insights that Stonehenge provides us about the Neolithic people who created it.
53. If you had the chance to visit one of the sites mentioned in this chapter, which would it be? Explain your reasons.
54. Discuss the importance of the Standard of Ur.
55. Discuss how the king's divine role in Akkadian culture is reflected in the Stele of Naramsin.
56. Discuss what the Law Code of Hammurabi tells us about family relations and class division in Mesopotamian society.
57. Discuss the most significant effects that the Law Code of Hammurabi had on Mesopotamian society.
58. Discuss the distinct differences between Hebraic and Mesopotamian laws—especially as they relate to slaves and aliens.
59. What themes in the Epic of Gilgamesh can be found in later literature?
60. Discuss the chief characteristics of the Amarna style of art, focusing on their contrasts with the characteristics of previous ancient Egyptian art.
61. List the most significant changes imposed by Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten when he assumed the throne, and then discuss how these might have affected the royal household, the priests, and the commoners.
62. How do the elements in the Palette of Narmer (See Closer Look, p.32-33) communicate the power of the pharaoh?


Chapter 2: The Greek World: The Classical Tradition



Multiple Choice Questions
1. Which of the following Greek terms can be translated as "circle"?

a. kyklos

b. labrys

c. areté

d. tholos

Answer: a page 41


2. Which of the following is the Greek term for city-state?

a. polis

b. acropolis

c. agora

d. politeia

Answer: a page 39


3. Which of the following is the Greek term for an open meeting place?

a. polis

b. acropolis

c. metropolis

d. agora

Answer: d page 39


4. Which of the following is the Greek term for “top of the city”?

a. polis

b. metropolis

c. acropolis

d. colonnade

Answer: c page 39


5. Which of the following is the Greek term for “the good or flourishing life”?

a. arête

b. pistis

c. energeia

d. eudaimonia

Answer: d page 40


6. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as being common among the people of Thera?

a. Their homes were elaborately decorated.

b. Clay pipes connected toilets and baths to sewers.

c. Blocks of ice were available for food storage.

d. Straw reinforced the walls of their homes.

Answer: c page 41


7. Who is the legendary ruler of Crete's ancient capital, Knossos?

a. Priam


b. Minos

c. Aegeus

d. Agamemnon

Answer: b page 42


8. Which of the following creatures did the inhabitants of Crete associate with male virility and strength?

a. tigers

b. lions

c. bulls


d. horses

Answer: c page 42


9. Which of the following Greek terms can be translated as "double ax"?

a. kyklos

b. tholos

c. areté

d. labrys

Answer: d page 44


10. Which of the following ancient structures was known as the "House of the Double Axes"?

a. the palace of Priam at Troy

b. the palace of Minos at Knossos

c. the palace of Agamemnon at Mycenae

d. the palace of Theramos at Akrotiri

Answer: b page 44


11. Which of the following is the legendary Minoan queen who gave birth to the Minotaur?

a. Pasiphae

b. Ariadne

c. Aegeus

d. Daedalus

Answer: a page 44


12. Which of the following provided Theseus with a weapon and thread to help him kill the Minotaur?

a. Aegeus

b. Daedalus

c. Ariadne

d. Pasiphae

Answer: c page 44


13. Which of the following is credited with the discovery of Mycenae?

a. Sir Arthur Evans

b. King Minos

c. Napoleon

d. Heinrich Schliemann

Answer: d page 45

14. Who is considered the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey?

a. Homer


b. Socrates

c. Plato


d. Aristotle

Answer: a page 46


15. Which of the following is the central character in the Iliad, which focuses on his "rage"?

a. Agamemnon

b. Patroclus

c. Hector

d. Achilles

Answer: d page 46


16. Which of the following Greek terms can be translated as "virtue," and can be interpreted as "reaching one's highest potential"?

a. labrys

b. areté

c. tholos

d. kyklos

Answer: b page 47


17. Who is best remembered as the King of Troy during the action of the Iliad?

a. Priam


b. Aegeus

c. Minos


d. Agamemnon

Answer: a page 47


18. Who is the Trojan prince and warrior that killed Patroclus and enraged Achilles during the action of the Iliad?

a. Agamemnon

b. Menelaus

c. Hector

d. Priam

Answer: c page 47


19. Which of the following is the name for a Greek vase with two handles?

a. amphora

b. arête

c. labrys

d. pyx

Answer: d page 47


20. Who is the wife of Odysseus?

a. Helen


b. Penelope

c. Pasiphae

d. Ariadne

Answer: b page 48


21. Which of the following ancient structures is a citadel city that depended on cyclopean masonry for its construction and was entered through a massive Lion Gate?

a. the ancient city of Mycenae

b. the palace of Minos at Knossos

c. the ancient city of Troy

d. the palace of Theramos at Akrotiri

Answer: a page 45


22. Who is the chief craftsperson that assists the Minoan queen in her plan to attract the Minotaur?

a. Aegeus

b. Ariadne

c. Daedalus

d. Theseus

Answer: c page 44


23. During the action of the Iliad, who is considered the greatest warrior among the Greeks battling against the Trojans?

a. Menelaus

b. Agamemnon

c. Odysseus

d. Achilles

Answer: d page 46


24. Which of the following literary pieces was first to detail the Greek pantheon?

a. the Iliad

b. the Odyssey

c. Works and Days

d. Theogony

Answer: d page 49


25. Which of the following terms translates as the sin of pride?

a. agora

b. acropolis

c. homoioi

d. hubris

Answer: b page 49


26. Which of the following terms refers to the portion of an ancient Greek city-state that served as public meeting place, marketplace, and civic center?

a. agora

b. acropolis

c. homoioi

d. helots

Answer: a page 39


27. Which of the following is not among the Greek pantheon?

a. Isis


b. Dionysus

c. Hermes

d. Poseidon

Answer: a page 49


28. Which of the following is described as the “King of the gods”?

a. Hera


b. Zeus

c. Hades


d. Bendis

Answer: b page 49


29. Which of the following is described as “the God of wine and inspiration”?

a. Hermes

b. Apollo

c. Dionysus

d. Hesphaestus

Answer: c page 49


30. Which ancient Greek city-state built a towpath to drag ships over a series of rollers as an aid to those who traveled by sea?

a. Athens

b. Delphi

c. Thebes

d. Corinth

Answer: d page 50


31. Which ancient Greek city-state was the home to the Sanctuary of Apollo?

a. Athens

b. Delphi

c. Thebes

d. Corinth

Answer: b page 50


32. In ancient Greek architecture, which of the following orders featured scrolled capitals?

a. Corinthian

b. Doric

c. Ionic


d. Composite

Answer: c page 53


33. Which of the following terms refers to the row of columns that stands on the raised platform of an ancient Greek temple?

a. caryatids

b. entasis

c. stylobate

d. peristyle

Answer: d page 52


34. On an ancient Greek temple, the columns swell about one-third of the way up and contract again near the top. Which of the following terms refers to this characteristic?

a. caryatids

b. entasis

c. stylobate

d. peristyle

Answer: b page 51


35. On the krater that shows The Death of Sarpedon (painted by Euphronius and made by the potter Euxitheos), which of the following is NOT included in the scene?

a. Thanatos

b. Odysseus

c. Hypnos

d. Hermes

Answer: b page 56


36. Who instituted the first Athenian democracy in 508 BCE?

a. Kleisthenes

b. Peisistratus

c. Hippias

d. Pericles

Answer: a page 57


37. Which of the following translates the Greek “rule of the people”?

a. arête

b. eudaimonia

c. anarchy

d. democracy

Answer: d page 57


38. Which of the following terms became part of the Athenian political system and refers to small local areas comparable to precincts or wards in a modern city?

a. kouroi

b. korai

c. demes

d. poleis

Answer: c page 58


39. At the time of the decisive battle of Marathon in 490 BCE, who ruled the Persians?

a. Miltiades

b. Phidippides

c. Themistocles

d. Darius

Answer: d page 58


40. Following the decisive battle of Marathon in 490 BCE, who ran the 26 miles between Marathon and Athens to deliver word of the Greek victory to the anxious citizens of Athens?

a. Miltiades

b. Phidippides

c. Themistocles

d. Darius

Answer: b page 58


41. Who is the author of an extensive Histories and is recognized as the first writer in the Western tradition who devoted himself to historical writing?

a. Herodotus

b. Hesiod

c. Aeschylus

d. Homer

Answer: a page 58


42. Who cast the bronze statue known as Doryphoros (Spear bearer), which was celebrated throughout the ancient world as a demonstration of a treatise on proportions of the human body?

a. Kritios

b. Phidias

c. Thales

d. Polyclitus

Answer: d page 62


43. On the Athenian Acropolis, which of the following was considered the centerpiece?

a. the Propylaia

b. the Parthenon

c. the Erechtheion

d. the Temple of Athena Nike

Answer: b page 60


44. On the Athenian Acropolis, which of the following served as a monumental entryway to the complex?

a. the Propylaia

b. the Parthenon

c. the Erechtheion

d. the Temple of Athena Nike

Answer: a page 61


45. Which of the following is NOT included among those illustrated in the metopes on the four sides of the Parthenon?

a. centaurs

b. Amazons

c. Trojans

d. Vikings

Answer: d page 64


46. Which of the following was NOT among the accusations that Socrates faced when he was placed on trial?

a. subversive behavior

b. corrupting young men

c. stealing from the treasury

d. introducing new gods

Answer: c page 65


47. Among the pre-Socratics in the fifth century BCE, who conceived of an atomic theory in which everything is made up of small, indivisible particles and empty space?

a. Plato


b. Protagoras

c. Heraclitus

d. Leucippus

Answer: d pages 65


48. Who is responsible for one of the most famous of all Greek dictums: "Man is the measure of all things"?

a. Democritus

b. Protagoras

c. Heraclitus

d. Leucippus

Answer: b pages 66


49. Who specialized in writing comedies and is the playwright for Lysistrata?

a. Aristophanes

b. Euripides

c. Aeschylus

d. Sophocles

Answer: a page 68


50. Who is the playwright for the Oresteia trilogy that includes events after Agamemnon's return from the Trojan War?

a. Aristophanes

b. Euripides

c. Aeschylus

d. Sophocles

Answer: c page 68


51. In the ancient Greek theater, what term identifies the elevated platform on which the actors performed?

a. skene

b. parados

c. orchestra

d. proscenium

Answer: d page 69


52. Rumors about the forces of the kingdom of the Ganges discouraged Alexander's army from advancing farther to the east in the Indian peninsula. What imposing component might this Ganges army have included?

a. 5,000 archers

b. 5,000 lancers

c. 5,000 elephants

d. 5,000 horse-drawn chariots

Answer: c page 71


53. According to Aristotle's Poetics, who undergoes the catharsis (the cleansing, purification, or purgation of the soul)?

a. the protagonist

b. the antagonist

c. the chorus

d. the audience

Answer: d page 73


Essay Questions
54. Consider the reconstruction drawing and floor plan of the new palace complex at Knossos, and then comment on why the legend of the Minotaur includes a maze where the creature lived.
55. Explain the importance of areté among the ancient Greeks. Cite specific instances in which it appears in the Iliad and the Odyssey.
56. If you had the chance to join an archaeological expedition to one of the ancient sites mentioned in this chapter, which would it be? Explain your reasons.
57. Discuss several ways in which the ancient Greek gods might be considered "more human than humans."
58. Investigate the towpath at Corinth and then comment on how this innovation would have benefited the local economy and sea travel at large.
59. Explain the important role that the Pythia held in ancient Greek society.
60. Summarize the features that distinguish the capitals found on the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns.
61. Summarize the features that distinguish the kouros and the kore, citing the development in clothing worn by korai.
62.. Summarize the accomplishments of Sappho, who was hailed throughout antiquity as the

"tenth Muse.”


63. Summarize Plato's model of the ideal state as he presents in the "Allegory of the Cave."
64. Discuss identity and change as they relate to essence in Aristotle's view of the world.
65. Discuss how the Golden Mean relates to the ancient Greek's concept of areté.
66. Discuss the magnitude of the loss to the world when the library at Alexandria was

destroyed in 47 BCE.





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